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History of missions lesson 14 faith and specialized missions 20th century

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History of missions lesson 14 faith and specialized missions 20th century

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This is the history of faith missions as well as radio, medical, and other ministries

This is the history of faith missions as well as radio, medical, and other ministries

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History of missions lesson 14 faith and specialized missions 20th century

  1. 1. Missions History of Missions Dr. Robert Patton Missionary to Suriname, South America
  2. 2. Faith Missions  Began in 1865 (CIM) and many boards started over the next 40 years  Conservative evangelical  Mostly Bible Institute or other institutions provided most of the manpower  Initially they were Bible College graduates, later 4 year programs
  3. 3. Faith Missions  Focus on evangelism, but often using new technology  Radio, aviation, gospel recordings, etc often used
  4. 4. Faith Missions – C & MA  A.B. Simpson = Christian and Missionary Alliance.  Born in 1843, baptized in Prince Edwards Island by John Geddie.  Influenced by death of John Williams, and planned to be a missionary.  He was a great preacher, initially planned to go to missions, but took over Knox Church after attending Knox College, added 750 members quickly
  5. 5. A B Simpson
  6. 6. Faith Missions – C & MA  Then he started serious soulwinning at the Chestnut Street Church in Louisville, Ky., the largest church in Louisville  He had a vision of China, and wanted to go, but his wife did not, and they had 6 children.  He moved to NYC in 1879 to the 13th street Presbyterian Church. When he reached out to 100 Italians, the church suggested they find another church.
  7. 7. Faith Missions – C & MA  Instead, he resigned and went independent to reach the indigent lost. It was a difficult step of faith but the church grew and he built Gospel Tabernacle.  He began training and developed Nyack Missionary College  He emphasized Christ as savior, sanctifier, healer and coming King. Had great influence on Assembly of God and Four Square Gospel churches
  8. 8. Faith Missions – C & MA  Started C & MA – 150 missionaries in 15 countries.  He wrote over 100 books and composed many hymns  Initially in Africa there were more graves than living missionaries. 35 missionaries died in the Boxer Rebellion.  The C & MA has many more overseas than in the USA
  9. 9. Nyack College & Simpson
  10. 10. Fredrik Franson  Concerned about evangelizing the world and influenced by Hudson Taylor and A B. Simpson. He originally was trained by D.L. Moody, worked in Chicago area, then in Utah with Scandanavians there. He returned to Europe, and started several agencies for other countries.
  11. 11. Fredrick Franson
  12. 12. Fredrik Franson  Scandavian Alliance Mission later became TEAM. They have many missionaries in a variety of countries  He opened the door to women to work
  13. 13. Faith Missions – AIM  Peter Scott & AIM - After turning away from a career in opera, he went to A B Simpson’s school. Shortly after his arrival in Africa, he buried his own brother. He returned to the USA to recover from illness. He had a vision of starting works stretching from the east coast of Africa to Lake Chad. He returned with a group of 8 persons, later expanding to 15, and opened 4 stations beginning at Mombasa., came back, and 14 months after starting 4 works in Kenya, and was making progress on the language.
  14. 14. First group for AIM
  15. 15. Faith Missions – AIM  Peter Scott & AIM - After just 14 months in Kenya he died of blackwater fever. A few years later they were down to one missionary.  He was replaced by C. E. Hurlburt, who had headed the council sending the group, and was President of Philadelphia Bible College. He ended up moving to Africa with his 5 children, all who later joined AIM, and had the assistance of Theodore Roosevelt to get into Congo.
  16. 16. Faith Missions – AIM  He established Rift Valley Academy with 3 mo school, 1 mo home...  There was a real crisis with female circumcision, later placed in the hands of the African church  After the MauMau rebellion, the churches were turned more and more over to the Africans.
