2. Ecology: Ecology is a branch of Science. from Greek:
Eco = house and logy = study of
ECOLOGY = study of home.
Definition : Ecology is the study of interactions among organism
with their environment. The environment consists of both biotic
components (living organisms) and abiotic components (non – living
Or Ecology is the study of ecosystems.
Ecosystem: is the basic functional unit of ecology.
Definition: A group of organisms interacting among themselves
and with environment is known as ecosystem. Thus an ecosystem is a
community of different species interacting with one another and with
their nonliving environment exchanging energy and matter.
4. TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM- Natural ecosystem
Based on habitat types, it can be further classified into three types.
1.Terrestrial ecosystem : This ecosystem is related to land.
Example : Grassland ecosystem, forest ecosystem, desert ecosystem, etc.,
2.Aquatic ecosystem: This ecosystem is related to water. It is further sub
classified into two types based on salt content.
I. Freshwater ecosystem : a) Running water ecosystems.
b) Standing water ecosystems
Examples: Rivers, Streams: Pond, lake
II. Marine ecosystem Example :Seas and sea shores
3. Man – made (or) Artificial ecosystems
Artificial ecosystem is operated (or) maintained by man himself.
Example: Croplands, gardens
5. STRUCTURE (or) COMPONENTS OF AN ECOSYSTEM
The term structure refers to the various components.
So the structure of an ecosystem explains the relationship between the
abiotic (non–living) and the biotic (living)
An ecosystem has two major components
1. Biotic (living) components
2. Abiotic (non living) components
6. Biotic components: The living organisms in an ecosystem
collectively form its community called biotic components.
Examples: Plants (producers), animals (consumers),
Classification Biotic components
Based on how they get food, Biotic components of an
ecosystem are grouped in to three
1. Producer (plants)
2. Consumer (Animals)
3. Decomposers (Micro-organisms)
7. 1.Procedures (Autotrophs) :Procedures synthesize their food
themselves through photosynthesis.
Example : All green plants, trees.
Photosynthesis: The green pigments called chlorophyll,
present in the leaves of plants, converts CO2 and H2O in the
presence of sunlight into carbohydrates.
6CO2 + 12H2O ----> C6H12O6 + 6O2+6H2O
This process is called photosynthesis
Examples : Plant eating species
:Insects, rabbit, goat, deer, cow, etc.,
Classification of consumers:
(i) Primary consumers (Herbivores) (Plant eaters):
They directly depend on the plants for their food.
Examples : Insects, rat, goat, dVe.Se.Sra,racvaonawM,anhi, Hoerasd e& A, Pe/tc.,
(ii) Secondary consumers (primary carnivores) (meat eater)
They feed on primary consumers. They directly depend on the
herbivores for their food.
Example: Frog, cat, snakes, foxes, etc.,
iii) Tertiary consumers (Secondary carnivores) (Meat-eaters)
They feed on secondary consumers. They depend on the primary carnivores
for their food. Examples: Tigers, lions, etc.
9. V.S.Saravana Mani, Head & AP
/ Chemistry, AEC Salem
3.Decomposers: :Examples: Microorganisms like bacteria and fungi.
Decomposers attack the dead bodies of producers and consumers and
decompose them into simpler compounds. During the decomposition
inorganic nutrients are released.
The inorganic nutrients together with other organic substances are
then utilized by the procedures for the synthesis of their own food.
10. Abiotic (non-living) components
The nonliving components (physical and chemical) of ecosystem collectively form a
community called abiotic components (or) abiotic community.
Examples: Climate, soil, water l air, energy, nutrients, etc.,
1. Physical components: They include the energy, climate, raw materials and living space that
community needs. They are useful for the growth and
maintenance of its member.
Examples:Air, water, soil, sunlight, etc.,
2. Chemical Components: They are the sources of essential nutrients. Examples:
• Organic substances : Protein, lipids, carbohydrates, etc.,
•Inorganic substances: All micro (Al, Co, Zu, Cu) and macro elements (C,H, O, P, N, P, K) and
few other elements.
