2. Trait Theory developed as a consequence of the Great Man
Theory, whereby several authors tried to identify the innate
traits of successful leaders.
The psychologist Ralph Stogdill challenged the idea of some
innate traits, and in 1948 wrote a paper analyzing over 100
articles on the topic, essentially casting doubt that innate
traits can be identified. Out of his analysis, 27 different
areas where identified:
Initiative, persistence, ambition, desire
Physique, energy, health
Integrity and conviction
Fluency of speech
Happiness, sense of humour
Emotional stability and control
Social and economic status
Judgement and decision (US-English,
Social activity and mobility
Insight (self, others, wider
Energy, daring and adventurousness
Social skills (sociability, tact)
4. This showed that there wasn’t much agreement on the key
traits. Indeed, it was clear that if all the findings were
combined, the list became too long to be useful as a guide
for selecting future leaders.
Therefore, it is suggested that leadership is the result of the
interaction between the individual and the social situation
and not merely the result of a predefined set of traits.
Thus Personal traits alone are not indicators of effective
leadership and need to be complemented by specific abilities
To develop different types of leadership model we use
different traits as per the circumstances.
a leadership that
roles as creating
vision and mission
based on science
and research data
Excellent Communication Skills Are Necessary For Academic
Far and away the most important academic leadership quality that a
person can have:
The ability to both communicate their own ideas effectively, as well as
listen and prove engagement with the ideas of others.
It's all about good -- and usually, frequent -- communication.
Start by asking people about what they love to do. Once you get to know
their strengths (and even their personalities) you'll be able to delegate
in a way that satisfies everyone. Then, be sure to check in throughout
Set several smaller goals as opposed to one large one, to make
evaluating your progress and the process easier.
Above all, remain open to both feedback and criticism, and truly listen
to what others have to say.
Too many people spend their lives sitting around, waiting for a miracle to
However, they're not actually putting in the work -- instead, they're just relying
on "fate" or "coincidence" or "luck" to make all of their dreams come true.
Additionally, proactivity is all about planning ahead and anticipating problems.
It means always having a Plan B in place so that you're not scrambling when
something unexpected happens.
You might create a study schedule for an upcoming exam, in order to prevent
cramming the night before.
You might start researching and applying to summer academic programs months
before the summer vacation actually starts so that you can be sure to pick the
best one for you.
Proactivity means having the ability to recognize which tasks are the most
essential, and creating a prioritized list of what needs to be accomplished first.
Above all, it's about being prepared for the worst while still hoping, planning,
and staying positive about getting the best results.
9. Knowing When To Take Risks
Strong academic leadership is not about playing it safe.
Of course, there's a difference between knowing when to take
risks, and acting in a reckless manner. The quality of a good leader
is knowing which risks are worth taking.
This means that you'll need to evaluate the potential losses and
gains of each risky decision you're considering making. What is the
worst thing that could happen -- and are those worst-case
scenarios something you can recover from?
Alternatively, are the possible positive outcomes simply too great
to pass up? And do you have a determined team of people around
you that can lessen your chances of failure?
Remember, leadership (and life) is all about getting out of your
One of the most important qualities when it comes to academic
Being able to get back up when you're knocked down -- and not
letting the feeling of "failure" scare you off from trying again.
People aren't going to like your ideas. You're going to make some
missteps along the way. Your proposals will get rejected, you won't
win every election, and you won't ace every exam.
What matters is your ability to learn from your mistakes, and to
appreciate the errors you've made as an opportunity for growth.
Adopting a resilient attitude won't only prevent you from talking
down to yourself and underestimating your abilities. It will also
inspire those around you to dust themselves off and get back out
11. Passion For What You Do
If you don't truly love what you do, chances are that you won't be
motivated to keep working at it for much longer.
Think about something that brings you joy in life. Maybe you're obsessed
with traveling, may be you love the feeling of winning a competition or
game, or perhaps you've always wanted to follow a certain career path.
Whatever you're passionate about, think about how your academic
performance and even extracurricular activities will help you to feed
that passion and improve your skill set.
