Classification Of Automobile
1. Based on Purpose :
Passenger vehicles : These vehicles carry passengers. e.g.: Buses, Cars, passenger trains.
Goods vehicles : These vehicles carry goods from one place to another place. e.g.: Goods lorry, Goods
Special Purpose : These vehicles include Ambulance, Fire engines, Army Vehicles.
2. Based on Load Capacity:
Light duty vehicle : Small motor vehicles. e.g.: Car, jeep, Scooter, motor cycle
Heavy duty vehicle : large and bulky motor vehicles. e.g.: Bus, Truck, Tractor
3. Based on fuel used:
Petrol engine vehicles : Automobiles powered by petrol engine. e.g.: scooters, cars, motorcycles.
Diesel engine vehicles : Automobiles powered by diesel engine. e.g.: Trucks, Buses, Tractors.
Gas vehicles : Vehicles that use gas turbine as power source. e.g.: Turbine powered cars.
Electric vehicles : Automobiles that use electricity as a power source. e.g.: Electric cars, electric buses.
Steam Engine vehicles : Automobiles powered by steam engine. e.g.: Steamboat, steam locomotive,
4. Based on Drive of the vehicles :
Left Hand drive : Steering wheel fitted on left hand side
Right Hand drive : Steering wheel fitted on right hand side
Fluid drive : Vehicles employing torque converter, fluid fly wheel or hydramatic transmission.
5. Based on number of wheels and axles :
Two wheeler : motor cycles, scooters
Three wheeler : Tempo, auto-rickshaws
Four wheeler : car, Jeep, Bus, truck
Six wheeler : Buses and trucks have six tires out of which four are carried on the rear wheels for
Six axle wheeler : Dodge(10 tire) vehicle
6. Based on type of transmission:
Automatic transmission vehicles: Automobiles that are capable of changing gear ratios automatically as
they move. e.g.: Automatic Transmission Cars.
Manual transmission vehicles: Automobiles whose gear ratios have to be changed manually.
Semi-automatic transmission vehicles: Vehicles that facilitate manual gear changing with clutch pedal.
7. Based on Suspension system used:
Convectional - Leaf Spring
Independent - Coil spring, Torsion bar, Pneumatic.
A chassis consists of an internal framework that supports a man-made object in its
construction and use. It is analogous to an animal's skeleton. An example of a
chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, consisting of the frame (on which the
body is mounted). If the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and
sometimes even the driver's seat, are included then the assembly is described as
a rolling chassis.
Ladder chassis is considered to be one of the oldest forms of automotive chassis or automobile chassis
that is still used by most of the SUVs till today. As its name connotes, ladder chassis resembles a shape of
a ladder having two longitudinal rails inter linked by several lateral and cross braces.
An important type of automotive chassis, motorcycle chassis comprise of different auto parts and
components like auto frame, wheels, two wheeler brakes and suspension. Its basically the frame for
motorbikes that holds these components together. A motorbike chassis can be manufactured from
different materials. But the commonly used materials are steel, aluminium, or magnesium.
It has a rectangular tube like backbone, usually made up of glass fibre that is used for joining front and
rear axle together. This type of automotive chassis or automobile chassis is strong and powerful enough to
provide support smaller sports car. Backbone chassis is easy to make and cost effective.
Advantages of Backbone chassis
Standard-conception truck's superstructure has to withstand the torsion twist, and subsequent wear
reduces vehicle's lifespan.
The half-axles have better contact with ground when operated off the road. This has little importance on
The vulnerable parts of drive shaft are covered by thick tube. The whole system is extremely reliable.
However, if a problem occurs, repairs are more complicated.
Modular system is enabling configurations of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-axle vehicles with various wheel bases.
Manufacturing the backbone chassis is more complicated and more costly. However, the more axles with
all-wheel drive are needed, the cost benefit turns in favor of backbone chassis.
The backbone chassis is heavier for a given torsional stiffness than a uni-body.
The chassis gives no protection against side impacts.
An exoskeleton car has a visible external frame, being made of steel, aluminium or carbon fiber tubes.
Body styles are open wheel sports cars, with their wheels outside of the main body and each wheel covered
by its own lightweight mudguard, usually carried as unsprung weight supported on the hub carrier. The
chassis has four large longitudinal tubes, two on each side of the car body, inboard of the wheels. These main
chassis tubes are spaced apart by smaller diagonal or vertical tubes.
Structurally, an exoskeleton chassis is midway between a ladder chassis and a spaceframe chassis. At its
simplest, it consists of two ladder chassis, one above the other.
The main structure of a car is known as chassis. Car chassis functions as a support for the different car
parts. Automotive parts like engine, suspension & steering mechanism braking system, auto wheels, axle
assemblies and transmission are mounted on the car chassis.
Bus chassis is the design and quality of bus chassis depends on the capacity of bus. It can be tailor made
according to the needs and can be availed with features like transverse mounted engine, air suspension as
well as anti-roll bars. A well manufactured bus chassis offers various benefits like high torque from low
revs, superior brake performance and more. Bus chassis designed for urban routes differs from the one
manufactured for suburban routes.
Monocoque Chassis is a one-piece structure that prescribes the overall shape of a vehicle. This type of
automotive chassis is manufactured by welding floor pan and other pieces together. Since monocoque
chassis is cost effective and suitable for robotised production, most of the vehicles today make use of steel
plated monocoque chassis.