11. FUNCTION OF AN ECOSYSTEM
To understand clearly the nature of ecosystem its
functioning should be thoroughly understood.
The function of an ecosystem is to allow flow of energy
and cycling of nutrients..
The functioning of an ecosystems may be understood
studying the following terms.
1. Energy and material flow.
2. Food chains
3. Food webs
4. Food pyramids
12. ENERGY FLOW IN THE ECOSYSTEMS
Energy is the most essential requirement for all living organism. Solar energy is the only
source to our planet earth. Solar
energy is transformed to chemical energy in photosynthesis by the plants (called as primary
producers). Though a lot of sunlight falls on the green plants, only 1% of it is utilized for
photosynthesis. This is the most essential step to provide energy for all other living organisms in the
Some amount of chemical energy is used by the plants for their growth and the remaining is
transferred to consumers by the process of eating.
Thus the energy enters the ecosystems through photosynthesis
and passes through the different trophic levels feeding levels.
14. Energy flow and Thermodynamics
The flow of energy through an ecosystem follows the two laws of thermodynamics.
1. I law of thermodynamics
It states that “energy can be created nor destroyed, but it can be considered from one form to
Energy for an ecosystems comes from the sum. It is absorbed by plants, herein it is converted
into stored chemical energy i.e., solar energy in converted into chemical energy.
2.II law of thermodynamics
It states that, “Whenever energy is transformed, there is a loss of energy through the
release of heat”.
This occurs when energy is transferred between tropic levels. There will be a loss of
energy (about 80-90%) in the form of heat as it moves from one tropic level to another tropic
level. The loss of energy takes place through respiration, running, hunting etc.,
15. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
In an are a one community may be replaced by another community or by a series of
communities. Thus the progressive replacement of one community by another till
the development of stable
community in a particular area is called ecological succession.
Types of ecological succession: Two types of ecological succession, used on the conditions present at the beginning of the
1. Primary succession: It involves the gradual establishment of biotic communities on a lifeless ground.
a. Hydrarch (or) Hydrosere
Establishment starts in a watery area like pond and lake.
a. Xerarch or Xerosere
Establishment starts in a dry area like, desert and rock
2. Secondary succession
It involves the establishment of biotic communities in the area, where some type of biotic community is
16. Process of Ecological Succession :
The process of ecological succession can be explained in the following steps.
1.Nudation : It is the development of a bare area without any life form
2.Invasion : It is the establishment of one or more species on a bare area through migration
followed by establishment.
Migration -Migration of seeds is brought about by wind, water or birds.
3. Establishment:The seeds then germinate and grow on the land and establishes their pioneer
4. Competition: As the number of individual species grows, there is a competition with the
same species and between different species for space, water and nutrients.
5. Reaction: The living organisms take water, nutrients and grow and modify the environment
is known as reaction. This modification becomes unsuitable for the existing species and favour
some new species, which replace the existing species this leads to seral communities.
6. Stabilizations: It leads to stable community, .is in equilibrium with the environment
17. FOOD CHAINS
“There sequence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem is
known as food chain”
When the organisms die, they are all decomposed by
microorganism (bacteria and fungi) into nutrients that can again be
used by the plants. At each and every transfer, nearly 80-90% of the
potential energy gets lost as heat. A food chain always starts with plant
life and ends with animal.
Herbivores:Animal that eat only plants are called herbivores.
Animals that eat other animals are called carnivores.
19. Food chain in a pond
Food chain in a forest
Tropic Levels (T1,T2, T3, T4, T5) (or) Feeding levels
The various steps throughwhich food energy passes
in an ecosystem is called as tropic levels.
The tropic levels are arranged in the following way
as Where ,
The green plants or producers represent first tropic level T1,
The herbivores or primary consumers represent second tropic level T2.
The carnivores or secondary consumers represent third tropic level T3.
The tertiary consumers are fourth tropic level T4.