  17. 17. CI Scofield and Central American Mission  CI Scofield and Central American Mission - Served in the civil war, trained afterwards as a lawyer, was an alcoholic, but converted, and became a Congregational pastor. He was divorced from his first wife and estranged from his daughters. He had been convicted of forgery and fraud, and had spent 6 months in jail.  He was saved – actually divorced after salvation, and became a pastor – eventually two large churches in Dallas and Moody’s old church
  18. 18. C. I Scofield He was a Bible student, pastor 13 years long, and president of Philadelphia College of the Bible. A student of dispensationalism, he wrote his famous note on the Scofield Bible. Some claim that he wanted the RSV and conferred with Westcott & Hort before writing his notes
  19. 19. C. I. Scofield
  20. 20. CI Scofield and Central American Mission  He learned of the problems in Costa Rica, and formed CAM - and within 4 months had a man in the country - gradual steady growth till 25 missionaries in 5 countries;  now 300 missionaries in 6 countries.
  21. 21. Faith Missions - SIM  Roland Bingham – born & saved in England, came to Canada and joined the Salvation Army  SIM - started with Walter Gowans, Canadian Scot, recruited to go with him. Gowans & Kent (the third man) were dead, and Bingham had stayed back and was sick with malaria.
  22. 22. Faith Missions - SIM  After 7 years, he went again with his new wife. One missionary died, 2 returned, and Bingham was returned with malaria.  But finally on the third attempt, they had a few converts though only one of four missionaries remained.  Mrs. Gowan was a great prayer warrior.
  23. 23. Roland Bingham
  24. 24. Faith Missions - SIM  They saw blatant satanism. They worked with lepers,  Dr. Thomas Lambie began working in Ethiopia. Only 17 baptized believers were there and Italy was at war. The missionaries stayed on an additional two years despite danger, with 19 leaving with 7 children, and 48 believers left behind
  25. 25. Faith Missions - SIM  During persecution between 1937 and 1941, whipping pastors 100 & 400 lashes, with three dying and most unable to lie on their backs for month, the church grew from 48 believers to 10,000 with 100 churches. The love shown by believers drew others to them.  They returned in 1948, but were kicked out by the Muslim government in 1964
  26. 26. Faith Missions - SIM  Marxist governments and Islam have killed at least 500,000 Christians – but 2500 churches and many Bible schools  There were some changes in the 1970's but still problems with a Marxist government in Ethiopia. There are still Christian schools and now 2500 churches in the area.
  27. 27. Jim Elliot – Operation Auca  Members of three boards – all young; Nate Saint had been in Ecuador 7 years, as the oldest.  They were aware of the tragedy in Bolivia by NTM a decade earlier when hostile indians killed 5 missionaries  They made contact in 1955 by plane, and landed 3 months later – knew little of the language
  28. 28. Operation Auca  The missionaries from 3 mission boards used a code language and did not inform their seniors  The missionaries made no use of Frank Drown, experienced missionary with the Javiro Indians  However God allowed and overruled for good – many were recruited
  29. 29. Jim Elliot  All 5 missionaries were killed by the Auca indians, but later Elizabeth Elliot and Rachel Saint lived among them and saw many get saved  It appears that the Auca are territorial, and view all foreigners as a threat which must be eliminated…  Many missionaries were recruited after their deaths
  30. 30. Jim Elliot and others
  31. 31. Eliza Davis-George – Liberia 1878-1980  Black lady from Texas finally allowed to go by the SBC. She had immediate success with 1000 professions and 50 boys in training within 2 years.  She married and worked together 20 years till the death of her husband though it was a difficult marriage
  32. 32. Mother Eliza Davis-George
  33. 33. Eliza Davis-George  She went independent and had support clubs in the USA, eventually saw the work continue to expand, and worked until 90 years old, and then turned it over to Liberian nationals She had 4 mission stations and founded the ENI (Eliza Inland Mission)  She started 8 schools and 27 churches, living to be over100 years old
  34. 34. Her ENI schools -