If you love what you do, you won't think twice about staying up late to
get things done. Staying in to study as opposed to going out with your
friends to a big party won't feel like a sacrifice because you know you're
on the road to a larger goal waiting down the line.
Once you figure out what makes you tick, stick with it -- and share your
love with others so they can be inspired by your passion.
13. • Provide strong leadership.
• Spread shared vision to all
•Institutionalization through formal
policies, systems and structure.
•And get feed back
•Clearly redefine the institutional
•Develop a shared vision
•Monitor the whole revitalization
• reflect on the results and draw
15. Professional leadership encompasses the “formal”
part of leadership – setting the vision and mission for
the organization, creating a process for achieving
organizational goals, and aligning processes and
procedures, people and infrastructure, to achieve
18. Set goals
A leader is like a captain of a ship. This means he is responsible for
steering the ship! As such, it’s important to make sure you’re headed in
the right direction on a daily basis. Many of the most effective
leaders wake up early so that they can have some downtime and clear
their head before the day begins.
Delegate like a boss.
As Theodore Roosevelt said, “The best leader is the one who has sense
enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and the self-
restraint to keep from meddling with them while they do it.“
Is leadership synonymous with dictatorship? Not if you want to be
effective in the long run. The most respected leaders focus on nurturing
employees, because they recognize that this is what will encourage
them to do their best work.
19. Evaluate their own progress.
To remain relevant and competitive, leaders need to
Learn something new.
You’ve heard that knowledge is power. Continued learning
and accumulated knowledge is also a big part of why and how
leaders stay in power
Learn from mistakes.
Every work will encounter roadblocks and make a few
mistakes as it advances. It’s a leader’s job to guide the
company through these challenging spots to emerge stronger.
20. The Humanistic Leadership Model has
been designed by Craig Nathanson
and illustrates a number of skills,
personality traits and behaviors that,
according to the author, drive
positive leadership results.
Two foundational elements allow the
development of a Humanistic
23. Embody Values: Values determine what types of behaviors are in line with
your company’s purpose that will help you achieve your vision. Values can never
be given up. They guide you in good times and in tough times. They determine
what you are and what you are not. Living up to your values protects you from
Trust In Others: Trusting in others builds credibility with your team and creates
humility within. All great heroes have help in achieving their goals.
Teach Others: Teaching helps guide your team forward. Being able to explain
something clearly also forces you to have a strong understanding of the
subject. Constant learning begets constant results. Keep in mind one of Nobel
laureate Richard Feynman’s guiding principles: if you can’t explain it to a
freshman class, you don’t truly understand it.
Be Accountable: You should be just as accountable as your team. Lead by
example. Being accountable keeps tension out of the system and allows the
business to move forward at a peak speed—something necessary in the current,
quickly-changing business environment.
24. Take Measurements: To achieve your goals, you need to know where
you are and where you want to go and close that gap. Measuring
progress helps keep you on track and prevents you from swaying in
directions that don’t push towards the ultimate vision.
Be Positive: A quality of emotionally intelligent leaders is being
motivated, even in the face of opposition. The positivity that this
motivation has is contagious: it not only helps you keep up the
momentum but it also inspires your team forward.
Be Honest: When you aren’t honest about a situation and the situation
turns out to be something other than what you said it is, you lose trust.
And, without trust, it becomes difficult to lead. Being honest isn’t
always easy, but it sets appropriate expectations and lets people know
that you’re all in it together.
Love: Love starts with the desire to make someone happy and true love
brings joy and freedom to that person. There is no greater kindness.
Love can create a higher purpose and meaning for you and your team.
25. A visionary leader
is a person who
has a clear idea
of how the future
should look. They
set out concrete
steps to bring a
vision to life, and
then they lead a
team of people in
26. Favorable Toward Innovation:
Visionary leaders are focused on moving past the status quo and ushering in
new projects, acquisitions, or initiatives. As a result, visionary leaders need to
be comfortable with failure and volatile effects due to changes.
Leaders who were brought in to guide companies through tumultuous times
have to have tenacity and determination. They could likely be dealing with
situations where they have to fight against old ideas, company politics, and
Visions have to be planned for and thought about strategically. Good
visionary leaders will prepare for what they want the organization to look like
and create strategies for how they can move towards it. Again, they might not
have all the technical details, but they can see and plan for the big picture.
