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Fabric Manufacturing Technology for Shoe Upper.pptx

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Fabric Manufacturing Technology for Shoe Upper.pptx

Fabric is a plain sheet of cloth, which is made from natural or man-made fibres by weaving or knitting process. Most fabrics are knitted or woven, but some are produced by non-woven processes such as braiding, felting, twisting, etc. Fabric considers a major raw material in the footwear manufacturing process.

Fabric is a plain sheet of cloth, which is made from natural or man-made fibres by weaving or knitting process. Most fabrics are knitted or woven, but some are produced by non-woven processes such as braiding, felting, twisting, etc. Fabric considers a major raw material in the footwear manufacturing process.

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Fabric Manufacturing Technology for Shoe Upper.pptx

  1. 1. FABRIC MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY TANVIR SIDDIKE MOIN
  2. 2. Types of FABRIC Fabrics are mainly two types- ◦ Woven Fabric. ◦ Knitted fabric.
  3. 3. Comparison of WOVEN FABRIC vs KNITTED FABRIC WOVEN FABRIC KNITTED FABRIC It is the made by interlacement of yarn It is the interloping of yarn Different looms are used. Different knitting m/cs are used. No need of needle Needle is needed. Lengthwise & widthwise directions are named as warp & weft respectively. Lengthwise & widthwise directions are named as Wales & course respectively.
  4. 4. WOVEN FABRIC & KNITTED FABRIC
  5. 5. Woven Fabric & Knitted Fabric
  6. 6. Difference between woven and knitted fabrics Fabric Construction  Woven fabric is at least made up of two separate groups of yarns (warp and weft) and knitted fabric can be made up of one yarn only.  Weaving is interlacing of 2 set of yarn to form a fabric.  Knitting is a process of converting yarn to fabric by forming a series of loops dependent on each other.
  7. 7. Difference between woven and knitted fabrics Elasticity ◦ Elasticity is the ability of the fabric to extend and recover to its original shape and length. ◦ Knitted fabric has higher extensibility and instant recovery ability than woven fabric.
  8. 8. Difference between woven and knitted fabrics Fabric Density and Cover ◦ In general, woven fabric can be produced in extremely tight and higher coverage when compared with knitted fabric. ◦ Range of density variation is much higher than knitted fabric. ◦ Knitted fabric in general, is looser in structure.
  9. 9. Difference between woven and knitted fabrics Thickness and Handle  Knitted fabric is much thicker and softer than woven fabric as it has a complicated 3-dimensional structure.  Knitted fabric seems to be softer because the knitted loops are more easily compress and extensible than straight yarn (warp and weft in woven fabric)
  10. 10. Difference between woven and knitted fabrics Production Cost ◦ Weaving requires expensive preparation processes like warping, sizing, draw-in; while knitting only requires yarn waxing. ◦ The production rate of circular knitting is roughly FIVE times faster than modern weaving loom.
  11. 11. Flow Chart For Woven Fabric Input Process Output Yarn → Winding → Yarn Yarn → Warping → Yarn Yarn → Sizing → Yarn Yarn → Drying → Yarn Yarn → Weaving → Fabric
  12. 12. Flow Chart For Knitted fabric Input Process Output Yarn → Winding → Yarn Yarn → Knitting → Fabric
  13. 13. WINDING The process of transferring yarn from ring bobbin to suitable packages is called winding. Objects of winding: - To transfer yarn from one package to another which is suitable for next process. - To clean yarn. - To improve the quality of yarn.
  14. 14. Types of Packages ◦ A= Flanged bobbin. ◦ B= Cone. ◦ C= Cheese. ◦ D= Pirn. ◦ E= Cop.
  15. 15. Types of Winding m/c ◦ Flanged bobbin winding m/c. ◦ Cone winding m/c. ◦ Cheese winding m/c. ◦ Pirn winding m/c. ◦ Cop winding m/c.
  16. 16. Common flow diagram ◦ A= Input Package. ◦ B= Guide. ◦ C= Tensioner. ◦ D= Cleaner. ◦ E= Output Package.
  17. 17. Types of Drive Direct Drive ◦ A= Motor ◦ B= Motor pulley. ◦ C= M/c pulley. ◦ D= Package. Indirect Drive ◦ A= Motor ◦ B= Motor pulley. ◦ C= M/c pulley. ◦ D= Cylinder. ◦ E= Package.
  18. 18. Auxiliary functions in winding 1. Creeling:  This is the placement of full packages in position ready to be unwound as part of the transfer operation. 2. Piecing:  This is the joining of two ends of yarn. It can be done by knotting or adhesion. 3. Doffing:  This is the removal of the newly wound package & replace by an empty package.
  19. 19. WARPING  The parallel winding of warp ends from many little packages to a common package (warp beam) is called Warping. Object of Warping:  To arrange a suitable number of warp yarns of required length so that they can be collected from a single warp beam as a continuous sheet of yarn which can be used in weaving.
  20. 20. Warping & Warp beam
  21. 21. SIZING ◦ Sizing is the process of applying a protective adhesive coating on the surface of yarn. Object of Sizing: ◦ To improve weavability of yarn. ◦ To maintain good fabric quality by reducing hairiness, weakness, etc.
