1. Name : Manjushree Tejas Athavale.
Guided by: Dr. Mangesh Bhalekar.
Class : M. Pharm (Sem-II)
College : AISSMS COP Pune 01.
3. The word perfume derives from the Latin "per fumum", meaning through smoke.
Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and
Egypt and was further refined by the Romans and Persians.
Knowledge of perfumery came to Europe as early as the 14th century due partially
to the spread of Islam.
The first modern perfume, made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution, was
made in 1370 at the command of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary and was known
throughout Europe as Hungary Water.
The world's first-recorded chemist is considered a woman named Tapputi, a
perfume maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in
Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers, oil, and calamus with other aromatics, then
filtered and put them back in the still several times.
In India, perfume and perfumery existed in the Indus civilization (3300 BC – 1300
BC). One of the earliest distillations of Ittar was mentioned in the Hindu Ayurvedic
text Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita
4. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma
compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food,
objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent
It is usually in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a person's
Perfumes are associated with the sense of smell which results from the chemical
stimulation of the olfactory nerve by airborne particles, which are volatile. The
nasal passages comprise several interconnected cavities, separated by bony layers
called turbinates. The upper turbinate contains branched endings of the olfactory
nerve. Stimulation of these endings by odors results in the sensation of smelling.
7. source of essential oils and aroma compounds
These aromatics are usually secondary metabolites
produced by plants as protection
against herbivores, infections, as well as to
A plant can offer more than one source of
aromatics, for instance the aerial portions and seeds
of coriander have remarkably different odors from
8. PART OF PLANT EXAMPLES
BARK Cinnamon, cascarilla
FLOWERS osmanthus, plumeria, rose, jasmine
FRUITS apples, strawberries, cherries
LEAVES lavender leaf, patchouli, sage, violets, ro
RESINS labdanum, myrrh, balsam of
ROOTS iris rhizomes, vetiver roots
SEEDS tonka bean, carrot
seed, coriander, caraway, cocoa, nutmeg,
WOODS sandalwood, rosewood, agarwood, birc
h, cedar, and pine
9. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
AMBERGIS Lumps of oxidized fatty compounds, whose precursors were secreted
and expelled by the sperm whale
CASTOREUM Obtained from the odorous sacs of the North American beaver
CIVET odorous sacs of the civets, animals in the family Viverridae, related to
HYRACEUM Commonly known as "Africa stone", is the petrified excrement of
the rock hyrax
HONEYCOMB Both beeswax and honey can be solvent extracted to produce an
MUSK Originally derived from a gland (sac or pod) located between the
genitals and the umbilicus of the Himalayan male musk deer
,Moschus moschiferus, it has now mainly been replaced by the use
of synthetic musks sometimes known as "white musk"
16. BASED ON VOLATILITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS
Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of notes, making the
harmonious scent accord.
17. NOTES COEFFICIENT DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES
Top notes (la note de
1-14 • smells that can be sensed
immediately after perfume is
• consist of small molecules that
• is the first smell that costumer
senses when buying the
of basil, eucalyptus,
15-60 • appear when top notes start
• cover the base smell that can
sometimes be unpleasant at the
• the smell somewhere between
two minutes and one hour after
the perfume is applied.
and even black
Base notes(dry out
61-100 • bring depth and solidity to a
perfume and their odor lasts the
• . Molecules of ingredients that
are used for base notes
evaporate very slowly and their
scent are usually rich and strong.
18. A fragrance wheel, variously called an aroma wheel, a fragrance
circle, a perfume wheel or a smell wheel, is a round diagram
showing the inferred relationships among olfactory groups based
upon similarities and differences in their odor.
The groups bordering one another are implied to share common
Fragrance wheels are frequently used as a classification tool
in oenology and perfumery.
Fragrance Wheel, created in 1992 by perfumery taxonomist Michael
Over 9,000 perfumes are classified into 14 Families and over 500
BASED ON FRAGRANCE
25. Traditional perfumes appeared at the beginning of the 20th century and it has following
Single Floral (or soliflore): perfumes that have a dominant scent of just one flower.
Floral Bouquet : perfumes whose scent is a combination of several flowers.
Oriental or Amber : these have sweet and slightly animalic scents.
Woody : made of agarwood, sandalwood, cedarwood, and vetiver which give of woody
Leather : scents that are reminiscent of leather but made of scents of honey, tobacco, wood
and wood tars.
Chypre : called after the perfume of the same name that they resemble in scent and which
was made in 1917 by François Coty, French perfumer and businessman They use scents of
bergamot, oakmoss, and labdanum.
