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Borrowing in the english language

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Borrowing in the english language

  1. 1. Borrowing in theBorrowing in the english languageenglish language Words might be taken over from one languageWords might be taken over from one language and are adopted to the other. This process isand are adopted to the other. This process is calledcalled borrowingborrowing..
  2. 2. The reason for borrowingThe reason for borrowing a suitable word froma suitable word from another language is theanother language is the need to find a term forneed to find a term for an unfamiliar thing,an unfamiliar thing, animal, or culturalanimal, or cultural device.device.
  3. 3. Moreover, a further, oftenMoreover, a further, often underestimated reason forunderestimated reason for borrowing is prestige.borrowing is prestige. On the one hand they serve toOn the one hand they serve to enrich the language, but on theenrich the language, but on the other hand the words makeother hand the words make certain stylistic registers morecertain stylistic registers more inaccessible to the masses.inaccessible to the masses. ““Hard words” (Gramley).Hard words” (Gramley).
  4. 4. Amongst the above mentionedAmongst the above mentioned reasons for borrowing from foreignreasons for borrowing from foreign languages, the most obvious andlanguages, the most obvious and maybe also the most profound one ismaybe also the most profound one is the introduction of new concepts forthe introduction of new concepts for which there are no suitable words inwhich there are no suitable words in the task language.the task language.
  5. 5. In the Middle Ages the Arabic worldIn the Middle Ages the Arabic world was advanced in many sciences and thus,was advanced in many sciences and thus, a lot of words have been passed on duringa lot of words have been passed on during this time to other languages and also tothis time to other languages and also to English.English. Some of the best known examples areSome of the best known examples are alchemy, alcohol, and algebra.alchemy, alcohol, and algebra.
  6. 6. Direct borrowing is when a language takesDirect borrowing is when a language takes over a term directly from another language.over a term directly from another language. The English word omelette is an example forThe English word omelette is an example for direct borrowing because it has been takendirect borrowing because it has been taken over from French (French: omelette) directly,over from French (French: omelette) directly, without any major phonological orwithout any major phonological or orthographical changes.orthographical changes. In contrast to that, indirect borrowing takesIn contrast to that, indirect borrowing takes place when a certain word is passed on fromplace when a certain word is passed on from the source language to another (as a directthe source language to another (as a direct borrowing), and then from that language isborrowing), and then from that language is handed over to another and from this onehanded over to another and from this one maybe even to another. This process may gomaybe even to another. This process may go hand in hand with the development that thehand in hand with the development that the word, each time it is passed on from oneword, each time it is passed on from one language to another, is adjustedlanguage to another, is adjusted phonologically/orthographically to make it fitphonologically/orthographically to make it fit to the phonological/orthographical system ofto the phonological/orthographical system of the recipient language.the recipient language.
  7. 7. Loanwords: they have beenLoanwords: they have been imported/adopted from anotherimported/adopted from another language, either directly orlanguage, either directly or indirectly, and might haveindirectly, and might have undergoneundergone phonological/orthographicalphonological/orthographical changes.changes. Loanshifts (= loanLoanshifts (= loan translations/calques): thetranslations/calques): the borrowing is done by translatingborrowing is done by translating the vocabulary item or rather itsthe vocabulary item or rather its
  8. 8. • the borrowing of a word into another language is always a gradual process which takes quite some time. This gradual might even lead to the result that foreign words which are borrowed become ‘nativised’, in the case of English then ‘anglicised’.

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