  35. 35. New Tribes Mission  Started in 1942 by Paul Fleming  The stated goals are to reach the lost with the gospel, focusing on those who do not have the gospel  There is an intensive 4 year training program including 2 years of Bible, followed by 2 years of linguistics, survival training, cultural anthropology
  36. 36. NTM tragedies  The first plane operated crashed with 15 deaths. A second plane crashed with 21 deaths  Once a forest fire killed 14 who were fighting the fire
  37. 37. New Tribes philosophy  Bible translation is done word for word  First persons learn the language and culture, and put the language into writing  The training uses the chronological method advocated by Trevor McIlwain  The goal is self-sustaining national churches
  38. 38. Joe Moreno and NTM  Joe Moreno and NTM - told about the 5 missing men who were killed by the Ayore indians, but Moreno’s patient work had succeeded in making contact, and the word of the deaths came out some 6 years later.  NTM was accused (falsely, I believe) of working with the CIA and living in luxury and were thrown out of Venezuela by Hugo Chavez
  39. 39. C. T. Studd and WEC  C T Studd - rich and athletic. His father was wealthy, raced horses, but got saved and gave up racing; his children were saved as well.  After his death, and six years later, the near death of a brother, he went to DL Moody campaign, and was converted, with 6 others. He was England’s best cricket player.  He married and stayed nearly 10 years in China – gave away a sizeable inheritance to Mueller, Moody, and two other groups
  40. 40. CT Studd and the Cambridge Seven
  41. 41. C. T. Studd and WEC  C T Studd – His family with 4 daughters returned to England where he worked for 6 years very successfully recruiting student volunteers, followed by 6 years in India. But bad health forced his return again to England.  Age 50, he was sick but felt called to Africa. His wife Priscilla, also sick did not go. He went with an assistant for 6 years before coming back for his first and only furlough. His wife had recovered and worked well at the home office.
  42. 42. C. T. Studd and WEC  In Africa, he was domineering and demanding an 18 hour day for all, and did not respect the African Christians, and had problems with his own missionaries, including his family; two daughters and son-in-laws were with him.  He had multiple medical problems including asthma and gall stones  He did not believe in eternal security, and felt that even the lazy (by his standards) were lost.
  43. 43. C. T. Studd and WEC  He became a morphine addict, and actually dismissed a son-in-law and daughter from the mission. He wrote a pamphlet showing poor judgment.  After CT Studd died, his son-in-law Norman Grubb took over and restored the mission, which was by then in shambles, renaming it Worldwide Evangelistic Crusade (WEC).  The mission continued to grow over the years
  44. 44. Norman Grubb, director of WEC
  45. 45. The Student Volunteer Movement  Thousands recruited, but allowed liberalism in the movement  In 1890 - all seminaries but Harvard were evangelical  In 1920 - virtually all denominational seminaries were liberal  The same year was the peak of the SVM, which slowly died after that; they had not separated from liberal influences
  46. 46. John R Mott  John R Mott – His father was wealthy. He went to college age 16, and a few years later, he was influenced by Studd’s brother, and also DL Moody.  He was one of the initial starters of the Student Volunteer Movement begun by DL Moody after a month of training, as one of the 100 who pledged to become a foreign missionary.
  47. 47. John R. Mott
  48. 48. John R Mott  Robert Wilder asked John Mott to take over as leader.  John Mott also worked with the YMCA, and was general secretary for 16 years  He tied groups together and had a World Student Christian Fellowship  Organized the first international missions conference at Edinburgh in 1910  He received the Nobel Peace prize in 1946 and numerous international awards
  49. 49. John R Mott  He had excellent results in China on two occasions in the early 1900s.  He was caught in the movement for socialization, which he did not want, but was considered liberal by the new fundamentalists, and many stopped going to SVM. He and Robert Speer were targeted by fundamentalists. Took part in World Council of Churches  He continued to travel till his death. At age 86 he remarried, and died two years later age 89.
