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History of missions lesson 13 - korea, japan, lady missionaries

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History of missions lesson 13 - korea, japan, lady missionaries

  1. 1. Missions History of Missions Dr. Robert Patton Missionary to Suriname, South America
  2. 2. Tierra del Fuego – Allen Gardiner  Former Navy commander, had a burden for missions, first east African coast (Natal) and Paraguay  Then the Patagonian Indians of Tierra del Fuego – fierce and uncivilized  First attempt unsuccessful  Second attempt – had to move boat, lost some supplies, starved to death
  3. 3. Allen Gardiner, modern picture of Puerto Williams
  4. 4. Tierra del Fuego  Second attempt with schooner Allen Gardiner to start school in Falkland Islands for young people  Seemed successful – but 8 persons murdered, one escaped  Third attempt with new group was successful. Students came, they were received better
  5. 5. Tierra del Fuego  Now there is a vibrant church of several thousand Patagonians in the are
  6. 6. William Brett – Guiana  William Brett worked in the 19th century with different groups of Indians – Caribs, Waraoons, Arawaks – especially the latter  Eventually a witchdoctor was saved from the Arawaks, followed by 5 others and eventually about 5000 Indians accepted the Lord
  7. 7. William Brett  He learned 4 Indian languages, did studies in language and wrote information, and translated the larger part of the New Testament into the different languages!
  8. 8. Arawak Indians
  9. 9. Barbrooke Grubb – Paraguay  Anglican missionary Barbrooke Grubb had success reaching the fierce Lengua Indians in the Chaco region of Paraguay  The area is swamp, jungle and tropical sun; very difficult. He learned 4 languages, worked with 4 different Indian groups, and started villages. A number accepted Christ
  10. 10. Barbrooke Grubb  Once he was shot at short range by an Indian guiding him intent on stealing his equipment. He managed to pull out the arrow and walked 70 miles for help. The Indian claimed that he was killed by a jaguar. When the truth came out, his own village executed the Indian. A small revival occurred
  11. 11. Muslim Evangelism  Original evangelism was confrontational – Raymond Lull & Henry Martyn  Later - more positive approach with friendship – Zwemmer
  12. 12. Major obstacles to Islam  Outright rejection of trinitarianism  Association of religion and politics  Association of Christianity and western culture  Basic antagonism since the Crusades  Close-knit family ties
  13. 13. Samuel Zwemmer  13th of 15 children of a reformed pastor from Holland, Michigan. Trained at Hope College, surrendered to missions  He started a new board with James Castine, raised support for each other  1895 he courted Ann Wiles, from a different mission – and had to pay her transportation costs…
  14. 14. Samuel Zwemmer  Two young daughters died within 8 days of each other  By 1905, he had 4 stations going  Returned to USA, became traveling secretary for the Student Volunteer Movement and field secretary for the Reformed Church foreign missions
  15. 15. Samuel Zwemer
  16. 16. Samuel Zwemmer  He returned to Cairo and was influential among students and faculty in the universities there.  William Borden worked with him for four months, but died of meningitis
  17. 17. Samuel Zwemmer  Finally he taught as professor at Princeton Seminary 1929-1937, and then retired to teach missions in New York City from 1937-1950  Saw no more than 12 converts, but brought need to evangelize the Muslim world to the west.  He edited Muslim World for 40 years
  18. 18. Temple Gairdner  Brilliant student at Oxford, rejected by some for his desire to reach the Muslims. Saw some saved, but also some turned back & rejected Christ  Married, lived in Cairo. Both he and his wife were gifted musicians. He was both evangelistic and apologetic; he wrote dramas – mission board disapproved
  19. 19. Temple Gairdner  He was deluged with administrative work; tried to bring peace among the missionaries & had good relationships with Coptic Christians  Once had a rebellion among Muslim converts.  Died age 55 with lung problems
  20. 20. Constance Padwick  Initially denied as missionary because of poor health, eventually served in Muslim lands 40 years  Worked with Gairdner – a missiologist who used biography – wrote about Henry Martyn  She wrote literature for Muslims, but also for Christians re Muslims
