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History of missions lesson 7 - catholic & orthodox 12-16th century

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History of missions lesson 7 - catholic & orthodox 12-16th century

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This history of missions continues our other lessons through the late middle ages into the time of the Protestant reformation. We also include some brief slide materials from the Orthodox church.

This history of missions continues our other lessons through the late middle ages into the time of the Protestant reformation. We also include some brief slide materials from the Orthodox church.

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History of missions lesson 7 - catholic & orthodox 12-16th century

  1. 1. Missions History of Missions Dr. Robert Patton Missionary to Suriname, South America
  2. 2. Calvin  John Calvin developed his religious views and left the Catholic church. He was forced to leave France and relocated in Geneva, which he set up as a sort of model community. He sent many men back to France. Calvinism ended up being strong in Holland, Northern Ireland and Scotland
  3. 3. John Calvin
  4. 4. Anglican church  There was a struggle between the Catholics and Protestants resulting in many deaths; they killed a number of Protestants as heretics. The battle became especially fierce from the children of Henry VIII – Protestant Eduard VI, Catholic Mary, and then Anglican Elizabeth
  5. 5. King Edward VI Mary, queen of Scots
  6. 6. Queen Elizabeth I
  7. 7. Anglican Church  When the Anglican church won, there was a reformed movement, the Puritans. Many went to America and Holland to avoid persecution, and later formed the Congregational church. Some became baptists.
  8. 8. Summary of the Protestant reformation  The Protestants dominated most of northern Europe, but not the south – particularly Spain, France and Italy  Protestantism was characterized by individual freedom, salvation by faith, the priesthood of the believer, and the authority of the Bible
  9. 9. Roman Catholic counter- reformation  The Catholics won some territory  Spain had strong Catholic leaders as kings  The popes regained more strength and reformed spiritually  The church stopped some of the worst abuses of the priests
  10. 10. The Portuguese and Spanish inquisition
  11. 11. Priests asking a “heretic” to repent
  12. 12. Counter-reformation  The Jesuits rose as a powerful group to help the pope  The inquisition intimidated many  The “ban” prevented the faithful Catholic from reading controversial books as well as the Bible.
  13. 13. Galileo & the inquisition
  14. 14. The life of Raymond Lull
  15. 15. Francis of Assisi  He was born wealthy, but was impressed to live a life of poverty and abandoned his former friends  He established a very simple order of the Franciscans, which was eventually recognized by Pope Innocent.
  16. 16. Francis and the Sultan challenged to trial by fire
  17. 17. Painting of Francis
  18. 18. Exploration of the 16th century  First Venice and Genoa were the great explorers  Then Portugal and Spain explored along the African coast and around the Cape of Good Hope  The pope divided the “New World” between both countries, dividing so Brazil was Portuguese
  19. 19. Settlement of Americas astonishing  The West Indies, and then Mexico and South America were explored, conquered and “Christianized” in the 16th century with astonishing speed  Natives were not really resistant. Aztecs fell to Cortez; the Incas to Pizarro
  20. 20. Cortez
  21. 21. Pizarro
  22. 22. Emperor Charles V
  23. 23. Las Casas  Joined the Dominicans while a priest in Cuba. Became aware of his responsibility, and became the voice for the Indians  Las Casas defended the Indians (Mexico & south) from exploitation when Spain aggressively took over these areas.
  24. 24. Las Casas  Opposed by colonists & some of his own priests when age 70 he was appointed Bishop of Chiapa.  He refused absolution of those who were abusing the Indians.
  25. 25. Portrait of Las Casas
  26. 26. Las Casas  After 3 years, he resigned but worked in Spain till about 90 years of age for betterment of the Indians.  Emperor Charles V changed some laws to provide basic human rights for the Indians  However, many Dominicans and Franciscans were involved in the Inquisition
  27. 27. St. Peter Claver  A Jesuit priest who was much concerned about the miserable situation of the slaves. He not only instructed and baptized them, but did his best, as did Las Casas with the Indians, to insure that they were not misused
  28. 28. St. Peter Claver
  29. 29. Catholic missions to China  There were several effective missionaries  John of Montecorvino 13th century Franciscan monk  Matthew Ricci  Francis Xavier