27. Intelligent Risk Takers
Moving toward a new goal or addressing a vision is a risk. There is no guarantee that strategies
will work, but visionaries are comfortable with the uncertainty and take as many measures possible
to ensure the plan is successful.
Effective visionary leaders have the ability to cause others to see where they are going and agree
to the move toward the new vision. They will likely use their charisma to cause others to
understand the larger picture.
Unlike transformational and charismatic leaders, there is an emphasis on visionary leaders
creating the team around them. They will be a part of the process to put together departments,
functions, and operations that help them reach the new vision.
Intensely Focused and Enthusiastic
In the pursuit to improve performance and change, visionary leaders are intensely focused.
Their eyes are set toward the goal, and they will do all in their power to create a pathway to
accomplishing it. Visionary leaders have the self-control and self-discipline to effect position
change and inspire those who report to them. It is hard to follow a leader that does not exhibit the
traits they want to see in others, and good visionary leaders understand this. One of the most
important characteristics a visionary leader can display is enthusiasm for the vision. Their passion
and zeal should reach others and inspire them to feel the same.
30. Rallying the Troops – Visionary leaders specialize in inspiring those around
them to become invested in the vision. They seek to motivate unity and get
everyone on the same page during a transition.
Keep the Focus – While charisma and inspiring others is a part of their
leadership style, their primary goal is to keep everyone focused. Visionary
leaders have a penchant for being incredibly focused, and they use this quality
to push for other employees subscribe to the same philosophy.
Promotion of Innovation and Creativity – Similar to other leadership styles,
visionary leaders not only allow, but encourage those they work with to
develop their skills and try out new things. They are optimistic about the
future, and in turn, promote creativity and new ideas.
Inspires a Sense of Accomplishment – Visionary leaders are similar
to charismatic ones in that they understand how necessary it is to encourage a
sense of accomplishment and to let workers know their contributions are
meaningful and useful to the company. Good visionary leaders will align their
work back to the ultimate vision and goal.
31. A One-Track Mind – There is strength in a big picture leader. However, there is a
probability that visionary leaders could be too concerned with the vision to pay
attention to necessary details. Successful visionary leaders realize they either need to
become comfortable dealing with details or that they need to get someone around them
Focusing on the Now – If everything is about the future, then it can be challenging to
focus on the here and now. There might be pressing problems and situations that a
leader needs to address, but if they are so focused on the future and accomplishing a
future goal that they may forget to take into account situations that require their
attention in the present.
Carrying on in Their Absence – If a leader becomes the symbolic face and driving force
for a vision if for any reason they can no longer fulfill their duties, then the idea has a
chance of disappearing with them. Leaders have to cultivate other individuals who
believe in the vision and can continue if something happens that prevents them from
carrying out the duty.
Other Ideas May Take a Back Seat – If a visionary leader becomes so attached to a
vision, they could risk missing out on future ideas that might also benefit the company.
They might be unwilling to consider a change in the plan or abandoning the vision
altogether if they have to seek another alternative.
32. Develop a Vision Statement
To ensure credibility and positive feelings from employees, it is a good practice
for visionary leaders to go into the situation with a well-thought-out visionary
Always Seek Improvement
Visionary leaders who pay attention to current issues could gain the buy-in
and commitment of employees if they understand that there are priorities
that need to be addressed in the present. There could be turnover issues, low
morale due to layoffs, and a lack of a structure for promotions.
Share the Vision
As soon as possible, visionary leaders need to support from those who are
working with them. One of the best ways to do this is to make the vision
collaborative. Employees should be invited to provide their ideas and work
together with leaders to create improvements. In turn, this will make
employees feel as if they are not only working to accomplish someone else’s
goal, but they will begin to self-identify with it.
33. Be Detailed
Visionary leaders are thought of as individuals who work
with the big picture in mind. They know where they want to
go, but are not always involved with the smaller details to
get there. This is where either becoming comfortable with
particulars or engaging someone on the team that is
concerned with the details.