Finally decomposers represent last tropic level T5
20. Types of food chain
Food chains are classified into two main types
1. Grazing food chain
2. Detritus food chain
1.Grazing food chain
Found in Grassland ecosystems and pond ecosystems. Grazing food chain
starts with green plants (primary procedures) and goes to decomposer food chain
or detritus food chain through herbivores and carnivores.
1.Detritus food chain
Found in Grassland ecosystems and forest ecosystems. Detritus food chain
starts with dead organic matter (plants and animals) and goes to decomposer food
chain through herbivores and carnivores.
22. FOOD WEB
The interlocking pattern of various food chains in an ecosystem
is known as food web. In a food web many food chains are
interconnected, where different types of organisms are connected at
different tropic levels, so that there is a number of opportunities of
eating and being eaten at each tropic level
Grass may be eaten by insects, rats, deer's, etc., these may be eaten by
carnivores (snake, tiger).
Thus there is a interlocking of various food chains called food webs
25. Significance of food chains and food webs
1. Food chains and food webs play a very important role in
the ecosystem. Energy flow and nutrient
2. cycling takes place through them.
3. They maintain and regulate the population size of different
tropic levels, and thus help in maintaining ecological balance.
4. They have the property of biomagnification. The non –
biodegradable materials keep on passing from one tropic level
to another. At each successive tropic level, the concentration
keep on increasing. This process is known as biomagnification.
26. ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
“Graphical representation of structure and function of tropic levels
of an ecosystem, starting with producers at the bottom and each
successive tropic levels forming the apex is known as an
In food chain starting from the producers to the consumers,
there is a regular decrease in the properties
(ie.,, biomass and number of the organisms). Since some energy is
lost as heat in each tropic levels, it becomes progressively smaller
near the top.
27. Types of Ecological pyramids
1. Pyramid of numbers.
2. Pyramid of energy.
3. Pyramid of biomass.
32. Pyramids of Biomass
It represents the total amount of biomass (mass o weight
biological material or organism) present in each tropic levels.
A forest ecosystem
The above figure shows that there is a decrease in the biomass
from the lower tropic level to the higher tropic level. This
because the trees (producers) are maximum in the forest, which
contribute a huge biomass. The next tropic levels are herbivores
(insects, birds) and carnivores (snakes, foxes). top of the tropic
level contains few tertiary
consumers S and tigers), the biomass of which is very low.
33. It represents the number of individual organisms present ach tropic levels.
• The producers in the grasslands are grasses, which are in size and large
in numbers. So the producers occupy lower tropic level (1St tropic level).
The primary consumers (herbivores) •are rats, which the 11rid tropic
level. Since the number of rats are lower Compared to the grasses, the size
of which is lower.
The secondary consumers (carnivores) are snakes, which occupy the 1I1
tropic levels. Since the number of snakes are1 lower when compared to
the rats, the size of which is 1ower.The tertiary consumers (carnivores)
are eagles, which the next tropic level. The number and size .of the last
34. FOREST ECOSYSTEM
A forest ecosystem is the one in which a tall and trees grow that support
many animals and birds. The forest are found in undisturbed areas receiving
moderate to high rainfall. The forest occupies nearly 40%
of the world’s land area. In India it occupies only 19% of its total land area.
Types of forest ecosystem
Depending upon the climate conditions, forests can be classified into the
1. Tropical Rain forests.
2. Tropical deciduous forests.
3. Tropical scrub forests.
4. Temperate rain forests.
5. Temperate deciduous forests..
35. Features of different. types of Forests
1. Tropical Rain forests
They are found near the equator. They are characterized by high temperature. They
have broad leaf trees like teak and 1. and the animals like lion, tiger and monkey.
2. Tropical deciduous forests
They are found little away from the equator. They are characterized by a warm climate
and rain is only during monsoon. They have different types of deciduous trees like
maple, oak and hickary and animals like deer, fox, rabbit and rat.
