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How to Prototype | Synapse at Hardware Workshop 2016

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Prototyping for hardware development

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How to Prototype | Synapse at Hardware Workshop 2016

  1. 1. HOW TO PROTOTYPE KATE RICHMOND, BRET RICHMOND SUPPORT BY MARTINE STILLMAN & JACKIE JOHANSON 1 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  2. 2. WE PROTOTYPE TO REDUCE RISK 2 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  3. 3. PROTOTYPING & TESTING GO HAND IN HAND 3 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  4. 4. ■ The product development process ■ The importance of planning ■ Ask the right questions ■ Build the right prototype ■ Schedule ■ Test and validation ■ When to ask an expert ■ Case studies ■ Mechanical and electrical prototyping details and resources WE’LL COVER 4 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  5. 5. SPDPSYNAPSE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 5 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  6. 6. THE IMPORTANCE OF GOOD PLANNING 6 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  7. 7. What are you trying to learn? ■ User experience and product definition • “Will this design fit 95% of my target population”? • “Is it intuitive for users to walk up to my product and wave to wake it up?” ■ Technical and engineering challenges • “How do I make a bluetooth antenna work underwater?” • “Will my design generate adequate pull force”? ■ Product architecture tradeoffs • “How do users respond to the product size that results from the minimum viable battery life?” Who are you trying to impress? ■ Yourself, a partner, an investor, a CM, etc? ASK THE RIGHT QUESTIONS 7 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  8. 8. Now that you have your questions, WHAT TYPE OF PROTOTYPES SHOULD YOU MAKE? Looks like: Production intent size and appearance, non-functional ■ Great for user interaction questions, and impressing key stakeholders ■ Lower cost and lead time than functional prototypes Works like: Explores some functional aspect of the design ■ Great for for addressing technical risk regarding functionality or performance ■ Saves resources by not worrying about size, appearance Looks like/Works like: Captures both function and appearance of the intended design. May be created with a different method and scale from final design. ■ Closer to a real product - answers form, interaction, and function questions ■ Generally higher cost, longer lead time than looks like or works like MAKE THE RIGHT PROTOTYPES 8 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  9. 9. ■ Don’t forget about testing! Plan to spend a substantial amount of your prototyping time and budget on testing ■ Testing types • Reliability - drop testing, water ingress, thermal, chemical compatibility, etc. • User interaction • Regulatory • Performance variation over multiple units ■ Think through what can be tested on each prototype • Some types of testing, particularly reliability, require representative materials and construction • Can you perform multiple tests on the same unit if you go from least to most destructive to keep build quantities and costs low? ■ Build your schedule so that test results from one prototype inform the next generation prototype • Don’t ignore ambiguous or negative test results and charge ahead! TEST & VALIDATION 9 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  10. 10. SCHEDULE 1 0 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  11. 11. SCHEDULE 1 1 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  12. 12. Ask for help at key decision points ■ Once you have a prototyping plan, have a plan review • Did you choose an effective, efficient approach based on the challenges you anticipate and who you’re trying to impress? • Are there major design or technology risks that your prototype doesn’t mitigate? • Have you chosen appropriate materials, processes, and components? ■ Before releasing custom PCBs or tooling, have a detailed technical review • Custom parts are expensive and have long lead times • It’s easy to make silly mistakes ■ Part on PCB has wrong package size or pinout ■ Incorrect connector orientation ■ Overconstrained component interfaces ■ Once you’ve processed the test data, have a results review • If your results are ambiguous, or if there are multiple paths forward, this is a good time to consult an expert on go-forward strategy EXPERT REVIEW & FEEDBACK LOOP 1 2 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  13. 13. 1 3 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CASE STUDY 49ERS STADIUM ENTRY CODE NAME | KEZAR