  50. 50. Robert E Speer 1867-1947  46 years secretary of foreign missions of the Presbyterian church when much missionary zeal  He was secy of SVM on year, then the position of the Presbyterian church. He strongly rejected the liberal movement, and emphasized salvation necessity, but stayed with Presbyterian Church USA when the conservatives left
  51. 51. Robert E Speer  He was accused of deliberately allowing unorthodox missionaries, but acquitted by the General Assembly  He supported women on the mission field
  52. 52. Robert E Speer
  53. 53. Fletcher Brockman  Well educated Methodist, sent to China by YMCA just before the Boxer Rebellion. Fellow missionary Pitkin was murdered – but 13 years later, there was a sort of revival when they preached about his death.  He studied and appreciated oriental religious beliefs
  54. 54. Fletcher Brockman  He brought in scientific intellectual C.H. Robinson to teach in China  Set up YMCA, but some later became YMBA Young Mens Buddhist Assoc.  Turned down offer of presidency of Peking University  Spent last years unhappy trying to hold up the YMCA in the USA
  55. 55. Fletcher Brockman
  56. 56. E. Stanley Jones  India should be interpreted by Indians, not Western civilization  Started in Lucknow as Methodist pastor; then worked for a short time with outcasts.  He started with intellectuals, had problems for 8 ½ years, then a spiritual experience & no more problems
  57. 57. E. Stanley Jones  He presented only Christ, but not Christianity, and avoided difficult OT passages.  He took a generous view of other world religious systems – accused of syncretism  He used Ashrams and Round Table conferences with other intellectuals
  58. 58. E. Stanley Jones 1907-1973  Very influential as evangelist also in Japan – worked with F. D. Roosevelt to try to avoid World War II with Japan  Personal friend of Ghandi, wrote a biography of his life  Very ecumenical, and had a weak view of the church. Felt his job was to introduce people to Christ, not the institutional church
  59. 59. E. Stanley Jones
  60. 60. Summary evaluation of colonialism 1858-1914  Good features  Opened some countries which would have remained unreached  Developed some countries with enlightened colonialism; law & order
  61. 61. Summary evaluation colonialism 1858-1914  Bad features  Commercial motives backed with a gun and exploitation of the native population. The worst example = Britain requiring China to participate in the opium trade  Resentment of western “Christians” in the heart of the nationals
  62. 62. Colonialism problems  Many missionaries were postmillenial, and viewed Christianization and civilization together.  But many found western civilization repugnant.  There was also the “white man’s burden” and “manifest destiny”  Missionaries were often lumped together with colonialism
  63. 63. Specialized Missions  After WW I & WWII, especially veterans pushed forward  Most were evangelical, not liberal, & used new technology  Communism also encouraged new ways to reach behind the Iron curtain- like radio + literature  Bible schools broadened their curriculum, and some became liberal arts colleges  Especially translation, medicine, aviation, radio, agriculture became glamorous
  64. 64. Missionary Medicine  Tremendous impact for good  Competition with witch doctors and medicine men  Clash with culture and prejudices  Starting with John Thomas (India with Carey), some were part-time like David Livingston & Hudson Taylor.  One famous - Albert Schweitzer ? Saved???,
  65. 65. Medical missions late 19th century  John Scudder – India  Clara Swain – India  First missionary nurse 1884 – E. M. Mckechnie to Shanghai
  66. 66. Medical missions  More recently - governments have taken over more.  Now public health, prevention and education are often open doors  MAP gives millions of $$ drugs, equipment, enz.  My personal contribution – though through USAID – was in medical education
  67. 67. Wilfred Grenfell  Wilfred Grenfell - Labrador, converted in a Moody meeting. Initially he worked as an MD on a ship in the north seas, but then saw Labrador. He had opposition from the Anglical church, which was doing nothing, but did not want to lose converts. Grenfell also helped the economy, to the opposition of the local merchants, who lost some of their profits. He risked his life.  His introduction of reindeer backfired as the reindeer died of a parasite which they also transmitted to the local caribou herds
  68. 68. Wilfred Grenfell  The difficulty was his total independence and his lack of concern for doctrinal stance of others but for their work for the Lord.  He was made a knight by King George V
  69. 69. Wilfred Grenfell
  70. 70. Ida Scudder  Ida Scudder. Her father John went to Ceylon for 36 years, and 9/13 children lived, 7 became missionaries, and there were 42 missionaries in 4 generations. Born in 1870, she knew missionary life. After being in the USA as a teenager, and at Moody’s school, She went back to India from school to care for her sick mother, stayed as a teacher, but then was called to assist in three difficult labors because she was a women. She could not by lack of training and all three women died.
