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Ball Point.pdf

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Title
Environmental Report of Ball
Point by LCA
Table of Contents
1 Introduction ............................................................................................
List of Figures
Figure 1 Major sources of the pen's total emissions over its lifetime........................................
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Ball Point.pdf

  1. 1. Title Environmental Report of Ball Point by LCA
  2. 2. Table of Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 4 2 Defining goal and scope for LCA............................................................................................ 4 2.1 Analyzing the Difference between the Existing Product and Our New and Improved Version........................................................................................................................................ 4 2.2 Raw Materials and Their Preparation............................................................................... 5 2.3 Transportation .................................................................................................................. 9 2.4 Manufacture and assembly............................................................................................. 11 2.5 Use Phase ....................................................................................................................... 11 3 Interpretation & Conclusion.................................................................................................. 12 4 Environmental Policies and Laws ......................................................................................... 13 5 Conclusion............................................................................................................................. 13 6 Recommendations ................................................................................................................. 14 7 Summary................................................................................................................................ 14 8 References ............................................................................................................................. 15
  3. 3. List of Figures Figure 1 Major sources of the pen's total emissions over its lifetime............................................. 5 Figure 2 Description picture of the BIC pen................................................................................... 6 Figure 3 LCA comparison of different material for CO2............................................................... 7 Figure 4 Water LCA comparison of various materials................................................................... 8 Figure 5 a) CO2 emissions redistribution in the transportation sector b) VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) redistribution for airborne transport.......................................................................... 10 Figure 6 Logistics and environmental impacts............................................................................ 11
  4. 4. 1 Introduction Our objective is to develop a more environmentally friendly version of a standard promotional item: a cheap bic pen. By "greener," we mean an iteration that drastically reduces emissions during the pen's entire lifespan. We went out in search of a method that would be both practical and economical. We are basing our assumption on the fact that the pen would be used in Finland, and that it will be a generic inexpensive pen mostly used for writing. This report will detail the changes made to the product, the rationale behind those changes, and the reduction in the product's negative effects. A bic pen's usefulness is measured in terms of the number of years it may be used. Given that it is possible that the pen will be misplaced or the ink would dry out just before its computational large volume of text is achieved, we decided to use the particular function of a lifetime rather than metres written or drawn. This suggests that people live less long on average than they would want (Adam et al., 2008). 2 Defining goal and scope for LCA 2.1 Analyzing the Difference between the Existing Product and Our New and Improved Version The first step is to figure out which aspects of the lifecycle are the most consequential. In addition, we investigated the most crucial impacts over the whole life cycle. Each subsection explains a different restriction placed on the system. The categories of eutrophication, climate change potential, water intake, eco-toxicity, and acidification are evaluated using the BEES+ evaluation framework. As can be seen in Figure 2, plastic components have the greatest effect across the board. The vast portion of the pen is made of plastic. There is a lot of concern about the environmental impact of glass containers, which are used as part of the shipping packaging for the pens but have nothing to with the pens themselves (Alamilla et al., 2013).
  5. 5. Figure 1 Major sources of the pen's total emissions over its lifetime 2.2 Raw Materials and Their Preparation Materials include 1.35g of polypropylene, 3.4g of polystyrene, 0.2g of ethanol as that of the primary ink component, 0.05g of the tungsten carbide (tungsten 0.047g as well as carbon 0.003g) (3), and 0.2g of brass (assumed to be 35% zinc, 65% copper, translating to 0.13g of copper and 0.07g of zinc). Since it is difficult to determine the exact zinc content of our product without
  6. 6. doing extensive chemical testing, we will guess that it is between 39% and 40%, as this is the range in which brass begins to lose some of its ductility. Materials may be seen in Figure 2. Figure 2 Description picture of the BIC pen Due to data constraints, Open LCA approximated ethanol emissions using ethene and tungsten emissions using steel. Since ethene is the nearest readily accessible alcohol, it was selected. Steel, made from carbon and iron, is a metal similar tungsten, and hence provides at least a rough estimate of the environmental consequences of metals. We didn't include zinc since its use in open LCA would result in absurdly huge impacts—a factor of one thousand times the effect of aluminum—that we determined were implausible based on a comparison to the average energy intensiveness of the dataset. It is reasonable to exclude the little amount of zinc because it was not shown to be a major source of environmental concerns when calculated manually. And the materials used for the packaging were also considered. These pens are offered singly and come in cases containing around 500 units. With a team member's measured weight of a standard cardboard box coming up at 200 grammes, we find that 0.04 grammes of packaging material is required to ship each pen. We found the effect to be minimal, therefore we used the same packaging for the environmentally friendly option (Bgler et al., 2008).