34. परिवर्तनकािी नेर्ृत्व
परिवर्तनकािी नेर्ृत्व, नेर्ृत्व का एक
सिद्ाांर् है जहाां एक नेर्ा आवश्यक
परिवर्तन की पहचान किने क
े िाथ काम किर्ा है, प्रेिणा
े माध्यम िे परिवर्तन का मार्तदर्तन
े सिए एक ववजन बनार्ा है,
औि एक िमूह क
े प्रतर्बद् िदस्यों
े िाथ समिकि बदिाव को
तनष्पाददर् किर्ा है; यह फ
ु ि िेंज
िीडिसर्प मॉडि का एक असिन्न अांर्
Transformational leadership is style in
which leaders encourage, inspire and
motivate employees to innovate and create
change that will help grow and leadership
shape the future success of the
organization. This is accomplished by
setting an example at the executive level
through a strong sense of corporate
culture, employee ownership and
independence in the workplace.
35. The concept of transformational leadership started with
James V. Downton in 1973 and was expanded by James Burns
In 1985, researcher Bernard M. Bass further expanded the
concept to include ways for measuring the success of
transformational leadership. This model encourages leaders
to demonstrate authentic, strong leadership with the idea
that employees will be inspired to follow suit.
36. According to Bass, these are the hallmarks of a transformational leader
that sets them apart from other leadership styles. A transformational
leader is someone who:
Encourages the motivation and positive development of followers
Exemplifies moral standards within the organization and encourages the
same of others
Fosters an ethical work environment with clear values, priorities and
Builds company culture by encouraging employees to move from an
attitude of self-interest to a mindset where they are working for the
Holds an emphasis on authenticity, cooperation and open communication
Provides coaching and mentoring but allowing employees to make
decisions and take ownership of tasks
39. There are 4 components to transformational leadership,
sometimes referred to as the 4 I's:
Idealized Influence (II) – the leader serves as an ideal role
model for followers; the leader "walks the talk," and is
admired for this. A transformational leader embodies the
qualities that he/she wants in his/her team. In this case, the
followers see the leader as a model to emulate. For the
followers, it is easy to believe and trust in a transformational
40. Inspirational Motivation (IM) – Transformational leaders have
the ability to inspire and motivate followers through having a
vision and presenting that vision. Combined, these first two
I's are what constitute the transformational leader's
charisma. A transformational leader manages to inspire the
followers easily with clarity. The transformational leader
convinces the followers with simple and easy-to-understand
words, as well as with their own image
41. Individualized Consideration (IC) – Transformational leaders
demonstrate genuine concern for the needs and feelings of
followers and help them self-actualize. This personal
attention to each follower assists in developing trust among
the organization's members and their authority figure(s). For
example, the transformational leader can point out the
problems of a member working in a group. From this
perspective, the leader can work towards training and
developing a follower who is having difficulties in a job. This
is an important element because teams are able to rely on
and work together, so decisions can be made more quickly,
while the transformational leader increases their buy-i
42. Intellectual Stimulation (IS) – the leader challenges followers
to be innovative and creative, they encourage their followers
to challenge the status quo. A common misunderstanding is
that transformational leaders are "soft," but the truth is that
they constantly challenge followers to higher levels of
43. Five major personality traits have been identified as factors
contributing to the likelihood of an individual displaying the
characteristics of a transformational leader. Different
emphasis on different elements of these traits point to
inclination in personality to inspirational
leadership, transactional leadership, and transformational
leadership. These five traits are :
The two main characteristics of extraverts
are affiliation and agency, which relate to the social and
leadership aspects of their personality, respectively. Extraversion
is generally seen as an inspirational trait usually exhibited in
Neuroticism generally gives an individual an anxiety related to
productivity which, in a group setting can be debilitating to a
degree where they are unlikely to position themselves in a role of
transformational leadership due to lower self-esteem and a
tendency to shirk from leadership responsibilities.
45. Openness to experience:
Creative expression and emotional responsiveness have been linked to a general
tendency of openness to experience. This trait is also seen as a component of
transformational leadership as it relates to the ability to give big-picture
visionary leadership for an organization.