  71. 71. Ida Scudder  She returned to the USA, and after graduation from medical school, returned to start a hospital. Her father died, and at first people did not trust her care. She started a nursing school for women, who ranked very high in government scores. She ran a hospital, an orphanage, and taught a Bible school. Her mother died age 86
  72. 72. Ida Scudder  When the school was forced to integrate with men, there was great controversy in her board, but they eventually agreed. The school was eventually combined with men’s schools after great controversy. The hospital was an incredible success.- Vellore remains a top school.  She retired at 75, but continued to serve there for another decade
  73. 73. Ida Scudder & Vellore Hospital
  74. 74. Viggo Olsen  Converted after he was a doctor, he turned down lucrative offers to go to Bangladesh  He opened and ran Memorial Hospital during a time of great upheaval, but was successful as an MD and witness for Christ  Was also a diplomat and translated into a dialect of Bengalese
  75. 75. Dr. Viggo Olsen
  76. 76. Dr. Carl Becker  After high school, he worked 5 years to support his mother, and then entered medical school  He made a promise to give everything to God if he finished. He went to a small town in Pennsylvania and prospered greatly as an MD
  77. 77. Dr. Carl Becker  Africa Inland Mission contacted him and he left for Africa with his wife and children. After living in several different areas, he settled in Oicha, Belgian Congo to work among the pygmies
  78. 78. Carl Becker  He was very innovative, especially with leprosy and psychiatric patients. He had 4000 patients in a 1100 acre compound and very great success – experts from over the world came. He was treating 2000 patients daily and doing 3000 operations per year  He also used electric shock therapy for psychiatric patients.
  79. 79. Carl Becker  At age 70, he left in 1964 escaped the Simbas (he had been targeted). He returned and continued 13 years after that and finally retired to the USA age 83. He worked on a hospital and training center for Africans.
  80. 80. Dr. Carl Becker
  81. 81. Translations  John Elliot translated into Algonquin  Carey was an effective translator in India  Also: Robert Morrison, Adoniram Judson, Robert Moffat, Hudson Taylor, Henry Martyn were all translators.  19th century - 500 translations.  Much progress with computers and national helpers
  82. 82. William Cameron Townsend  Born in 1896, went after college to sell Bibles in Guatemala. Spent 13 years learning an Indian language, Cakchiquel, reducing it to writing, and translation of scriptures. He had major differences with CAM, and left after his wife’s death – wanted to translate, but the mission wanted evangelism
  83. 83. Wycliffe & William Cameron Townsend  William Cameron Townsend - he was effective as a translator himself, but quite ecumenical in belief and practice.  There was a question about his honesty in presenting himself to go into countries just as a translator. - wanted to take a Roman Catholic into his organization. He allowed Pentecostal workers in as well with a slight revision of their faith
  84. 84. William Cameron Townsend
  85. 85. Wycliffe & William Cameron Townsend  He supported using all races, as well as women translators, even alone. Two went to work with the Shapras – headhunters. The chief said that he would have killed men, but not women – eventually became Christian  He ended up with 4500 workers, translated himself, worked more than 50 years as translator. He placed himself under a board which he himself had formed.  He remarried after his first wife died; his wife and 4 children lived in Peru 17 years
  86. 86. Wycliffe & Kenneth Pike  He was followed by Kenneth Pike: Kenneth Pike - transformed into a linguist of great ability although initially had great difficulty in translation.  Became very polished in academic circles as well.  He was an effective and practical teacher.  He also was Professor of Linguistics at the University of Michigan for 30 years
  87. 87. Kenneth Pike
  88. 88. Other translators  Rachel Saint - brother Nate was killed by Auca indians. She was already working on the language. After his death, she worked with Dayuma for years, took her to the USA for a tour, and returned. She and Elizabeth Elliot lived with them and eventually saw many saved.
  89. 89. Rachel Saint

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Then he started serious soulwinning at the Chestnut

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