  7. 7. Polystyrene was the primary contributor to emissions in the baseline LCA (barrel). Not being recycled frequently makes it difficult to enhance its effectiveness. In the end, after weighing our choices, we decided to switch to aluminium. We calculated the required weight for the aluminium barrel using the density of aluminium (2.7g/cm3) and polystyrene (1.05g/cm3) to ensure that the pen's overall profile would remain same despite the increase in material. Aluminum is about 100 percent recyclable, keeps its high quality even after being reprocessed, and lasts for a long time. Both materials are quite inexpensive; polystyrene costs around 1017 Euro per ton, whereas aluminium costs about 1826 Euro per ton. When compared to producing new aluminium from scratch, energy consumption and emissions through recycling may be reduced by as much as 95%. Polypropylene, the other common plastic, may be recycled with as much as a 50% gain in energy efficiency. These are the only materials used in our environmentally friendly product. As can be seen in Figures 3 and 4, the raw materials themselves create both CO2 emissions and negative consequences (water usage). While research into SO2 and NOx emissions was conducted, the results are not depicted because they mirror those for CO2. The first bar in each figure indicates the starting point. A second aluminum- barreled version of the product is seen in the third bar. The results of employing recycled aluminium and polypropylene are depicted by the third and fourth bars. The combined effect of these two recycled materials is displayed in the fifth bar. Figure 3 LCA comparison of different material for CO2
  8. 8. Figure 4 Water LCA comparison of various materials The graphs show that whereas virgin aluminium has a greater impact on the number of greenhouse gases released, this is greatly reduced when recycled, making it the best option; this, along with the minor advantages of recycling polypropylene, results in our pen having a smaller impact on the environment across the 4 most important categories. We also considered switching to aluminium for the metal components, but the brass as well as tungsten ones are essential for withstanding the force that is applied to them. In light of this information and the knowledge that perhaps the modulus of elasticity of aluminium, brass, as well as tungsten are 68.3 Gpa, 117 Gpa, and 400 Gpa, respectively, we concluded that aluminium could be too brittle for such a job. In this way, the metal components will be preserved (Feraru et al., 2014). LCA was used to evaluate the ink's impact on the natural world, as well. Carbon black as well as cobalt are only a couple of the many harmful and resource-intensive ingredients in the ink. Specifically, we looked at the ink. An inkless pen is the first choice. Ink has been replaced by metal and metal therein. There's no need to sharpen the point, and there's an infinite supply. Therefore, it is a viable alternative to disposable plastic pens. However, the cost of these
  9. 9. environmentally friendly pens is up to three times that of the standard option. As a result, we came to the conclusion that this was not practical for our target audience. Soy-based ink is a second possibility. In comparison to ethanol ink derived from petroleum, this is made from soy. Keeping the ink's essential properties ensured that pens could be utilized and wouldn't dry out too rapidly. The fact that it has to be shipped from a great distance Our life cycle assessment showed that compared to traditional ink, this was a better solution for the environment without breaking the bank. We considered making its ink tube removable, but decided against it since we figured customers would receive these kinds of pens frequently and wouldn't want to spend money to replace their ink (Gorziza et al., 2019). 2.3 Transportation BIC pens are shipped through sea and road freight. Searoute.com was used to get all of the distances. Transport of raw materials is factored into the emissions category in OpenLCA. In order to get pens to Finland, we had to think about two different types of shipping: sending over the raw materials to be turned into pens, and sending over the finished pens themselves. It is important to note that the United States is the world's greatest oil producer, and that plastics as well as ethanol are often created from oil (although they may be made from other resources as well). The trucking or shipping distance between Dallas (where Exxon Mobil is headquartered) and Paris (where BIC is headquartered) is 4459 kilometres or 2417 nautical miles. The majority of the world's metals are mined but also processed in China, and it was determined that it would take a truck 10289 kilometres to go from Xiangyang (the average city between significant copper and zinc mines) to Paris (Hunkeler, 2016). It is believed that the final destination for the manufactured good would be Finland, therefore the trip between Paris as well as Helsinki, a distance of 2,957 kilometres, will be covered by a fleet of trucks. Since BIC exclusively sells to shops, they have little control over the emissions caused by customers acquiring the goods, including such driving to the market or shipping office equipment to their firm. After being utilised, pens are trucked the 20 kilometres to Vantaan Energia, where they are incinerated (Jentoft, 2013).
