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Statistical analysis of a new technology

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  1. 1. Presented by: Sumana Choudhury M.Sc.Biochemistry 3rd semester
  2. 2. Oil-seed crops Grains, cereals and starches Non oilseed crops Organic waste Cellulosic materials THE MAIN SOURCES OF BIOFUELS ARE
  3. 3. Effective usage should be of second and third Generation Feedstocks • Switchgrass : The energy efficiency of producing ethanol from switchgrass is estimated to be much higher than corn with an energy input to output rate of 1:4 vs. 1:1.3. • Camelina: Because of its high oil‐yield of 35‐38% (~2x that of soybeans), it is specifically being studied for use in biodiesel applications. • Jatropha: It is estimated that Jatropha nuts are capable of providing up to 2,270 liters of biodiesel per hectare • Waste is a unique feedstock and companies that can successfully convert the biomass to fuels and chemicals will benefit significantly • Algae offer the highest oil yields of any biofuel feedstock, but challenges around cost have created challenges for commercial use
  4. 4. Examples of Biofuel include • Liquid: Fuel-Ethanol and Biodiesel; • Solid: wood, sawdust, grass cuttings, domestic refuse, charcoal, agricultural waste, non-food energy crops, dried manure; • Gaseous: —Biogas from anaerobic digestion or gasification of biomass
  5. 5. The 35.9 billion barrels of oil in reserve will be depleted by 30 – 36 years period.
  6. 6.  In 2010, approximately 700 million barrels of biofuels were produced globally. Over 45% of this was corn‐based ethanol in the U.S. and >25% produced was sugarcane‐based ethanol in Brazil  Liquid biofuels accounted for a modest 2.7% of global road-transport fuels in 2010 and only 0.6% of the global final energy consumption. However, by 2030, this is forecast to increase to 9%, equivalent to 6.5 million barrels of oil a day.
  7. 7. • Demand for liquid transport fuels is expected to increase by 2 million barrels per day over the next two decades and nearly 40% of the growth will be supplied by biofuels. • Liquid biofuels provided about 2.7% of global road transport fuels in 2010 - Accounted for 4% in the U.S. , 3% in the EU and provided a very large contribution in Brazil, where ethanol from sugar cane accounted for 41.5% of light duty transport fuel during 2010
  8. 8. To ensure sustainability the Biofuel programme will employ the use of: – Suitable and more productive crops as feedstock – Local/Indigenous varieties of selected feedstock – Suitable feedstock for different ecological zones – Modern and efficient conversion technology
  9. 9. Biochemical aspect • For biodiesel, the enzymes lipase and phospholipase plays a major role. • Lipase converts the free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerol to fatty acid methyl esters— the main product comprising biodiesel • The phospholipase is responsible for converting phospholipids to diacylglycerol, which becomes a substrate for the lipase
  10. 10. Enzymes are known and available but the cost is often too high. So is there any solution??? One way of extending the life and thus lowering the cost of the enzymes is to immobilize them on a solid substrate to enable multiple cycles of usage.