3. Sunflower 🌻
Botanical name:- Helianthus Annus
Chromosome no:- 2N=34
Origin:- United states, Mexico
Mode of pollination:- Cross pollination
Out crossing percentage:- >90%
Division : Phanerogams
Class : Dictoyledanae
Sub class: Gamepetalae
Order : Asterase
Genus : Helianthus
Species :annuus (2n=2x=34)
: tuberosus (2n=6x=102)
4. Introduction :-
• Sunflower is an important oil seed crop after soybean
• Its oil content ranges from 46 to 52%
• The leading Sunflower growing countries are USSR, Bulgaria, Canada and USA
• In India, this crop was Introduced in 1969
• Sunflower seeds contain high amounts of vitamins like vitamin E, B, folate, and niacin and minerals like calcium,
copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, selenium, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, and zinc.
ECONOMIC PRODUCTS :-
• The stakes of the head are used to make compost.
• Oil extracted from SF is edible as it is rich in un-saturated fatty acids like oleic (19%) and linoleic acids (68%).
5. Flower Biology:-
• It is protandrous in nature.
• Flowering starts in the early morning 6-10 am.
• The pollen grain viability up to 12 hrs.
• The stigma receptivity up to 2-3 days.
• It is distinguished from all other cultivated plants by its single stem and
• The inflorescence is capitulum.
• It is having a bisexual flower.
7. Flower 🌻
✓ The number of flowers in oilseed cultivars may vary from 700 to 3000.
✓ The flower of the outer whorl of the head are called as ray florets.
✓ The other flowers arranged in concentric rings over the remainder of the
head are called as disc flowers.
✓ The achene or the fruit of the sunflower consists of a seed often called the
✓ The adhering pericarp is usually called the hull.
✓ The seed consists of seed coat, endosperm and embryo.
8. Crop Overview
🌱: Flowering :- 8 to 12 week means 56 – 84 days bloom period , it take 30 days
🌱: Harvest :- 110 to 125 days after planting
🌱: Yield :-. Irrigated 4.0 t/ha crop yield and 1 to 3 t/ha oil yield
🌱: Sowing Time :– January to june for flowering during summer Or September to
end of November
9. Breeding Objective :-
i) High seed yield
ii) Early maturity
iii) Lodging resistant dwarf plant type
iv) Uniformity of plant type
v) High oil percentage
vi) Tolerance to stress conditions
vii) Resistance to bird damage
viii) Resistance to diseases
10. BREEDING METHODS :
Ec 68414 from Russia. Col mass selection from Morden.
Useful for characters which are highly heritable.
E.g. Plant height, disease resistance.
3. Hybridization and selection
b) Interspecific :
Wild species of North American origin and best
Soviet varieties were crossed and number of varieties were evolved.
They are resistant to Verticillium wilt also
Co3 (Mutant from Co₂ thro’ gamma rays
11. Other Methods -
5. Head to row and remnant seed method :-
Developed by Pustovoit in Russia.
6. Population improvement:-
By mass selection, recurrent selection and
use of male sterile lines population can be improved
and utilised for breeding.
7. Heterosis breeding :-
Development of inbred lines and crossing them to
harness heterosis was first done as early as 1920 in Russia.
12. Maharashtra Practical Achievements :-
PDKV Akola :- PDKVSH-952 – year 2017
MPKV Rahuri :- Phule Raviraj - 2009 , Tolerant to Necrosis, Alternaria and
ZARS Rahuri :- Phule Bhaskar (SS-0808)-2016
MAU Latur :- LSFH-35 (Maruti) - 2008
Advanta India Ltd :- PAC – 334 , 2009
Advanta india Ltd :- Olisun 3794 (PAC-3794)-2013 ,
For both rainfed/ irrigated & Kharif / rabi,resistant to
14. Objectives on Sunflower:-
All India coordinated sunflower improvement project (Banglore)
Directorate of oil seed Research (DOR) Hyderabad.
Sunflower is Actinomorphic and epigynous’.
Sunflower oil contet is 45 % to 50%
First test of Sunflower in india was started in Pantnagar University 1969.
Sunflower seed remains empty due to deficiency of Potassium
First Hybrid variety of Sunflower is BSH -1
Sunflower is used as boron Indicator