Fougère (French for “fern”): has sharp herbaceous and woody scent resembling of fern. Has
base of lavender, coumarin and oakmoss and is predominantly men's perfume.
26. Modern perfumes started appearing after 1945 with inventions in synthesis and
Bright Floral : combination of the traditional Single Floral and Floral Bouquet groups.
Green : a subgroup of a Chypre group which has an emphasis on scents of cut grass,
crushed green leaf and cucumber.
Aquatic, Oceanic, or Ozonic : appeared in 1980s. It uses calone for its base which is a
synthetic scent which has marine and ozone nuances discovered in 1960s.
Citrus : large fragrance family with a citrus base. Consists mainly of “freshening” eau de
Fruity: perfumes that have scents of fruits that are not citruses for instance peach, cassis
(black currant), mango, passion fruit, and others.
Gourmand : perfumes with scents resembling "edible" or "dessert" flavors - vanilla, tonka
bean and coumarin for instance.
27. TYPE % CONCENTRATION Long lasting DESCRIPTION
15-40 6-8 Highest alcohol
EAU DE PARFUM 15-20 4-5
Suitable for everyday
EAU DE TOILETTE 5-15 2-3 Suitable for everyday
EAU DE COLOGNE 2-4 Upto 2hrs High concentration
Come in bigger
EAU DE FRAICHE 1-3 Upto 2hrs Remainder is water
BASED ON %CONCENTRATION OF FRAGRANCE
28. 3 SCIENTIFIC
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA),
European Medicines Agency (EMA), the European Centre for Disease prevention
Control (ECDC) and the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA)
ALLERGENS LISTED IN EU REGULATION
The Committee shall provide opinions on questions
concerning all types of health and safety risks (notably
chemical, biological, mechanical and other physical risks)
of non-food consumer products (for example: cosmetic
products and their ingredients, toys, textiles,clothing,
personal care and household products such as detergents,
etc.) and services (for example: tattooing, artificial sun
The 26 fragrance substances were introduced into annex III of the Cosmetics
the 7th amendment (2003/15/EC) on the basis of the SCCNFP draft opinion
(SCCNFP/0017/98) published on 30 September 1999
30. Fragrance ingredients
Fragrance and flavour substances are organic compounds with
characteristic, usually pleasant, odours.
They are ubiquitously used in perfumes and other perfumed
cosmetic products, but also in detergents, fabric softeners, and
other household products where fragrance may be used to mask
unpleasant odours from raw materials.
Flavourings are used in foods, beverages, and dental products.
Fragrance substances are also used in aromatherapy and may be
present in herbal products, and used as topical medicaments for
their antiseptic properties.
32. Contact allergy to fragrance ingredients occurs when an individual has been
exposed, on the skin, to a suffcient degree of fragrance contact allergens.
Contact allergy is a life-long, specifically altered reactivity in the immune
This means that once contact allergy is developed, cells in the immune
system will be present which can recognise and react towards the allergen.
As a consequence, symptoms, i.e. allergic contact dermatitis, may occur
upon re-exposure to the fragrance allergen(s) in question.
34. Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease characterised by erythema
(‘redness’), swelling and vesicles in the acute phase.
If exposure continues, it may develop into a chronic condition with scaling and painful
fissures of the skin.
Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance ingredients is most often caused by fragranced
cosmetic products and usually involves the face and/or hands.
It may affect fitness for work and the quality of life of the individual. In the process of
developing allergic contact dermatitis, a distinction between the induction
(‘sensitisation’) and the elicitation ‘reaction upon re-exposure to the allergen’
phase is made.
35. Irritant effects of some individual fragrance ingredients are known if humans are exposed
to higher concentrations.
Irritant contact dermatitis from perfumes is believed to be common, but there are no
existing investigations to substantiate this.
Some people complain about intolerance or rashes to perfumes/perfumed products but
are shown to not be allergic by testing. This may be due to irritant effects or inadequate
Contact urticaria is an immediate but transient localised swelling and redness that occurs
on the skin after direct contact with an offending substance.
Contact urticaria should be distinguished from contact dermatitis where a dermatitis
reaction develops hours to days after contact with the offending agent.
36. The term “pigmented contact dermatitis” was introduced in 1973 for what
had previously been known as melanosis faciei feminae .
It refers to increased pigmentation, usually on the face/neck, often following
sub-clinical contact dermatitis.
Many cosmetic ingredients were patch tested at non-irritant concentrations
and statistical evaluation showed that a number of fragrance ingredients
were associated: jasmine absolute, ylang-ylang oil, cananga oil, benzyl
salicylate, hydroxycitronellal, sandalwood oil, geraniol, geranium oil .