  21. 21. Constance Padwick  She emphasized loving relationships to try reaching Muslims  She wrote of Lyman MacCallum, who had bridged the gap as a true friend of Muslims; of Lilias Trotter who left her love of art to minister and saw some saved; Lillian Trasher, who broke an engagement to serve Muslims till death
  22. 22. Maude Cary  Born in Kansas in 1878; mother talented musician & Bible Instructor  Went to Gospel Missionary Union, then as a missionary to Morocco in 1901; competitive but learned to put aside pride.  Interesting – women were strong to get on the field, but criticized about being strong willed and independent
  23. 23. Maude Cary  She was engaged 6 years to George Reed, who finally left unmarried for Sudan  She returned for first furlough age 47, cared for both parents till their deaths  She with 3 other missionary ladies kept 3 stations open during World War II
  24. 24. Maude Cary  Age 71, she was assigned to open a new area; she began a Bible Institute with a young single lady assisting  More recruits came for GMU, and for several years, the work flourished after France left till 1967, when the government stopped all foreign missionaries. She died the same year
  25. 25. Korea  Catholic work was in the 19th century, but with great opposition, and the French retaliated.  Protestants began about 1880 and had great success
  26. 26. Dr. Horace Allen  Changed from missionary MD to diplomat for Korea  He opened a hospital with success after successfully treating the king’s nephew  He helped diplomatically set commercial interests in Korea  He later worked for the US government, but clashed with President Roosevelt
  27. 27. Horace Allen  After dismissal from the US Government, he went into private practice, but was a strong supporter of Korean independence
  28. 28. Henry Appenzellar  Raised Reformed, became a Methodist, married a Baptist wife  He strongly advocated American Anglo- Saxon culture, but Korean independence  Very busy – started a school, was a pastor, much administrative and supervision work for the mission
  29. 29. Henry Appenzellar  He was instrumental in many schools and churches for the Methodists
  30. 30. Henry Appenzellar  Presbyterians and Methodists met to divide up the country for work, though they worked together on translation  In 17 years, they had 47 churches.  There was opposition from the government  He died age 44 trying to save a Korean colleague after his ship crashed into another
  31. 31. Horace Underwood  Very formal, aware of competition between Presbyterians and Methodists  Anne Ellers served as a nurse as the queen’s “doctor” She was followed by Lillias Horton, an MD who married Underwood. He did some translation work as well as opening an orphanage.  Later 4 men traveled 200 miles for him to baptize them, which he did
  32. 32. John L. Nevius  Although he was a missionary to China, and only spent 2 weeks in Korea, he revolutionized Korean evangelism  His father died when he was young, and he was brought up Dutch Reformed, became serious and attended Princeton Seminary
  33. 33. John L. Nevius  Arrived in China in 1853, stayed 40 years. He worked to train itinerate evangelists  Old method – find advanced natives & train them as Bible agents, evangelists, colporteurs, heads of stations – paying them. New – train them leaving them in their original homes & employments
  34. 34. Nevius method  1. Missionary personal evangelism through wide itineration  2. Self-propagation – every believer a teacher of someone, and a learner from someone else more fitted  Self-government- every group under their own chosen unpaid leaders; circuits with paid helpers will become pastors
  35. 35. Nevius method  Self-support – all chapels provided by believers  Systematic Bible study for every believer under his group leader and circuit leader  Strict discipline with enforced Bible penalties
  36. 36. Nevius method  Co-operation and union with other bodies  Non-interference in lawsuits  General helpfulness where possible in the economic life problems of the people  Under Samuel Moffat and others, the church grew despite (or because) of persecution
  37. 37. William Smith Clark  Set up agricultural institute in Sapporo, Japan, and saw 16 converted boys – the most prominent Kanzo Uchimura  Kanzo – father was samurai & Confucian scholar. Trained as Confucian.  Turned off by sectarianism, started a church which was independent