  10. 10. A 40-ton truck was employed for this LCA, and the weight of the cargo was 27 tons. It's easy to calculate that each truck can hold 300,000 pens. Knowing that a single pen weighs 5.2 g, this value was translated to mass and applied in the appropriate places. Figure 5 a) CO2 emissions redistribution in the transportation sector b) VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) redistribution for airborne transport. According to LCA, vehicles' carbon dioxide emissions are the biggest environmental problem they cause. As a result of their reliance on Lorries for longer journeys, the vast majority of pollution can be traced back to these vehicles. When it comes to transportation, life-cycle assessment (LCA) data demonstrates that other environmental implications are minimal. Figure 5b shows an example, with VOC emissions below 1010. The impact of transportation is negligible compared to that of raw materials. However, there are still avenues open for cutting it down to size. • Trains should be used instead of vehicles. • Produce components using resources located near to the factory. In France, not far from Lyon, there is a recycling as well as refining facility where one may obtain plastic. With their expertise, polypropylene may be refined into pellets and granules for reuse. This eliminates the need for shipping, which helps to drastically cut down on pollution. • Considering the switch from polystyrene to aluminium, the French company Trimet Aluminium is one potential supplier. • Used pens are shipped to a plastic reprocessing as well as refining plant in Riihimäki, Finland (20), which is about 70 kilometres from Helsinki.
  11. 11. • For Europe's competitiveness, environmental, social, economic, as well as strategic considerations, it is important to: Mine metals in Europe. • In Finland, in the Kevitsa copper mine. • Boliden Tara, an Irish zinc mine. • Los Santos Mine, Spain, is a tungsten mine. If we consider all of these modifications, we can see in Figure 6 that our green BIC pen's CO2 transport emissions are reduced by a whopping 63% (Ji et al., 2018). Figure 6 Logistics and environmental impacts 2.4 Manufacture and assembly Since estimates of life cycle emissions are not available in the Open LCA public databases, manufacturing and assembly impacts were approximated with energy use. It was calculated that 40 MJ per kilogram of metal is needed for production and assembly, but only 10 MJ a kg of plastic is needed. When compared to other impacts, neither the original nor the eco-friendly variant showed any noteworthy results (Schneider et al., 2009). 2.5 Use Phase No chemicals or other materials than ink are leaked during use. Our calculations suggest that the pen has a mere 0.02 grammes of ink at most. Finland typically either incinerates or recycles used
  12. 12. drawing paper. To be reused, the pulp must first be cleaned of the ink. It's safe to say that 0.2 g of ink won't make a noticeable difference in either scenario. In addition, we are not assessing emissions produced during the usage phase because this is beyond the purpose of our research. Since the usage phase is outside of our remit, no adjustments need to be made for the environmentally friendly variant. In Finland, with very few exceptions, all municipal trash is incinerated. Now, people only have two options when it comes to plastic: recycle it or burn it. Since the pen's many components are not easily detachable, we are treating the existing product as if it were destined for the general trash heap rather than being recycled. According to the LCA, there are considerable eco-toxicity, eutrophication, and acidification consequences from the burning operations, particularly the combustion of the plastic. Although energy is produced in the process, recycling plastic rather of burning it would result in a net savings. Recycled plastic has an impact on the environment of 25–75% relative to virgin plastic as well as up to 95% compared to aluminium, even after accounting for the energy required in the recycling process. As a result, our eco-pen places a premium on its capacity to be recycled. As a result of the prevalence of metal recycling facilities, aluminium can be recycled repeatedly without degrading. The pen may be disassembled easily into its component pieces; the metal can be recycled. In the section devoted to raw materials, the energy conserved by recycling is taken into account: Despite the energy required for recycling, it is still possible to reduce emissions by 95% when compared to when utilising fresh aluminium. 3 Interpretation & Conclusion So, in conclusion, our eco-friendly pen will be much more eco-friendly. When all of the upgrades are added together, our eco-friendly bic pen results in a 50 percent reduction in emissions. As discussed above, it will have recycled aluminium used in lieu of polystyrene, and recycled polypropylene used in place of polystyrene. To replace the traditional ink, a soy-based ink mix is used. There will be a shift in the way transportation operates as well. By separating the components, the product may be recycled more simply. Making a product more eco-friendly doesn't change how it's used or what it looks like to consumers, except from maybe adding a little bit of weight, therefore there's no downside to doing so beyond the positive effect on the product's brand image.