  30. 30. John of Montecorvino  Effective Franciscan monk sent by Pope Nicholas VI to open Asia. About the same time Marco Polo had come to China, and said that the Mongol Kublai Khan was open to Christianity  The trip took several years, stopping in India for a year. When he arrived, Kublai Khan had just died
  31. 31. John of Montecorvino  He was opposed by the Nestorians who were already there, but built an effective organization with more monks coming. He saw over 100,000 persons come into the church.  He was made archbishop – trained young men,
  32. 32. John of Montecorvino – first archbishop of Peking
  33. 33. Jesuits  Ignatius of Loyola formed the Jesuits - aggressive and well organized loyal to the pope. His best known follower was Francis Xavier.  The Jesuits have been totally committed to the pope, and very aggressive – the end justifies the means  Grew rapidly to 15,000 members
  34. 34. Ignatius of Loyola
  35. 35. Frances Xavier  One of original 6 inner circle of Jesuits  Born 1506 of noble family. Originally interested in Paris in the Protestants, he came under the influence of Loyola.  Made a vow of poverty and celibacy to promote the Catholic church  Originally assigned India when another was sick
  36. 36. Frances Xavier  He started in Goa; disturbed by worldliness  Started working with children  He went to India, taught prayers and baptized them by the thousands  He worked among poor pearl fisherman. Taught children to break idols and teach others prayers
  37. 37. Frances Xavier  Others replaced him as he went to the far east – Malacca  Eventually went to Japan, having been encouraged by Anjiro, a Japanese man. He was hindered by Anjiro’s poor translations  He left 100 converts. He arrived at a time that Japan was open, but had to leave after the Japanese minister, who had been favorable to the Catholics, was assassinated
  38. 38. Travels of Francis Xavier
  39. 39. Frances Xavier  In 10 years, he planted missions in 52 kingdoms, traveled 9000 miles, and “baptized” 1,000,000 persons.  Robert Glover states: we have an example of that strange and paradoxical combination of genuine love and devotion for Christ and holy passion for souls, along with doctrines wholly unsound and policies of work utterly unworthy….
  40. 40. St. Francis Xavier
  41. 41. Francis Xavier followed byThe Visitor of the Catholic church, Valignano  Many local leaders were converted. They started a seminary to train Japanese pastors, and eventually they were consecrated by a bishop  The Japanese Islands were consolidated under Hideyoshi in 1590. His children persecuted the foreigners – competition with the Franciscans, and also the arrival of English and Dutch
  42. 42. Catholicism eliminated  1900 Japanese Christians were tortured and killed – usually by crucifixion, and 62 foreign missionaries. Often they tried to get apostacy by torturing till near death
  43. 43. Matthew Ricci  Preceded by Friar John, who was protected by the Mongols ruling in China  Born in 1522, brilliant student  Joined the Jesuits  Initially went to Goa, then Macao, off China
  44. 44. Matteo Ricci – missionary to China
  45. 45. Matthew Ricci  His expertise in mathematics, astronomy, en various gadgets and maps allowed him to influence the intellectuals.  He and another Jesuit shaved their heads & dressed like Buddhist monks  He learned to speak, and read and write in classic Chinese – made a dictionary of Chinese and Portuguese – lost, found in 1934  After his fellow was falsely accused of immorality, he adopted the garb of a Confucian scholar
  46. 46. Matthew Ricci  He encouraged a syncretism with Confucianism, and adopted the Confucian scholar attire. He allowed ancestor worship though the Roman church opposed that practice. Some were apparently genuinely converted  He studied and respected Confucian classics, and rejected that belief must begin on a tabula rasa (clean slate)… thus syncretism. He translated some Confuician classics  Roberto de Nobile joined the Brahmins in India to do the same
  47. 47. Matthew Ricci  He was eventually brought to Peking under the protection of the emperor. He had favor for his skill in repairing clocks and making maps. He saw about 2000 saved. He tried to permit as many Chinese customs as possible  There was great conflict between the Jesuits (contextualizing) and Dominicans and Franciscans  Some were genuinely saved, and the church grew over the next 200 years – 100 fold
  48. 48. Roman Catholic missions  Vietnam - Alexander de Rhodes (1591-1660)  He was a Jesuit priest, made a Portuguese- Latin-Vietnamese dictionary. Apparently many baptized  Twice he was thrown out of the country but returned  After his third time, he went to Persia and died there. But others followed with more success
  49. 49. Alexander de Rhodes
  50. 50. S. India - Robert de Nobili -  Italian Jesuit missionary  Adopted local dress customs and diet  Fluent in Tamil and Sanscrit, and did some translation  He separated himself from the Portuguese bishop  Apparently many Catholics date from his arrival