  38. 38. Kanzo Uchimura  Pride in Japan; saw America had other talents, but not in religion – too money and numbers conscious  Wrote 22 volume commentary
  39. 39. Charles and Lettie Cowman  They became missionaries after a affluent lifestyle in the USA. Called under A.B. Simpson, left affluence, and were in Holiness movement  Very tightly organized, used crusade method, tried to present the gospel to every home  Charles died of heart attack 1924
  40. 40. Lettie Cowman  Wrote Streams in the Desert during husband’s sickness  They founded Oriental Mission Society, and eventually Lettie was president for 7 years. She eventually wrote 9 books  She worked to present the gospel to all nations from 1936 till her death in 1949 at age 90
  41. 41. Miscellaneous groups The Anglicans had success both among the Eskimos of Canada and the Chaco and Lenguas of Paraguay. The Catholics, after severe setbacks from the French Revolution, began to regroup during the middle of the 19th century
  42. 42. Missions 20th Century  Imperialism and colonialization was coming to an end, and nationalism was rising  Marxism came to the fore  WWI & WWII showed the moral weakness of the west  Missionaries and white men were seen as both deliverer and destroyer
  43. 43. Missions 20th Century  Bible Institutes began with a desire to keep the faith pure with most denominations affected by modernism, attacking the deity of Christ and embracing the scientific method  Neo-orthodoxy became prominent in Europe and USA  Faith missions started, and evangelized Europe and Latin America  The base of missions shifted from Europe to North America, especially USA as it became prominent
  44. 44. Missions 20th Century  Churches were invaded by liberalism and the social gospel - including the mission field  Woman’s rights and women in professions radically changed  Many single women volunteered as missionaries
  45. 45. Single lady missionaries  Opportunities to serve opened up as an alternative to ministry at home, considered a man’s occupation  Rapid growth in many areas over 40 years – hospitals, schools, etc.  They sensed a call from God and the opportunity to make a difference
  46. 46. Early 20th century  Seemed like classic missions tapered off, but many specialized groups started in medicine, education, radio, translation, agriculture, etc.  World War II caused a pause, and then they pushed ahead
  47. 47. Single lady missionaries  Mabel Francis  Ann Marie Javouhey  Lottie Moon  Ann Carmichael  Gladys Aylward  Helen Roseveare
  48. 48. Single lady missionaries  Roman Catholic Ann Marie Javouhey formed a group of nuns in Africa, with about 900 before her death – Sisters of St. Joseph They were successful in Senegal  She ended up with over 1000 sisters scattered in 140 locations
  49. 49. Ann Marie Javouhey
  50. 50. Single lady missionaries  A black lady went to Hawaii as a servant of missionary couple, but taught as well in 1820s  Cynthia Farrar worked 34 years in Bombay in 1860s
  51. 51. Adele Fields 1839-1916  Engaged and almost died on shipboard; her groom died in Bangkok seven months earlier 10 days after she sailed  She eventually left after conflicts with the director in several areas, including personal separation  She was befriended by missionaries in China
  52. 52. Adele Fields 1839-1916  Engaged and almost died on shipboard; her groom died in Bangkok seven months earlier 10 days after she sailed  She eventually left after conflicts with the director in several areas, including personal separation  She was befriended by missionaries in China
  53. 53. Adele Fields 1839-1916  She taught Bible women thoroughly and then sent them out, to return after a few weeks for additional stories  She wrote the stories of many of the women, with enormous appeal.  She trained other women to take over  Her last years were spent traveling, teaching and in science
  54. 54. Mabel Francis  Fiance died; she began preaching age and age 19 felt called to missions.  Joined the Christian & Missionary Alliance age 29 in Japan  Joined by her brother, started 22 churches  Later joined by widowed sister who taught while she preached
  55. 55. Mabel Francis  During the war, she was in a concentration camp. Afterwards she did humanitarian work. She was in a key position to help the occupation troops reach the lost during the early occupation of Japan after World War II