3. Tropical Scrub forests
These are characterized by a dry climate for longer time. They small deciduous trees
and shrubs and animals like maple, oak and hickory and animals like deer, fox, etc.,
4. Temperate Rain Forests
They are found in temperate areas with adequate rainfall. They are characterized by
coniferous trees like pines, firs, red wood etc., and animals like, squirrels, fox, cats, bear
36. 5. Temperate deciduous forests
They are found in areas with moderate temperatures. have major trees
including broad leaf deciduous trees like oak, hickory and animals like
deer, fox, bear, etc.,
Characteristics of forest ecosystems
1. Forests are characterized by warm temperature and adequate rainfall,
which make the
2. generation of number of ponds, lakes etc.,
3. The forest maintains climate and rainfall.
4. The forest support many wild animals and protect biodiversity.
5. The soil is rich in organic matter and nutrients which support the
growth of trees.
6. Since penetration of light is so poor, the conversion of organic
matter into nutrients is very fast.
37. Structure and Function of forest ecosystem
I. Abiotic components
Climatic factors (temperature, light, rainfall) and minerals The abiotic
components are inorganic and inorganic and organic substances found in the soil
and atmosphere. In addition minerals, the occurrence of litter is characteristic
features, majority of forests.
II. Biotic components
1. Producers: The plants absorb sunlight and produce photosynthesis
Trees, shrubs and ground vegetation..
38. 2. Consumers
(a) Primary consumers (herbivores) :They directly depend on the plants for
Example : Ants, flies, insects, mice, deer, squirrels.
b. Secondary consumers (primary carnivores):They directly depend on the
herbivores for their food
Examples: Snakes, birds, fox.
c. Tertiary consumers :They depend on the primary carnivores for their
Examples : Animals, like tiger, lion, etc.,
3. Decomposers: Bacteria and fungi.
They decompose the dad plant and animal matter., of decomposition in
tropical and subtropical forests is in rapid than in the temperate forests.
40. GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM.
Grassland occupies about 20% of
3. Polar grasslands.
earth’s surface addition to
species, some trees and shrubs are/alsopre in
grasslands. Limited grazing helps to improve the net
primary production of the grasslands. these grasslands
But, overgrazing leads
Types of grassland ecosystem
Depending upon the climate conditions grassland
cal classified into three types
1. Tropical grasslands.
2. Temperate grasslands.
41. Features of different types of grassland
1. Tropical grasslands
They are found near the borders of tropical rain . forests. are characterized
by high temperature and moderate rainfall (40 to 100 cm). It is also
known as Savanna type. They ye tall grasses with scattered shrubs and
stunted trees and animals like zebras, giraffes, antelopes, etc.,
2. Temperate grasslands
They are usually found in the centers of continents, oil sloped hills.. They
are characterized by very cold winters and hot summers: Intense
grazing and summer fires, do not W shrubs or trees to grow.
3. Polar grasslands
They are found in arcticpolar regions. They are characterized
by severe cold and strong winds along with ice and snow. In summers
several small annual plants grow. They ‘e animals like arctic wolf, weasel, arctic
42. Structure and function of the grassland Ecosystems
I. Abiotic components
Nutrients, , H, 0, A, P, S, etc.,
These abiotic components are supplied by C02, H2, C, Nitrate, phosphates and
II. Biotic Components
1. Producers: They produce food.
Example :Grasses, forbs and shrubs.
Primary consumers (herbivores) :They depend on grasses for their food
Examples: Cows, buffaloes, deer, sheep, etc.,
Secondary consumers (carnivores) :They feed on herbivores.
Examples: Snakes, lizards, birds, Jackals, fox, etc.,
Tertiary consumers: They feed on secondary
consumers Examples :Hawks, eagle, etc.,
3. Decomposers :They decompose the dead organic matter
Examples :Fungi and bacteria.
44. DESERT. ECOSYSTEMS
Introduction : Desert occupies about 35% of our world’s land
It is characterized by less than 25 cm rainfall.
The atmosphere is dry and hence it is a poor insulator .
Types of desert ecosystems
Based on the climatic conditions, deserts are classified three types.
1. Tropical deserts.
2. Temperate deserts.
3. Cold deserts.
45. Features of different types of deserts
1. Tropical deserts: Tropical deserts are found in
• Africa: Sahara desert.
