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1. 1. UNIT – IV
2. 2. Masonr y  Masonry may be defined as the construction of building units bonded together with mortar.  The building units may be stones, bricks, or precast blocks of concrete. building units we have  When stones are used as the stone masonry.  Masonry isnormally used for the construction of foundations, walls columns and other similar components of the building.  It performs variety of functions such as (i) supporting loads (ii) subdividing space(iii) providing thermal and acoustic insulation. Etc.
3. 3. Definition of terms 1.Course: A course is a horizontal layer of masonry units. Thus, in stone masonry , the thickness of course will be equal to the height of the stones plus thickness of one mortar joint. 2.Header: A header is a full stone unit or brick which is laid that its length is perpendicular to the face of the wall. Thus , the longest length of a header lies at right angles to the face of the work. 3.Stretcher: A stretcher is a full stone unit or brick which is so laid that its length is along or parallel to the face of the wall. Thus, the longest length of stretcher lies parallel to the face of the work. 4.Natural Bed: Stones are obtained from rocks which have distinct planes of divisions along which the stones can easily be split. This plane is known as natural bed. 5.Through stone: A through stone is a stone header. Through stones are place at regular interval. If the thickness of the wall is small, through stone may be of length equal to the full width of the wall. 6. Sill: The bottom surface of a door or window opening is known as Sill. 7.Lintel: It is a horizontal member of stone, brick , wood, steel or reinforced concrete, used to support the masonry and the super-imposed load above an opening.
4. 4. 8.Plinth: Plinth is the horizontal projecting course ofstone or brick, provided at the base of the wall above the ground level. 9.Plinth Course:It is the uppermost course of the plinth masonry. 10.Column : It is a vertical load bearingmember of masonry, whichis constructed in an isolation from the wall andwhose width does not exceed four times its thickness. 11.Pier: Pier is an isolated vertical mass of stone or brickmasonry tosupport
6. 6. https://civilseek.com/stone- masonry/
7. 7. Classification of stone masonry Stonemasonry Rubblemasonry 1. Randam rubblemasonry - Coursed -uncoursed 2. Squarerubblemasonry - Coursed -uncoursed 3. Polygonal rubblemasonry 4. Flint rubblemasonry 5. Dry rubblemasonry Ashlarmasonry 1.Ashlar finemasonry 2.Ashlarroughtooled 3. Rock (or) quarryfaced 4. Ashlarchamfered 5. Ashlar blockincourse
8. 8. RR Uncoursed masonry
9. 9. Random Rubble Masonry: Uncoursed  This is the roughest and cheapest form of stone walling. In this type of masonry , the stones used are of widely different sizes.  Since the stones are not of uniform size and shapes, greater care and ingenuity have to be exercised in arranging them in such a way that they adequately distribute the pressure over the maximum area and at the same time long
10. 10. uncoursed
11. 11. Continue …. In this type of masonry, the stones used are of widely different sizes. This is the roughest and cheapest form of stone masonry. In uncoursed random rubble masonry, the coarses are not maintained regularly. The larger stones are laid firstand the spaces between them are then filled up by means of spalls orsneeks.
12. 12. Random Rubble: Built to courses  The methodof construction is the same as above except that the work is roughly leveled upto form coursesvarying from 32 -45 cm thick  All the courses are not of same height.  This form of masonry is better than Uncoursed Random Rubble Masonry.  For the construction of this typeof
13. 13. Coursed rubble stone masonry Coursed rubble stone masonry is made with broken stones of widely different sizes and qualities that are laid in level courses. One of the most common forms of masonry construction, coursed rubble stones are typically hammer dressed to be shaped into more controlled and equal sizes.
14. 14. Square Rubble: Uncoursed  SquareRubble Masonry uses stones having straight bed and sides. Stones are usually squared and brought to hammer dressed.  This also known as square sneckedrubble.  The stones with straight edges and sides are available in different sizes.  They are arranged onface in severalirregular pattern.  Good appearance can beachieved by using risers( a large stone, generally through stone) , leveller (thinner stones) and sneck or check (small stone) in a pattern , having their depths in the ratio 3 : 2 : 1
15. 15. Continue … In this typeof masonrystones having straightbed and sides are used. The stones are usually squared and broughtto hammerdressed orstraightcut finish. In the uncoursed squarerubble masonry, the different sizes of stones having straight edges and sides are arranged on face in several irregularpatterns.
16. 16. uncoursed
17. 17. Coursed Rubble masonry
18. 18. Square Rubble: Built to Course  This Type Of Masonry Also Uses The Same Stones As Used For Uncoursed Square Rubble. But The Work Is Levelled Up To CoursesOf Varying Depths. The Courses Are Of DifferentHeights.  EachCourse MayConsists Of Quoins, Jamb Stones, Bonders And Throughs OfSame Height ,With Smaller Stones Built In Between Them Upto The Height Of The Larger Stones To Complete The Course.  It doesn’t mean that stones are square in the section
19. 19. Square rubble masonry Coursed
20. 20. Continue … In this typeof masonrystones having straightbed and sides are used. The stones are usually squared and broughtto hammerdressed orstraightcut finish. In thecoursed square rubble masonry, thework is carried out in coursesof varying depth.