  22. 22. Size Ingredients 1. Adhesive:  Generally starch of maize, potato, etc are used to increase strength. 2. Lubricants:  Japan wax, linseed oil, animal fats, etc are used to make the yarn slippery and smooth. 3. Antiseptics/ Anti mildews:  Fatty acid, Zinc chloride, phenol, etc are used to prevent mildew formation.
  23. 23. Size Ingredients 4. Hygroscopic agent:  Magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, etc are used to prevent excessive drying. 5. Weighting agent:  China clay, Sodium phosphate, etc are used to increase the weight of yarn. 6. Antifoaming agent:  Pyridine, Benzene, etc are used to prevent foam formation.
  24. 24. Size Box A= Size box. B= Steam pipe. C= Immersion roller. D= Squeezing roller.
  25. 25. Drying Different Drying procedure: 1. Hot Air Drying. 2. Infrared Drying. 3. Cylinder Drying. 4. Combined Drying. (Cylinder+ Infra red/ Hot air)
  26. 26. Drying ◦ A= Infra red drying. ◦ B = Hot air Drying. ◦ C = Cylinder Drying.
  27. 27. Weaving ◦ The process of making fabric from yarn by interlacement is called weaving.
  28. 28. Mechanism of Weaving (In short) Weaving is done by different types of loom. It is the interlacement of warp & weft. Warp beam supplies warp yarn. According to the design, warp yarns are uppered and lowered and the weft yarns are forced to pass between them. Then interlacement is occurred.
  29. 29. Basics of KNITTING
  30. 30. Knitting Technology
  31. 31. KNITTING Knitting is forming loops through those previously formed. This interloping and the continuous formation of more loops into each other produces the knitted fabric structure.
  32. 32. Some Important Terminology cont.. A single wale A single course Technically Face Technically Back
  33. 33. a The upper part of the loop produced by the needle drawing the yarn is called the needle loop. The lower part of the knitted loop is technically referred as sinker loop sinker loop needle loop Face Loop Back Loop Face Back
  34. 34. Some Important Terminology cont.. Wale(s) : Wale is predominantly vertical column of needle loops produced by same needle knitting at successive knitting cycle. Course: Course is a predominantly horizontal row of loops produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. Course Length : In weft knitting, the term ‘course length’ refers to the measurement of a straight length of yarn knitted by all or a fraction of the needles in the production of a particular course.
  35. 35. Some Important Terminology cont.. ◦ Gauge/ Machine Gauge : Gauge is the term used to describe the needle spacing. It can be defined as the number of needles per unit inch. ◦ The gauge is the major factor in determining the fabric density and appearance.
  36. 36. Basic Knitting Elements  Latch needle The needle consists of six main parts:  Stem – Used to hold the course of old loops  Hook – The hook is used to catch a thread and form loops.  Rivet – Holds the latch in place and allows it to pivot.  Latch – The latch combines the task performed by the presser bar and the beard of the bearded needle.  Butt – The butt enables the movement of the needle to be controlled by a cam mechanism. A track raises and lowers the needle.  Tail – Used to provide support to the needle
  37. 37. Basic Knitting Elements cont…  CAMS  The knitting cams are hardened steels, and they are the assembly of different cam plates so that a track for butt can be arranged. Each needle movement is obtained by means of cams acting on the needle butts.
  38. 38. Yarn Feeding to Needle
  39. 39. Knitting cam: ◦ Knitting is an element which acts directly on to the butts of needles or other elements to produce individual or serial movement. ◦ Knitting cams are attached, either individually or in unit form, to a cam plate and depending upon the machine design, are fixed, exchangeable or adjustable.
  40. 40. Basic Knitting Elements cont…  Knitting Cams/Stitches: Based on the arrangements knitting stitches are of three types as well as the cams also.  There are three types of cams and as according, three types of Knitted Stitches. Knit Cam (Stitch), Tuck Cam (Stitch), Miss Cam (Stitch).
  41. 41. Basic Knitting Elements cont… ◦ Knit Stitch : ◦ The knit stitch is the basic stitch. It is also called the plain stitch. Knit stitch is formed when the needle carries out a complete cycle, reaching the maximum height on the looping plane.
  42. 42. Basic Knitting Elements cont… ◦ Tuck Stitch : ◦ A tuck stitch is formed when a knitting needle holds its old loop and then receives a new yarn. Two loops then collect in the needle hook. The previously formed knitted loop is called the held loop and the loop which joins it is a tuck loop. The tuck loop will always lie at the back of the held loop.
  43. 43. Basic Knitting Elements cont… ◦ Miss Stitch : ◦ A miss stitch is created when one or more knitting needles are deactivated and do not move into position to accept the yarn. The yarn simply passes by and no stitch is formed. The float will lie freely on the reverse side of the held loop, which is the technical back, and in the case of rib and interlock structures it will be inside the fabric.
  44. 44. THANK YOU

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