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Ebola virus

Ebola virus and their associated disease in Human and other animals


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Ebola virus

  1. 1. • Ebola virus can cause Ebola haemorrhagic fever. • Name of this virus is Ebola because its associated disease first found in a village near the Ebola River. • Fatality rate of this disease is around 50%. • It is found in wild animals and it can transmitted to human. • Ebola virus disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in what is now, Nzara, South Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo.
  2. 2. • Family:- Filoviridae • Number of species :- Five E.zaire E.Bundibugyo E.Sudan E.Reston E.taï Forest
  3. 3. • Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural hosts of Ebola virus. • It is transmitted in human through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest. • Human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials (e.g. bedding, clothing) contaminated with these fluids. • Ebola can also sexually transmitted in new individuals.
  4. 4. • Incubation period is 2 to 21 days. • Humans are not infectious until they develop symptoms. • Earlier symptoms:- Sudden onset of fever fatigue, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. • Late Symptoms:- Vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, kidney and liver dysfunction, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding (e.g. oozing from the gums, blood in the stools).
  5. 5. • Malaria • Typhoid fever • Meningitis
  6. 6. • Persist in immune-privileged sites such as testicles, the inside of the eye, central nervous system, placenta, amniotic fluid and foetus. • The virus may persist in breast milk.
  7. 7. Following diagnostic methods are usually employed:- • Blood count:-low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes. • antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). • Antigen-capture detection tests. • Serum neutralization test. • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. • Electron microscopy. • Virus isolation by cell culture. • Automated or semi-automated nucleic acid tests (NAT) for routine diagnostic management.
  8. 8. • Whole blood in EDTA from live patients exhibiting symptoms. • Oral fluid specimen stored in universal transport medium collected from deceased patients. • All biological specimens should be packaged using the triple packaging system when transported nationally and internationally.
  9. 9. • Rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids. • There is as yet no proven treatment available for Ebola viral disease. • Immune therapies and drug therapies are currently being evaluated.
  10. 10. • The vaccine, called rVSV-ZEBOV is an under trail. • Good laboratory service. • Protective clothing. • Safe burials.