  13. 13. The eco-friendly variant is a tribute to recycling, or the practice of reusing processed materials that have already found widespread use across the world rather than constantly creating new products from scratch, which wastes valuable resources. With our plan, you can rest assured that it is based on hard data and capable of accurately on how to enhance the current pen design. The approach is more practical and inexpensive than alternatives, so it can be adopted quickly and will have the most positive impact on our environment. 4 Environmental Policies and Laws It is necessary to have environmental policies since environmental principles are rarely taken into account throughout the decision-making process inside most organisations. Two key factors account for its exclusion. To begin, environmental consequences are examples of economic externalities. Most of the time, polluters don't have to deal with the repercussions of their activities since such repercussions happen somewhere else or in the distant future. Second, because of the widespread belief that there is a limitless supply, natural resources are typically priced too low. The American environmentalist Garrett Hardin coined the term "the tragedy of the commons" to describe the ensuing predicament in 1968. Natural resources are a shared pool that anybody is free to take from and put to their own use. It may be in one person's self-interest to consume up a shared resource without giving thought to its finite quantity, but this is not in anybody else's best interest. Still, people do it because individuals can gain in the near term, even if the community will bear the consequences of depletion with in long run. Individuals face little incentives to utilize the commons in a sustainable manner, thus the government must step in to ensure their preservation (Zhou & Wang, 2022). 5 Conclusion In an ideal situation, a bic pen can produce a line that is 1.92 kilometres in length and just 1 millimetre in width. The vast portion of the pen is made of plastic. Shipping containers used to carry the pens are also a major source of pollution because they are made of glass. The ballpoint pen is made from 1.35g of polypropylene, 3.45g of polystyrene, 0.2 grams of the ethanol as that of the principal ink component, and 0.05g of tungsten carbide. Zinc was left out because it would produce absurdly high impacts, one thousand times stronger than aluminium.
  14. 14. Polystyrene was the primary contributor to emissions in the baseline LCA (barrel) Its effectiveness is difficult to enhance because it is seldom regenerated. We calculated the required weight for the aluminium barrel using the densities of aluminium and polystyrene to ensure that the pen's overall profile would remain unchanged. 6 Recommendations I propose a replacement cap, body, and refills made of the following materials. Developed from modified corn starch as well as other renewable resources, Plastarch Material (PSM) is a biodegradable polymer plastic featuring stiffness, hardness, and elasticity. Features such as these, as well as being non-toxic, resistant to extreme temperatures, and so on, are standard. In addition, the production method generates zero wastewater, zero emissions, and zero trash. PSM trash may be broken down into water, energy, and biological carbon in as little as 80 days, making it a truly biodegradable material. 7 Summary The goal is to develop a Bic-style writing instrument that, during its entire useful lifespan, produces far less harmful emissions. This document details the product's enhancements, the rationale behind the objectives selected, and the resulting reduction in environmental effect. Open LCA assessed ethanol emissions using ethene and tungsten emissions using steel owing to data restrictions. Because glass containers are included in the shipping containers that hold the pens, they are not the primary focus of our investigation.
  15. 15. 8 References Adam, C. D., Sherratt, S. L., & Zholobenko, V. L. (2008). Classification and Individualisation of Black Ballpoint Pen Inks Using Principal Component Analysis of UV–vis Absorption Spectra. Forensic Science International, 174(1), 16–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.02.029 Alamilla, F., Calcerrada, M., García-Ruiz, C., & Torre, M. (2013). Forensic Discrimination of Blue Ballpoint Pens on Documents by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Multivariate Analysis. Forensic Science International, 228(1-3), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.01.034 Bgler, J. H., Buchner, H., & Dallmayer, A. (2008). Age Determination of Ballpoint Pen Ink by Thermal Desorption and Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53(4), 982–988. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2008.00745.x Feraru, D. L., Mihaly, M., & Meghea, A. (2014). Chromatic Analysis of Blue Ballpoint Pen Inks and Related Dyes. Color Research & Application, 40(2), 169–177. https://doi.org/10.1002/col.21866 Gorziza, R. P., Carvalho, C. M. B., González, M., Leal, L. B., Korndörfer, T., Ortiz, R. S., Trejos, T., & Limberger, R. P. (2019). Blue and Black Ballpoint Pen Inks: a Systematic Review for Ink Characterization and Dating Analysis. Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics, 8(3), 113–138. https://doi.org/10.17063/bjfs8(3)y2019113 Hunkeler, D. (2016). Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): a Guide to Best Practice. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21(7), 1063–1066. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-016-1083-z Jentoft, F. C. (2013). ChemInform Abstract: Electronic Spectroscopy: Ultra Violet-Visible and near IR Spectroscopies. ChemInform, 44(16), no-no. https://doi.org/10.1002/chin.201316205
  16. 16. Ji, B., Xia, B., Fu, X., Lei, S., Ye, Y., & Zhou, Y. (2018). Low-cost and Convenient Ballpoint tip- protected liquid-phase Microextraction for Sensitive Analysis of Organic Molecules in Water Samples. Analytica Chimica Acta, 1006, 42–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2017.12.037 Schneider, F., Szuppa, T., Stolle, A., Ondruschka, B., & Hopf, H. (2009). Energetic Assessment of the Suzuki–Miyaura reaction: a Curtate Life Cycle Assessment as an Easily Understandable and Applicable Tool for Reaction Optimization. Green Chemistry, 11(11), 1894. https://doi.org/10.1039/b915744c Zhou, Z., & Wang, H. (2022). Full life-cycle Cutting Force Prediction in Ball Helical Milling Based on Oblique Cutting Analysis. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 22(16). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-022-10402-0

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