37. Musk ambrette produced a considerable number of allergic photocontact
reactions (in which UV-light is required) in the 1970s and was later banned from
use in the EU.
Nowadays, photoallergic contact dermatitis is uncommon .
Furocoumarins (psoralens) in some plant-derived fragrance ingredients caused
phototoxic reactions with erythema followed by hyperpigmentation resulting in
Berloque dermatitis .
There are now limits for the amount of furoumarins in fragrance products.
Phototoxic reactions still occur but are rare .
38. Fragrances are volatile and therefore, in addition to skin
exposure, a perfume also exposes the eyes and naso-respiratory
It is estimated that 2–4% of the adult population is affected by
respiratory or eye symptoms by such an exposure .
It is known thatexposure to fragrances may exacerbate pre-
existing asthma . Asthma-like symptoms can be provoked by
sensory mechanisms .
In an epidemiological investigation, a significant association was
found between respiratory complaints related to fragrances and
contact allergy to fragrance ingredients, in addition to hand
eczema, which were independent risk factors in a multivariate
39. Patch testing
The diagnosis of contact sensitisation (or contactcallergy – regarded
here as synonymous) as the immunological alteration underlying
allergic contact dermatitis is made by patch testing.
This diagnostic tool involves the standardised application of small
doses of a set of potential or individually suspected allergens for a
period of 1 day or, mostly, 2 days.
In the following days, exposed skin sites are checked for the
occurrence of allergic reactions, which morphologically mimick
allergic contact dermatitis occurring elsewhere, after exposure to
42. How common is perfume allergy and can it be avoided?
Contact allergy to fragrance ingredients is relatively common disease. In Europe, it affects
about 1 to 3% of the general population- and about 16% of eczema patients.
Allergic contact dermatitis can be severe and widespread, with a significant impairment of
quality of life and potential consequences for fitness for work.
Thus, prevention of contact sensitisation to fragrances, both in terms of primary prevention
(’limiting or eliminating exposure to
allergens in the population’) and secondary prevention (‘avoiding re-exposure to specific
sensitiser in clinically diagnosed individuals’), is an important objective of public health risk
43. Means of limiting or eliminating exposure to limiting or eliminating
exposure to fragrance allergens (‘primary prevention’) include
• Prohibition by regulatory measures or other means;
• Restriction of the maximum permissible concentration of an allergen, or critical
component of natural mixtures according to different uses and product types;
• Substitution of the allergen with a suitable less or non-allergenic compounds;
• (Re-)formulating the fragrance or fragranced product with the aim of limiting
or eliminating those substances for which a sensitising potential has been shown;
• Deliberate avoidance of the use of fragrances where they are not essential to
the function or purpose of the finished product;
• Information, e.g. labelling so that the consumer may make an informed choice
to avoid exposure to a particular ingredient.
44. Perfumes used in cosmetic and personal
shampoos Dry hair-chamomile, rosewood and palmarosa
Oily hair-lemongrass, patchouli, sage, cypress and cedar-wood,
while geranium, spearmint, tea tree and juniper
soap essential oils-almond,olive oil and lard
Creams and lotions Floral family
deodorants aloe, cucumber, green tea or lemongrass
lipstick neroli, orange flower, narcissus, musk and vanilla.
45. Generally speaking, fragrances are powerful bridges to the wealth of memories that we all
have tucked away in our minds. The list of wonderful scents utilized in the cosmetics and
personal care products is formidable. Below are some all-time favorites and the emotions
Lavender: The hidden force behind herbal, mild, sweet, floral lavender lies in its calming
properties. This scent has a soothing effect on nerves and is known to help release nervous
tension, decrease heart rate and treat headaches.
Cypress: This smoky, pine-like, pungent and spicy scent is invigorating to the spirit. It eases
anxiety and relieves sorrow.
Jasmine: This is a strong, yet sweet pleasing and romantic fragrance. It is known to relieve
anger, ease depression, energize and increases confidence.
Sage: Strong, earthy, warm, woody, aromatic and pungent, sage is known for its ability to
invigorate and help overcome fatigue and to ease sorrow and depression.
Lemongrass: This fragrance with its strong, lemony, sharp, pungent and fresh notes is used in
soaps and cosmetics and blends well with attar of rose, geranium, rose and citrus,
particularly lime and orange. It is said to invoke alertness and improve circulation and muscle
Chamomile: Known to relieve anger, lessen stress, reduce nervous tension, insomnia and
irritability, there are three kinds of chamomile. The German variety has a sweet lingering
scent, reminiscent of apples. Roman chamomile is often used in perfumes and is warming,
heady and sweet, while wild chamomile is warm, woody and musky.