  56. 56. Mabel Francis  She was grieved that the USA missed the chance to send 1000 missionaries to Japan  Age 83, she was given the highest award given in Japan to a foreigner
  57. 57. Book on life of Mabel Francis
  58. 58. Charlotte Lottie Diggs Moon  Lottie Moon - Well educated and cultured as her family was - mom widowed, but a brother and sister were MD’s. She ran the plantation while other family members were involved in the civil war. Brilliant student especially in languages  She followed he younger sister to China as a missionary at age 32 after teaching school.  Her first years were difficult in China, and she was frustrated, lonely and bored teaching girls.  She turned down a suitor who was theologically liberal and ended up teaching at Harvard
  59. 59. Charlotte Lottie Diggs Moon  She then moved into the interior in Pingu and work alone.  She was totally frustrated at not having equal opportunities and vote as men  She was finally able to see some men saved and a church started under a Chinese pastor, who baptized over 1000. She felt that women could reach Chinese women. She adopted Chinese dress & customs
  60. 60. Lottie Moon  1890-1912 she did evangelistic work part time, and part time trained new missionaries and counseled Chinese women  Her greatest effectiveness was in her writing, raising up funds and women for missions  She became depressed, starved to death at age 72 while sharing her meager rations with the Chinese in a famine
  61. 61. Charlotte Lottie Diggs Moon  Her work of funds from the USA and recruiting women continued after her death.  Millions of dollars are still raised each year by a special Christmas offering through the Southern Baptist Mission
  62. 62. Charlotte D. Moon
  63. 63. Amy Carmichael 1867-1951  Amy Carmichael - initially wealthy, father died leaving a big debt when she was 18, and the oldest in the family.  She worked in the city mission in Belfast, Ireland. She was heavily influenced by the Keswick Movement.  Age 24, she went to Japan as a missionary for 15 months, then to Ceylon and then home
  64. 64. Amy Carmichael 1867-1951  She finally went to India, and founded Dohnavur to rescue “temple children” sold into prostitution, widows and orphans. They worked together in ministry. She had others forsake family and marriage, forming the Sisters of the Common life.  Those working with her should not associate with other missionaries.
  65. 65. Amy Carmichael
  66. 66. Amy Carmichael 1867-1951  She believed she had a divine mission from God. She was very Victorian in life, and contempt for non-Christian practices.  She had a bad fall and was an invalid for the last 20 years of her life  She remained single and worked with other women 50 plus years until her death at age 83.
  67. 67. Joanna Veenstra  She is an example of many ordinary but sacrificial lady missionaries  Her mother was early a widow when she was two. After going to Christian school, she was a secretary at age 14.  She got training in Calvin College and as a midwife, and went to Africa
  68. 68. Joanna Veenstra  She developed a school for young men to become evangelists  She believed she must be a firm boss – maternalism  She was appreciated for her medical work and teaching, but died after routine surgery at age 39
  69. 69. Johanna Veenstra
  70. 70. Gladys Aylward  Gladys Aylward was originally refused because she had trouble learning.  Born in London, and as a poor domestic started service age 14.  She dreamed eventually of being a missionary but was turned down age 27  Saving money, she went by rail across Siberia to help Jennie Lawson in China
  71. 71. Gladys Aylward  She had a harrowing ride by train, had to walk back from the war zone, but eventually got to Japan, and then with help to China.  She worked with muleteers, learning the language and working hard.  After the missionary’s death, she was made official foot inspector.
  72. 72. Gladys Aylward  She became effective, and even quelled a prison riot  She became a Chinese citizen, and an effective spy. She fell in love with Linnen, a Chinese soldier, but never married  In 1940, she crossed the border to Siam with 100 children
  73. 73. Gladys Aylward  She finally returned to England, and became very famous, but remained humble throughout her life
  74. 74. Gladys Aylward
  75. 75. Gladys Aylward