  14. 14. 49ERS STADIUM ENTRY (KEZAR) P R O O F O F C O N C EP T P R O T O T Y P E What we were trying to learn ■ How do users interact with a stadium entry system? Who we were trying to impress ■ Key stakeholders in 49ers org 1 4 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CATEGORY Looks like TEST & VALIDATION User interaction testing SCHEDULE 5 weeks design & build, 4 weeks test
  15. 15. 49ERS STADIUM ENTRY (KEZAR) 1 5 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL P R O O F O F C O N C EP T P R O T O T Y P E
  16. 16. 49ERS STADIUM ENTRY (KEZAR) A L P H A P R O T O T Y P E What we were trying to learn ■ Is this a solid product design that can pass environmental testing? Who we were trying to impress ■ Ourselves, the CM 1 6 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CATEGORY Looks like / works like TEST & VALIDATION Environmental, user interaction SCHEDULE 12 weeks design & build, 8 weeks test
  17. 17. 49ERS STADIUM ENTRY (KEZAR) 1 7 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL P O C V S . A L P H A B O A R D S
  18. 18. 1 8 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CASE STUDY SONICARE AIRFLOSS CODE NAME | CHINOOK
  19. 19. SONICARE AIRFLOSS (CHINOOK) P R O O F O F C O N C EP T P R O T O T Y P E ( B R E A D B O A R D ) What we were trying to learn ■ Does our pump system design work? Who we were trying to impress ■ Philips technical team 1 9 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CATEGORY Works like TEST & VALIDATION Functional test SCHEDULE 8 weeks for design, 1 week machining, 1 week assembly, 1 week of test
  20. 20. SONICARE AIRFLOSS (CHINOOK) 2 N D P R O O F O F C O N C EP T P R O T O T Y P E ( B R E A D B O A R D 2 ) What we were trying to learn ■ Does our overall system work? (Gear train, plunger, mixing chamber, pump, seals) ■ Is our volumetric-similar design viable? Who we were trying to impress ■ Philips technical team ■ Ourselves. Does this system deliver the energy needed? 2 0 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CATEGORY Works like, size similar TEST & VALIDATION Functional test SCHEDULE 16 weeks for design, 3 weeks machining, 1 week assembly, 2 weeks of test
  21. 21. SONICARE AIRFLOSS (CHINOOK) A L P H A P R O T O T Y P E What we were trying to learn ■ Does our housing seal design work? ■ Do our miniaturization details work? ■ What happens in drop testing? Who we were trying to impress ■ The client (Philips), both technicaland executive 2 1 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CATEGORY Works like, looks like TEST & VALIDATION Extensive, special emphasis on drop SCHEDULE 12 weeks for design, 10 weeks for tools, 2 weeks for build, 3 weeks for test
  22. 22. AIRFLOSS PROTOTYPE VIDEO R A C K A N D P I N I O N 2 2 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  23. 23. 2 3 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CASE STUDY SPORTWATCH GPS CODE NAME | CONSTANTIN
  24. 24. NIKE+ SPORTWATCH GPS P R O O F O F C O N C EP T P R O T O T Y P E S What we were trying to learn ■ GPS performance, kickstart FW development Who we were trying to impress ■ Technical stakeholders 2 4 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CATEGORY Works like TEST & VALIDATION GPS Performance, display & graphics SCHEDULE 6 weeks design, 2 weeks fab, used by FW team for 12 months
  25. 25. NIKE+ SPORTWATCH GPS P R O O F O F C O N C EP T P R O T O T Y P E S What we were trying to learn ■ How does the proposed form factor fit our target user group? Who we were trying to impress ■ ID and design stakeholders 2 5 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CATEGORY Looks like TEST & VALIDATION User fit study SCHEDULE 2 weeks design, 2 weeks fab
  26. 26. NIKE+ SPORTWATCH GPS P R O O F O F C O N C EP T P R O T O T Y P E S What we were trying to learn ■ Can an FPC survive in a watch band up to our pull force spec? Who we were trying to impress ■ Ourselves 2 6 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CATEGORY Works like TEST & VALIDATION Bend & pull testing SCHEDULE 2 days build & test
  27. 27. NIKE+ SPORTWATCH GPS A L P H A P R O T O T Y P E S What we were trying to learn ■ Is this product ready to build at a CM? ■ Does the GPS antenna work in form factor? Who we were trying to impress ■ Nike (a design driven company) ■ TomTom (a GPS performance driven company) 2 7 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL CATEGORY Looks like/works like TEST & VALIDATION GPS performance, environmental SCHEDULE 12 weeks design, 3 weeks fab, 6 weeks test