Although not a trait which specifically points to transformational leadership,
leaders in general possess an agreeable nature stemming from a natural concern
for others and high levels of individual consideration. Charisma and idealized
influence is a classic ability of individuals who possess agreeability.
Strong sense of direction and the ability to put large amount of productive work
into tasks is the by-product of conscientious leaders. This trait is more linked to
a transactional form of leadership given the management-based abilities of such
individuals and the detail oriented nature of their personality. Results suggest
that transformational leaders might give greater importance to values
pertaining to others than to values concerning only themselves.
46. Transformational leadership is said to have occurred when
engagement in a group results in leaders and followers raising
one another to increased levels of motivation and morality.
It is not enough to make the correct choice, but to make the
In simple words, a transformational leader is not selfish and
sees an opportunity of growth in others.
Transformational leadership enhances intellectual
stimulation through employee training and development.
48. Bureaucratic leadership is leadership based upon fixed official duties under a
hierarchy of authority, applying a system of rules for management and decision-
making. This style of leadership can be advantageous in highly regulated lines of
business, and it can be an efficient management style in companies that don't
require much creativity or innovation from employees. The term bureaucracy
reveals some of the essential characteristics of the leadership model.
The Cambridge dictionary defines the word as,
“a system for controlling or managing a country, company, or organization
that is operated by a large number of officials employed to follow rules
The term is derived from the French word bureau, which stands for office or
desk, and the Greek suffix kratia, which denotes the power of. Bureaucracy is
therefore in essence “the power of office”.
Interestingly, the term has been used pejoratively from the start. It was first
used by a French economist Jacques Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay, who had
been“We have an illness in France which bids fair to play havoc with us; this
illness is called bureaumania.” The negative view of public administration and
bureaucracy continued until the mid-19th century.
49. Fixed Official Duties:
All administrative and management tasks are broken down into
permanent offices that permit clear lines of authority, responsibility and
accountability. Let's use a software company as an example. The
company may be broken down into divisions such as research and
development, production, marketing, distribution and administration.
Hierarchy of Authority:
Positions in the organization are arranged in a hierarchy where lower
positions are answerable to and under the supervision of the level above
it. In our software company example, employees in the research and
development division are supervised by their team supervisors, who are
under the control of their department heads. The department heads are
answerable to the vice president of the research and development
division. The vice president takes his orders from the CEO, who takes
her orders from the board of directors.
50. Technical Expertise:
Qualification for bureaucratic leadership is usually based
upon the technical expertise required to efficiently and
effectively manage the management tasks. In our software
company example, the vice president of the research and
development division may have a background not only in
management but also software engineering.
System of Rules:
A bureaucratic leader is subject to a system of behavioral
rules and technical rules. Behavioral rules define the scope
of a manager's behaviour and conduct
51. Throughout the historic use of bureaucratic system
and the different ways the model has been
defined, three core elements have stayed at the
centre of bureaucracy. These are:
Officialism – The systems show a lack of flexibility
Redtape – There are high levels of adherence to
rules and formalities.
Proliferation – The systems tend to expand rapidly.
Despite the pejorative view of bureaucracy, it has
been an important part of running societies.
Throughout its history, the bureaucratic systems
have undergone reformation and restructure, often
with little influence. Perhaps, the theorization of
bureaucracy was almost inevitable.
52. In Economy and Society, Weber identified the ideal types of governing and
leading different organizations. As mentioned above, big problem of the work
was dedicated to the study of bureaucratization of society. He examined the
different elements of bureaucracy and how they are organized, creating a
theory of civil society, which has been used and analyzed ever since. Strict
and formal hierarchy
Bureaucratic leadership relies on a strict and formal hierarchy, which
guarantees members within the organization are aware of the structure. The
authority is organized in a manner that guarantees a higher level of
leadership controls each level of subordinates. Which in turn is controlled by
another layer of leaders.
The formal hierarchy ensures authority is clearly defined and the command
structure works like a well-oiled machine. The strict and formal hierarchy is
the basis for the bureaucratic leadership framework. It guarantees the
organization can plan efficiently and ensures the decision-making is
53. Immutable rules, regulations and laws to
control the organization
The formal hierarchy can be withheld in
place through a set of rules. A bureaucratic
system requires defined rules that will
control the structure and keep it in place.