• Rajasthan: Thar desert.
They are characterized by only few species. Wind blow sand dunes are
2. Temperate deserts
They are found in
South California: Majave.
They are characterized by very hot summer and very Winter time.
3.Cold deserts They are found in China: Gobi desert.
They are characterized by cold winters and was summers.
46. Characteristics of Desert ecosystem
The desert air is dry and the climate is hot. Annual rainfall is less than 25
cm. The soil is very poor in nutrients and organic matter, Vegetation is poor.
Structure and functions of the desert systems ecosystems
1. Abiotic Components
Examples : Temperature, rainfall, sunlight, water, etc.,
The temperature is very high and the rainfall is very low. The nutrient
cycling is also very low.
47. II. Biotic Components
Examples :Shrubs, bushes, some grasses and few trees .In deserts
mostly Succulent (e.g., cacti) plants are found available. They have water
inside them to stay alive. They have. r on the outside to protect them
from the sun.
Consumers: Examples :Squirrels, nice foxes, rabbits, deer and reptiles.
These animals dig holes in the ground to live in. They come out at night
to find food. Most of the animals can extract water from the seeds they
Decomposers: Examples : Fungi and bacteria
Desert has poor vegetation with a very low amount of dead organic
matter. They are decomposed by few fungi and bacteria.
50. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS: The aquatic ecosystem deals with water
bodies. The major types of organism found in aquatic environments are
determined by the water’s salinity.
Types of aquatic life zone: Aquatic life zones are divided into two types.
•Freshwater life zones Examples :Pounds, streams, lakes, rivers.
•Saltwater life zones: Examples :Oceans, estuaries.
FRESHWATER - -
Introduction: A pond is a freshwater aquatic ecosystems, where water is
stagnant. It receives enough water during rainy season. It contains several
types of algae, aquatic plants, insects, fishes and birds.
Characteristics of pond : Pond is temporary, only seasonal.
• It is a stagnant freshwater body.
• Ponds get polluted easily due to limited amount of water.
51. Structure and functions of pond ecosystems
I. Abiotic components : Ex : Temperature, light, water and organic and inorganic
II. Biotic Components : Producers : These include green photosynthetic
organism. They are of two types.
• Phytoplankton : are microscopic aquatic plants, which freely float on the surface
of water. Ex: Algae, small floating plants like volvox, pandorina anabaena,
Microphytes : Ex: Large floating plants and submerged plants like hydrilla,
Jussiaea, wolfia, demna.
• Primary consumers (Zooplanktons): These are microscopic animals which
freely float on the surface of water. Zooplanktons are found along with
phytoplankton. They feed on plants (phytoplankton).
Examples :Protozoa, very small fish, ciliates, flagelaltes and protozoans.
• Secondary consumers (Carnivores):They feed on zooplankton
Examples :Insects like water beetles and small fish.
• Tertiary consumers :They feed on smaller
fish Examples :Large fish like game fish.
Decomposers: They decompose the dead plant and animal matter and their
nutrients are released and reused by the green plants.
Examples :Fungi, bacteria and flagellates
54. LAKE ECOSYSTEM
Lakes are large natural shallow water bodies. Lakes are used for
various purposes. Lakes are supplied with water from rainfall, melting snow and
Types of lakes
Some important types of lake are
• Oligotrophic lakes : They have low nutrient concentrations
• Eutrophic lakes : They are overnourished by nutrients like N and P
• Dystrophic lakes : They have low pH, high humic and content and
• Volcanic lakes : They receive water from magma after volcanic
55. Characteristics of lake ecosystem
1. Lake is a shallow freshwater body;
2. It is a permanent water body with large Water resources.
3. It helps in irrigation and drinking.
Structure and function of lake ecosystem
I. Abiotic components
Temperature, light, proteins and lipids, O2 CO2
II. Biotic Consumers
Producers: They are green plants, may. be submerged, free
floating ad amphibious plants.
Examples: Phytoplanktons, algae and flagellates.