  28. 28. MATERIALS & RESOURCES 2 8 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  29. 29. MECHANICAL PROTOTYPING | POSSIBILITIES & PURPOSES 2 9 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL TIME COST QUANTITY HOW REPRESENTATIVE? COMMON PURPOSES RAPID PROTOTYPING (Additive manufacturing) Overnight-3 days Cheap $100s <10 Not very. Critical to consider the purpose of the proto, because there are significant tradeoffs between processes - Fit and interface checks - Form studies - User experience testing - Appearance models (if finished) - Functional testing MACHINING 1-2 weeks Highly variable <~30 Quite. Available in a range of materials (metals, plastics, foams) - Tight tolerance requirements - Fit and interface checks - Functional testing - Performance testing - Reliability testing URETHANE CASTING 1-2 weeks Fairly cheap $500 - $3k <50 Very. Great for middle quantities, with quick timelines. High quality finish is possible - Form studies - Appearance models (if finished) - Functional testing - Performance testing INJECTION MOLDING 4-15 weeks Expensive >=$5k >100 1:1. Can use mass production materials, so appropriate for mechanical testing and cosmetic evaluation - Fit and interface checks - User experience testing - Cosmetic models - Functional testing - Performance testing - Reliability testing
  30. 30. ■ Resources for Rapid Prototyping: • Proto Labs: “Prototyping Process, Choosing the best process for your project” • Quickparts: “Process Comparison Chart” ■ Fabrication Partners: MECHANICAL PROTOTYPING | RESOURCES & PARTNERS 3 0 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL • Additive Manufacturing and Cast Urethanes: ■ Fathom (Seattle, WA & Oakland, CA) ■ Fictiv (SF, CA) ■ ProtoCafe (Redwood City, CA) ■ 3DS Quickparts • CNC Machining: ■ Concept Reality (Vancouver, WA) ■ Made3D (Kirkland, WA) ■ Livewire Prototyping (Vancouver, WA) • Prototype Injection Molding: ■ Model Solution (S. Korea) ■ AIMMCO (Woodland, WA) ■ Fathom (Seattle, WA & Oakland, CA) • Sheet Metal: ■ Form Factor Design (Boise, ID) ■ Peridot Corp (Pleasanton, CA)
  31. 31. ■ Hobbyist boards from Sparkfun, Adafruit • Great for quick proof of concept investigation ■ Evaluation boards from semiconductor manufacturers • Great for getting your firmware team up and running with production intent parts while you work on custom PCB design ■ Modules • Gumstix, Variscite, Phytec for embedded computing platforms • Silicon Labs, for WiFi and Bluetooth modules ■ Radio modules often come pre-certified! • Can be used for prototyping or in low to medium volume production ■ Semi-customized boards • Gumstix Gepetto ■ Batteries • Powerstream for lithium polymer ELECTRONICS PROTOTYPING | OFF THE SHELF COMPONENTS 3 1 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  32. 32. ■ Custom Rigid PCBs through Batch Service • Assemble multiple PCBs onto a single panel • Fixed quantity of prototypes (e.g. 3), limited to 2- and 4-layer designs • Longer turn times (2-3 weeks) • Vendors: OSH Park ■ Custom Rigid PCBs on Dedicated Run • Panels fabricated with multiple instances of your design • Arbitrary number of layers, quantities, higher precision, higher cost • 2-5 day turn time • Examples: Prototron, APCT ■ Custom Flexible PCBs on Dedicated Run • Longer turn times (1-2 weeks) and higher cost (~2x) than rigid PCBs • Examples: Streamline, Cordova ELECTRONICS PROTOTYPING | CUSTOM PCB FABRICATION 3 2 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL
  33. 33. ■ Do-It-Yourself • Design in components with suitable packages (e.g. >0402, no BGAs) • Can reflow and rework using hot air gun for fine pitch ■ Kitted Order with Assembly House • Parts may be hand placed for low quantities, automated placement for higher volumes • You supply PCBs and components • Finished boards are inspected for quality • Examples: PCA, Out of the Box Manufacturing, Screaming Circuits ■ Turnkey Order with Assembly House • Assembly house will order components and PCBs and deliver finished PCBAs • Some fabrication vendors will provide an all-in-one service • Examples: Out of the Box Manufacturing, Schippers and Crew, Screaming Circuits ELECTRONICS PROTOTYPING | CUSTOM PCB ASSEMBLY 3 3 | S Y N A P S E C ON F I N D E N T I AL

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