These two elements are the cornerstone of
the model, because they both complement
each other and provide support for each
The rules will provide consistency within
the framework as well. Since the rules
define the operations from small tasks to
bigger decisions. The bureaucratic system
is known for its, sometimes laborious,
rules, but it is this that creates the
framework for leadership.
54. People are organized according to specialties
Bureaucratic leadership is not always associated with high level of
skills, but it emphasizes knowledge and expertise in its
framework. The system isn’t about knowing the right people or
being the best at selling yourself to a position. The system always
tries to combine the best talent with the right position.
According to Weber, the function of an efficient bureaucratic
system is to focus on specialists. People are directed to roles that
fit their skillset perfectly, as this can guarantee they are able to
excel and help the organization to succeed.
Furthermore, the bureaucratic leadership framework establishes
these roles and units clearly. The job specialization and skillset
required to perform them are defined in a manner that makes
finding the right person as smooth as possible.
55. Two key missions
According to Weber, the bureaucratic organization has to have
either of these two key missions:
Up-focus mission, which means the organization is aimed at
serving the stockholders, the board, or any other such agency that
empowers it to operate. The organization wants to ensure the
benefits of labor flow towards the ‘outside’ of the organization to
secure further support from the source.
In-focus mission, which puts the organization itself as the focus of
the operations. Under this mission the aim is the provide benefits
to the organization and the people within it, such as creating
more profit, improve the market share or enhance cash stream.
56. Impersonal style
While certain leadership frameworks put the
persons in the front, such as servant leadership or
charismatic leadership, the bureaucratic system is
purposely impersonal. The personalities and the
individual achievements are not at the core of the
system, the main focus should be on the
organization and the performance. The individual
takes a lesser role.
The reason behind the thinking is about
consistency and equal treatment.
Hiring based on technical proficiency
Just as the subordinates are directed to roles that
suit their individual skill sets, the hiring in a
bureaucratic leadership model is based solely on
technical proficiency. What this means is that the
person who has the skills required in the specific
role will always get the role. As long as you are
able to do the job appropriately, then you are
guaranteed the role.
58. Advantages of bureaucratic leadership
When it comes to the advantages of bureaucratic leadership the most
notable benefit must be the essential nature of bureaucracy in
organizations. In short, bureaucracy is to some extent an essential part
of any modern business and therefore, the bureaucratic leadership style
can be an easy continuum. In addition to the previous point, the
bureaucratic leadership framework is easily repeatable. Because of the
focus on establishing a clear and well-defined set of rules and processes,
replicating a successful system is not difficult.
This provides the advantage of maintaining the framework under all
sorts of circumstances. If the organization faces changes in personnel or
in other similar situations, the bureaucratic processes and established
structures can keep the processes running and quickly steady the ship,
so to speak. When the authority system is established, then decisions are
made quicker. The hierarchical nature and pre-set procedures ensure
that there is no time wasted in figuring out what happens next.
59. The set structures and regulations make introduction of the new
subordinates much easier. Overall, the leadership framework is
exceptionally suited for organizations, which perform highly
Different to certain other leadership theories, such as charismatic
leadership, the bureaucratic model doesn’t emphasize the
leader. The leader is only in the position through his or her
competence and the power doesn’t come from his or her
The bureaucratic leadership system can provide extremely
reliable results. It guarantees procedures don’t falter under
pressure and ensures everyone in the organization is aware of the
processes and objectives.
60. Subordinates are not expected to make decisions out-of-the-box and
everything that would deviate from the established system will have to
be dealt with supervisors. The rigid structure can create an environment
where people just follow the procedure and don’t try to consider
different ways of doing things.
The bureaucratic system can diminish creative thinking because the
system for changing the procedures can be cumbersome. A new idea will
need to be introduced in steps, following the hierarchical power
structure, and even if the suggestion is accepted, changing the old
structures can take time.
The leadership style doesn’t necessarily empower subordinates as
much as certain other styles. The framework rewards people who are
professional and can follow the rules – there is not necessarily much
emphasis on increasing your expertise.