56. 2. Consumers
(a). Primary Consumers (Zooplanktons): They feed on phytoplankton
Examples: Ciliates, protozoans, etc.,
b) Secondary consumers (carnivores) : They feed on zooplankton.
Examples: Insects and small fishes.
(b)Tertiary consumers: They feed on smaller fish
Examples: Large fishes like game fish.
They decompose the dead plants and animals Examples: Bacteria,
fungi and aclinonrcetes.
59. RIVER (or) STREAM ECOSYSTEM
The running water of a stream or a river is usually well
oxygenated, because it absorb’s oxygen from the air. The number of
animals are low in river or stream.
Characteristics of River or Stream.
• It is a fresh water, and free flowing water systems.
• Due to mixing of water, dissolved oxygen content is. more.
• River deposits large amount of nutrients.
60. Structure and function of River (or) Stream Ecosystem
I. Abiotic components
Examples : River, Light, Temperature, Chemistry, Substrate
II. Biotic Components :
Producers: Phytoplankton, algae, water grasses, aquatic masses
other amphibious plants.
(i)Primary consumers: They feed on phytoplankton. Examples :
Water insects, snails, fishes:
(i)Secondary consumers: They feed on primary consumers Examples :
Decomposers: They decomposes the dead animals and plants. Examples :
Bacteria and fungi.
63. SALT WATER ECOSYSTEMS.
OCEAN (MARINE) ECOSYSTEMS
Oceans cover more than two thirds
of the earth’s surface. ocean
environment is characterized by its high concentration of salts and minerals.
It supplies huge variety of products and drugs. It also provides us iron,
magnesium, iron, natural gas.
Zones of Oceans: The oceans have two major life zones.
(a)Coastal zone: It is relatively warm, nutrient rich shallow water. It has high
primary productivity because of high nutrients and sunlight.
(b) Open sea: It is the deeper part of the ocean. It is vertically divided into
(i) Euphotic zone: It receives abundant light and shows high
(ii) Bathyal zone: It receives dim light and is usually geologically active.
(iii) Abyssal zone: It is the dark zone and is very deep (2000 to metres).
65. Characteristics of Ocean Ecosystem
1. It occupies a large surface area with saline water.
2. Since ship, submarines can sail in ocean, commercial activities may be
3. It is rich in biodiversity.
4. It moderates the- temperature
Structure and function Ecosystems
::Examples : Temperature,
light, NaCl, K, Ca, and Mg
I. Biotic components: 1. Producers :
Phytoplanktons (diatoms, unicellular algae, etc., ) and marine
plants (sea weeds, chlorophycela, phaeophyceae).
66. 2. Consumers
These are heterotrophic macro consumers. They depend on
producers for their nutrition.
• Primary consumers (herbivores) :They feed on producers
Examples :Crustaceans, moiluscs, fish
• Secondary consumers (carnivores) : They feed on herbivores
Examples :Herring sahd, mackerel, etc.,
• Tertiary Consumers: They are the top consumers. They feed on small
Examples :Cod, Haddock, -etc.,
3.Decomposers: They decompose the dead organic matter.
Example s:Bacteria and some fungi.
70. ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal area at the’ mouth of
a river, where sea water mixes with freshwater. It is strongly affected
by tidal action. Estuaries are generally : abundant of nutrients.
Estuaries are useful to human beings due to their high food
potential. It is essential to protect the estuaries from pollution.
Characteristics of Estuarine ecosystem
1. Estuaries are transition zones, which are strongly affected by tides
of the sea.
2. Water characteristics are periodically changed.
3. The living organism in estuarine ecosystems have wide tolerance.
4. Salinity remains highest during the summer and lowest during the
71. Structure and function of Estuarine Ecosystem
I. Abiotic Components
Examples :Temperature, pH, sodium and potassium salts
and various nutrients.
II. Biotic Components
•Producers: Examples :Marsh grasses, seaweeds , sea-grasses and
•Consumers : Examples :Oysters, crabs, seabirds, small fishes
Examples :Bacterias, fungi and actenomycetous.