  51. 51. S. India - Robert de Nobili -  He was able to penetrate into the upper classes and saw even Brahmins baptized. However his syncretism brought much protest which went back to Rome. In 37 years, he saw about 6- high caste converts, but many of the lower caste. Most missionaries could not take the country and climate  Apparently many Catholics date from his arrival
  52. 52. Further work  Britto went as a priest, was tortured, released, went back, but later was publically beheaded as a martyr  Father Beschi mastered Tamil and wrote in classic form  There was a big debate as to how much contextualization could occur. The church finally limited it severely
  53. 53. Roberto de Nobili
  54. 54. Roman Catholic missions  Philippines - Father Legaspi effective - 2,000,000 converts baptized in 100 years. It was difficult to find if he was really a father or an administrator  Virtually all the major Catholic groups were present in the Philippines by the next century  They built schools, hospitals, etc – and converted the animistic people to Catholicism
  55. 55. Philippines – under Spain  The Pope put the bishop under Mexico, considering the normal way to go from Mexico across the Pacific  All orders were there. No attraction of gold. No older religion. Catholic schools and university were established  The understanding of of the people was superficial -
  56. 56. “Propaganda” Catholic program  The Catholics began to see the need for nationalization. It became obvious that Portugal and Spain could not handle all the New World. France began to contribute  There was more contextualization as well as training of nationals, but with a lot of contention in the ranks
  57. 57. Summary: Roman Catholic Missions  Operating with a strong base, Roman Catholics did what Protestants had not done  The orders were significantly effective  Millions were baptized with only a dim view of Roman Catholicism, and even less of the true gospel  There was frequent compromise with animistic religion  There was lack of permanence in many places
  58. 58. Summary of Roman Catholic missions  There was little attempt to develop a national priesthood, especially in more primitive societies. In fact, there was little emphasis on learning the language and culture.  The Jesuits were closed in 1742, with the collapse of many missions
  59. 59. Orthodox church expansion  The fall of Constantinople 1453 was the end of the old Eastern Orthodox church  The patriarchs of Antioch, Jerusalem, Constantinople, and Alexandria were not aggressive  The original Tartars became Muslim, but not aggressive. The later Khans were more aggressive
  60. 60. Orthodox church  Moscow became the new center  Gradual expansion eastward till finally all of Russia and Siberia were reached  Tibet was under shamanistic Lamaism of Buddhism  Stefan Charp was a very effective missonary with modern methods (14th century)
  61. 61. Orthodox church  Ivan III was Christian, and Ivan IV, or Ivan the terrible, was aggressively Christian.  Peter asked for help setting up the Metropolitan of Tobolsk to Christianize Siberia & Russia. The initial bishop was aggressive but also forgave taxes for those baptized. Later men had problems
  62. 62. Ivan IV – the great (and the terrible)
  63. 63. Mission orthodox church  Volga region – finally in mid 17th century, nearly 500,000 persons were baptized as they were made free from service in the Russian army. The Tartars resisted, and later Russia pulled out the priest and sent him to Russia
  64. 64. Mission to China  When the emperor recognized China over Mongolia, they were allowed to bring 4 priests to China, and only a handful Chinese were in the church  Kalmucks, a nomadic people, were really not reached
  65. 65. East Siberia – Cossacks  They purchased slaves and set them free and set them free to work on their grounds – but lasted only while the missionaries were there and then ceased  Cyril Suchanov was a godly layman, later priest, who lived simply among the nomads and eventually started a church
  66. 66. Orthodox – Kamschatka  Peninsula incredibly cold with high volcanos  Martinian arrived in 1705, baptized some, but was murdured.  Ioasuf Chotkunshevsky organized the entire area with several workers and baptized over 10,000 by 1748, and the area was settled and Christianized
  67. 67. Orthodox – Aleutian islands  Islands were annexed by Russia, and then sent missionaries with considerable success – 10,000 baptized. The man who organized it was made a bishop but all hands on a ship were lost at sea, and the people destroyed by liquor and disease
  68. 68. Summary of Russian expansion  Strange combination  Statesmanship  Zeal  Coercion  Apostolic simplicity  Willingness to suffer and die  Somewhat limited long term effects

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