21. 21. Square Rubble: Regular coursed In this type of masonry , the wall consists of various courses of varying heights, but the height of stones in oneparticular course is same. Polygonal walling In this type the stones are hammer finished on face to an irregular polygonal shape.  Thesestones are bedded in position to show face joints running irregularly in all directions.  2 types of polygonal walling may be there. In the first type the stones areonly roughly shaped, resulting in only rough
22. 22. Polygonal rubble masonry
23. 23. Continue … In this typeof rubble masonry, the stonesare hammer dressed. The stones used for face work are dressed in an irregular polygonal shape. Thus the face joints are seen running in an irregularfashion inall directions.
24. 24. Flint Walling  Stones used in this masonry are flints or cobbles which vary in width and thickness from 7.5 -15 cm. and in length from 15 -30 cms.  The stones are extremely hard but they are brittle and therefore may break easily.  The face arrangements of the flints may be either coursed oruncoursed or built to courses.
25. 25. Flint rubble masonry
26. 26. Continue … In this type of masonry, stone used are flints or cobbles. These are irregularly shaped nodulesof silica. The stonesareextremely hard. Buttheyare brittleand therefore they breakeasily.
27. 27. Dry Rubble Masonry  Dry Rubble Masonry is that rubble masonry, made to courses in which mortar is not used in the joints.  This type construction is cheapest and requires more skill in construction.  This may be used for non load bearing walls such as
28. 28. Dry rubble masonry
29. 29. Continue … In this type of masonry, mortar is not used in the joints. This type of construction is the cheapest and requires moreskill in construction. This may be used for non-load bearing walls such as compound walls, etc…
30. 30. Ashlar Masonry  Ashlar masonry consists of blocks of accurately dressed stone with extremely fine bed and end joints.  The blocks may be either square and rectangular shape the height of stone varies from 25-30cm.  The height of blocks in each course is kept equal but it is not necessary to keep all the courses of the same height.  Ashlar masonry may be subdivided into the following categories.  1) Ashlar fine tooled  2) Ashlar rough tooled  3) Ashlar rock,rustic or quarry faced  4) Ashlar chamfered  5) Ashlar block in course
31. 31. ASHLAR FINE TOOLED  This is the finest type of stone masonry work. Each stone is cut to regular and required size and shape so as to have all sides rectangular.  The beds, joints and faces are chisel dressed such that all waviness and uneveness is completely removedand a fairlysmooth surface is obtained.  Headersand stretchers are laid alternatively in each course.  Thickness of the mortar joint shouldnot be more than 5mm.
32. 32. ASHLAR MASONRY
33. 33. Continue … In this type ashlar masonry, each stone is cut to uniform sizeand shapewith all sides rectangular, so that the stonegivesperfectly horizontal and vertical joints with adjoining stone. This type of ashlar masonry is verycostly.
34. 34. Ashlar rough tooled  In this type ofmasonrythe beds andsides of each stone blockare finely chisel dressed just in the same manner as for Ashlar fine tool.  Thickness of the mortar joint should not be more than 6 mm
35. 35. Continue … In this type of ashlar masonry, the beds and sides are finely chisel-dressed. But the face is made rough by meansof tools. A strip,about 25mmwideand made by means of chisel is provided around the perimeter of the rough dressed face of eachstone.
36. 36. Ashlar rock faced  In this type ofmasonry the exposed face of a stone is not dressed but is kept as such so as to give rock facing.  Each stone block is maintained true to it’s size, with perfectly straight side faces and beds and truly rectangular in shape.  Thickness of mortar joints may
37. 37. Continue … In this type of ashlar masonry, a strip about 25mm wide and made by means of chisel is provided around the perimeter of every stone as in case of rough-tooled ashlor masondry. But the remaining portionof the face is left in the same formasreceived fromquarry.
38. 38. Ashlar Chamfered  This is special form of rockfaced Ashlar masonry in which the strip provided around the perimeter of the exposed face is chamfered at an angle of 45 degrees by means of a chisel to a depth of 25mm due to this a groove is formed in between adjacent blocks of stones.  Around this bevelled strip another strip of 15 cm is dressed with the help of
39. 39. Ashlar chamfered masonry
40. 40. Continue … In this type of ashlar masonry, the strip is provided as below. But it is chamfered or beveled at an angle of 45 degrees by meansof chisel foradepth of about 25mm.
41. 41. Ashlar Facing  Ashlar facing masonry is provided along with brick or concrete block masonry, to give better appearance.  The sides and beds of each block are properly dressed so as to make them true to shape.  The backing of the wall may be made in brick masonry or rubble masonry.
42. 42. Ashlar Block in course  This type of masonry is intermediate between rubble masonry and ashlar masonry.  The faces ofeach stone are hammer dressed and the height of blocks is kept the same in any course. depthof courses may vary from 15-30 cm
43. 43. Ashlar back in course masonry
44. 44. Continue … This is combination of rubble masonry and ashlar masonry. In this type of masondry, the face work is provided with rough tooled or hammerdressesstones and backing of the wall may be made in rubble masonry.
45. 45. Ashlar Facing With Backing of Brickwork (COMPOSITE MASONRY).