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Teaching students how to think critically is not easy. That's no secret. Here you will find the information that will help us to do this - teach students to think critically and creatively. We can do this...

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  1. 2. IATEFL-TESOL CHILE 2010 Critical and creative thinking and their implications for language pedagogy Fitzroy Kennedy, M.A. University of Alabama
  2. 3. I taught my dog how to speak!
  3. 4. I can’t hear him speaking!
  4. 5. I said I taught him, I didn’t say he learned!
  5. 6. Duality of meaning
  6. 7. There´s a sign on the wall but she wants to be sure `cause you know sometimes words have two meanings (Led Zeppelin, 1970)
  7. 8. The chicken is too hot to eat
  8. 9. We can´t eat it because it is burning hot
  9. 10. The chicken prefers to drink water instead
  10. 11. The chicken is too hot to eat
  11. 12. Drops of Juppiter
  12. 20. Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategies A Guide to Higher Level Thinking Fitzroy Kennedy M.A. University of Alabama
  13. 21. Bloom’s Six Levels <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  14. 22. Knowledge <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>List </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize </li></ul><ul><li>Choose </li></ul><ul><li>Label </li></ul><ul><li>Relate </li></ul><ul><li>Tell </li></ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><li>Match </li></ul><ul><li>Define </li></ul>Level 1 – Recall Remembering previously learned material, recalling facts, terms, basic concepts from stated text
  15. 23. Comprehension <ul><li>Compare </li></ul><ul><li>Describe </li></ul><ul><li>Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Organize </li></ul><ul><li>Classify </li></ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul><ul><li>Rephrase </li></ul><ul><li>Show </li></ul><ul><li>Relate </li></ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul>Level 2 – Understand Demonstrating understanding of the stated meaning of facts and ideas
  16. 24. Inference <ul><li>Speculate </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret </li></ul><ul><li>Infer </li></ul><ul><li>Generalize </li></ul><ul><li>Conclude </li></ul>Level 2 1/2 – Infer Demonstrating understanding of the unstated meaning of facts and ideas
  17. 25. Application <ul><li>Apply </li></ul><ul><li>Construct </li></ul><ul><li>Model </li></ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatize </li></ul><ul><li>Restructure </li></ul><ul><li>Simulate </li></ul><ul><li>Translate </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul>Level 3 – Put to Use Solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, facts, and techniques in a different situation
  18. 26. Analysis <ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Classify </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize </li></ul><ul><li>Relate to </li></ul><ul><li>Categorize </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate </li></ul>Level 4 – Break down Examining and breaking down information into parts
  19. 27. Synthesis <ul><li>Compose </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul><ul><li>Propose </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate </li></ul><ul><li>Originate </li></ul><ul><li>Solve </li></ul><ul><li>Invent </li></ul>Level 5 – Put together Compiling information in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern
  20. 28. Evaluation <ul><li>Judge </li></ul><ul><li>Rank </li></ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend </li></ul><ul><li>Defend </li></ul><ul><li>Justify </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Prove </li></ul>Level 6 – Judge Presenting and defending opinions by making judgments about information based on criteria
  21. 29. Applying Bloom’s <ul><li>Knowledge – List the items used by Goldilocks while she was in the Bears’ house. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension – Explain why Goldilocks liked Baby Bear’s chair the best. </li></ul><ul><li>Application – Demonstrate what Goldilocks would use if she came to your house. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis – Compare this story to reality. What events could not really happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis – Propose how the story would be different if it were Goldilocks and the Three Fish. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation – Judge whether Goldilocks was good or bad. Defend your opinion. </li></ul>Using the story Goldilocks and the Three Bears
  22. 30. Your Turn to Guess . . . <ul><li>Illustrate the main idea of the story on a poster. </li></ul><ul><li>Rank the characters from best to worst and explain how you ranked them. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new story by placing Red in a modern-day city. </li></ul>Using the story, Little Red Riding Hood :
  23. 31. Did you answer . . . <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul>
  24. 32. Your Turn to Guess . . . <ul><li>Describe what Red did when she first saw the Wolf. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell what happened to the grandmother in the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Write out the main events in the story. Cut them apart and sequence them in proper order. </li></ul>Using the story, Little Red Riding Hood :
  25. 33. Did you answer . . . <ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul>
  26. 34. Your Turn to Guess . . . <ul><li>Invent a new ending for the story where the Wolf comes out ahead. </li></ul><ul><li>Using models, demonstrate which house stood up the best. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the materials used to build each home. </li></ul>Using the story, The Three Little Pigs:
  27. 35. Did you answer . . . <ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul>
  28. 36. Your Turn to Guess . . . <ul><li>Read the story and list the type of home built by each pig. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between the materials used to build each house and what happened to it when the wolf blew on it? </li></ul><ul><li>Judge the homes from worst to best, according to strength, cost, and building time. </li></ul>
  29. 37. Did you answer . . . <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  30. 38. Well done! <ul><li>The following slides give you opening phrases for the higher order thinking skills. Choose a story or book you are currently reading and try your hand at “sprouting” some high level questions…. </li></ul>
  31. 39. Application Openers Put yourself in the place of one of the characters and tell what you would have done….. ? What would result if….. ? Compare and contrast….. ? What questions would you to find out … ? How would the character solve the similar situation of….. ? Put the main character in another story setting, how would he act? If you had to plan a vacation for the main character, where would they go?
  32. 40. Analysis Openers What motive does ____ have…..? What conclusions can you draw about…..? What is the relationship between…..? How is ______ related to …..? What ideas support the fact that…..? What evidence can you find…..? What inferences can you make about…..? What generalizations can be made about …..? What assumptions do you make about …..? What is the theme of…..?
  33. 41. Synthesis Openers What would happen if…..? What advice would you give…..? What changes would you make to…..? Can you give an explanation for…..? How could you change the plot…..? Suppose you could _____, what would you do…..? How would you rewrite the section from _________’s point of view…..? How would you rewrite the ending of the story?
  34. 42. Evaluation Openers Compare two characters in the selection….which was a better person…why? Which character would you most like to spend the day with? Do you agree with the actions of…..? How could you determine…..? Why was it better that…..? What choice would you have made about…..? How would you explain…..? What data was used to make the conclusion…..? Would it be better if…..?
  35. 43. <ul><li>Now get out there and “bloom” with higher order thinking and questioning skills! </li></ul>
  36. 44. THANKS FOR COMING <ul><li>Fitzroy Kennedy </li></ul>