Modern marketing calls for more than developing a good product, pricing it
attractively, and making accessible.
Integrated marketing communication played an important role in the success of
one of Bollywood’s biggest box-office successes, 3 idiots.
Changing marketing communications environment
Technology and other factors have change the way consumers process communications,
and even whether they choose to process them at all
It is estimated that India will soon be the largest direct to home television broadcast
market in the world
Marketing communications is almost every medium and form have been on the rise, and
some consumers feel they are increasingly in massive.
Marketing Communication mix
Advertising: printing & broad cast adds, cinema, brochures & booklets, point of
sale promotion: coupons, contests, function premiums & gifts.
Events & experiences: sports, entertainment, festivals, arts, street activities, events.
Public relations & publicity: speeches, seminars, company magazine.
Direct & interactive marketing: catalogues, mailing, telemarketing, fax, company blogs.
Word of mouth marketing: person-to-person, chat rooms.
Personal selling: sale presentations, sale meetings, samples.
Marketers should understand the fundamental elements of effective
communications. The two models are :
The Communications Process Models
Macro model of the Communications Process shows nine key factors in effective
•Two represent the major parties sender and receiver
•Two represent the major tools message and media
•Four represent major communication functions encoding, decoding, response, and
•The last element in the system is noise, random and competing messages that may
interfere with the intended communication
Macro model of the Communications Process
Macro model of communications process
Micro model of the Communications Process
Micro models of marketing communications concentrate on
consumers’ specific responses to communications.All these
models assume the buyer passes through cognitive,
affective, and behavioral stages, in that order
Thetarget audienceis acritical influence on the communicator’s decisions about what to say,how,
when, where, and to whom. Thus, the process must start with a clear target audience in mind
potential buyersof the company’sproducts
individuals, groups,particular publicsor the generalpublic
Category need: Establishingaproduct or servicecategory as necessaryto removeor satisfya
perceived discrepancy between a current motivational state and a desired motivational
Brand Awareness : Fostering the consumer’s ability to recognize or recall the brand within
the category, in sufficient detail to makeapurchase.
Brand Attitude: Helping consumers evaluate the brand’s perceived ability to meet a
currently relevant need.
Brand Purchase Intention: Moving consumers to decide to purchase the brand or take
Design the communication
Formulating the communications to achieve the
desired response requires solving three
•What to say (message strategy)
•How to say it (creative strategy)
•Who should say it (message source)
CreativeStrategyCreativestrategy arehow marketers
translate their message into aspecific
Informational Appeals elaborate on product or service attributes or benefits.They assume very
rational andlogicalprocessingof the communicationonthe part of the consumer.
Transformational Appeals elaborate on a non-product-related benefit or image.They often
attempt to stir up emotions that will motivate purchase.
Design The Communications
Message Source message delivered by attractive or popular sources can achieve higher
attention and recall, which is why advertisers often use celebrities as spokes people. They are
likely to be effective when they are credible or personify a key product attribute. Celebrity
Personal Communications Channels involve two or more persons communicating directly face-to-
face, persons-to-audience, over the telephone, or through e-mail.
Thekindsof personalcommunications channels are:
– Advocatechannels:companysalepeoplecontacting buyersin the targetmarket.
– Expertchannel: experts making statementsto targetbuyers.
– Socialchannelsconsistof neighbors,friends, family members, andassociatestalking to target
Select Communication Channels
Non-personal channels are communications directed to more than a one person and
Events and experiences
Integration of communications channel
Although personal communication is often more effective than mass communication,
mass media might be the major means of stimulating personal communication
Methods for Deciding the Promotion Budget
Affordable method set the promotion budget at what they think the company can
Percentage of sales method set promotion expenditures at a specified percentage
Competitive parity method set the promotion budget to achieve share-of-voice
parity with competitors.
Objective and task method
Deciding on the marketing communication mix
Companies must allocate the marketing communications budget over the eight
major modes of communication—advertising, sale promotion, public relations
and publicity, events and experiences, direct marketing, interactive marketing,
word-of- mouth marketing andpersonalselling.
Within the sameindustry, companiescandiffer considerablyin their mediaand
Companiesarealwayssearchingfor waysto gainefficiency by substituting one
communications tool forothers.
• Typeof ProductMarket Communications mix allocations vary between consumerandbusiness
Consumermarketers tend to spendcomparativelymore on salepromotion and advertising
businessmarketers tend to spendcomparatively more on personalselling.
• BuyerReadinessStageCommunicationtools varyin cost effectivenessat different stagesof buyer
Advertising andpublicity playthe mostimportant roles in the Awareness- building stage.
Customercomprehensionisprimarily affected by advertising andpersonalselling.
Customerconviction isinfluenced mostly bypersonalselling.
Closingthe saleisinfluenced mostly by personalsellingandsalepromotion.
Reorderingisalsoaffected mostly bypersonalsellingandsalepromotion.
In order to measure the Communication Results/Impact, members of the target audience
whether they recognizeor recall themessage
how manytimes they saw it
what points theyre call the message
how they felt about what aretheir previous andcurrent attitudes toward the product
The communicator should also collect behavioral measures of audience response, such as
how manypeople bought the product,likedit andtalkedto othersabout it.
Integrated marketing communication:
Marketing communication planning that recognizes the added value of comprehensive plan &
evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication such as general advertising , direct
marketing , sales promotion , public relations.
Co-ordinating media :
media coordination can occurs across and with in media types, but marketers should combine
personal & non personal communications channels through multiple vehicle.
Implementingimc : improve the company’s ability to reach the right customers with the right
messages at right time in the right place
Managing integrated marketing communication