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Gobu DevarajanSuivre

Assoc Director, QA/RA, APAC Quality Assurance Medical Global Business Unit à Ansell MelakaPublicité

- OPEX DMAIC Routemap Slides These slides contain copyright material from the publication ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, published by OPEX Resources Ltd. The use of these slides is subject to the conditions on slide 2.
- OPEX DMAIC Routemap Slide Permissions The material in these slides (the “Slides”) is reproduced from the book ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, published by OPEX Resources Ltd. The Slides are copyright to OPEX Resources Ltd. The Slides are only for use by persons and organisations that have purchased our ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’ publication. It is intended that they be embedded within existing training slides in order to provide a common structure with the ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’ publication. Permission is given to use the materials contained in these Slides for training purposes only, subject to the following: • That the user has purchased the ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’ publication for use alongside these Slides. • That the Slides retain the Copyright text in all applications. • That the content of the Slides not be modified in any way, other than graphically for formatting purposes. • That the user should not hold themselves out as the owner of the copyright in the materials, or charge a fee for the use of the materials.
- DMAIC – a logical flow to problem solving An iterative approach © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906 Define the Problem Measure the Process Analyse the Process Improve the Process Control the Process Gain project approval Close the project
- The flow of the Define Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Define the business case Understand the customer Define the process Manage the project Gain project approval “To develop a clear project charter based on a real problem that is relevant to the customer, and that will provide significant benefits to the organisation.” © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Define Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Define the business case Understand the customer Define the process Manage the project Gain project approval How does the problem link to the customer? Are you clear which process the problem relates to? Who? Where? When? How? What’s wrong? What do you want to achieve? Does the project have the buy-in to proceed and succeed? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Define Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Define the business case Understand the customer Define the process Manage the project Gain project approval How does the problem link to the customer? Are you clear which process the problem relates to? Who? Where? When? How? What’s wrong? What do you want to achieve? Does the project have the buy-in to proceed and succeed? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Define Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Define the business case Understand the customer Define the process Manage the project Gain project approval How does the problem link to the customer? Are you clear which process the problem relates to? Who? Where? When? How? What’s wrong? What do you want to achieve? Does the project have the buy-in to proceed and succeed? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Measure Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Develop process measures Collect process data Check the data quality Understand process behaviour Baseline Process capability & potential “To understand and baseline the current performance of the process, through a set of relevant and robust measures (KPIs).” © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- When and where does the data come from? Does the data represent what you think it does? How does the process currently behave? How do you measure the problem? What is the current performance of the process with respect to the customer? Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Develop process measures Collect process data Check the data quality Understand process behaviour Baseline Process capability & potential The flow of the Measure Phase © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Measure Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Develop process measures Collect process data Check the data quality Understand process behaviour Baseline Process capability & potential When and where does the data come from? Does the data represent what you think it does? How does the process currently behave? How do you measure the problem? What is the current performance of the process with respect to the customer? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Measure Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Develop process measures Collect process data Check the data quality Understand process behaviour Baseline Process capability & potential When and where does the data come from? Does the data represent what you think it does? How does the process currently behave? How do you measure the problem? What is the current performance of the process with respect to the customer? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Measure Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Develop process measures Collect process data Check the data quality Understand process behaviour Baseline Process capability & potential When and where does the data come from? Does the data represent what you think it does? How does the process currently behave? How do you measure the problem? What is the current performance of the process with respect to the customer? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Analyse Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Analyse the process Develop theories and ideas (possible root causes) Analyse the data Verify root causes and understand cause and effect “To find the root causes of the problem, and understand/quantify their effect on process performance.” © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Analyse Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control What does the existing process knowledge say? What does the data say? How does the root cause affect the process output? How does the process actually work? Analyse the process Develop theories and ideas (possible root causes) Analyse the data Verify root causes and understand cause and effect © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Analyse Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Analyse the process Develop theories and ideas (possible root causes) Analyse the data Verify root causes and understand cause and effect What does the existing process knowledge say? What does the data say? How does the root cause affect the process output? How does the process actually work? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Analyse Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Analyse the process Develop theories and ideas (possible root causes) Analyse the data Verify root causes and understand cause and effect What does the existing process knowledge say? What does the data say? How does the root cause affect the process output? How does the process actually work? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Analyse Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Analyse the process Develop theories and ideas (possible root causes) Analyse the data Verify root causes and understand cause and effect What does the existing process knowledge say? What does the data say? How does the root cause affect the process output? How does the process actually work? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Improve Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Generate potential solutions Select the best solutions Assess the risks Pilot and implement “To develop, select and implement the best solutions, with controlled risks.” © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Improve Phase Which solutions are most likely to work? What are the risks of implementing the solutions? When, where and how will the solutions be implemented? What are all the different possible solutions? Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Generate potential solutions Select the best solutions Assess the risks Pilot and implement © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Improve Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Generate potential solutions Select the best solutions Assess the risks Pilot and implement Which solutions are most likely to work? What are the risks of implementing the solutions? When, where and how will the solutions be implemented? What are all the different possible solutions? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Improve Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Generate potential solutions Select the best solutions Assess the risks Pilot and implement Which solutions are most likely to work? What are the risks of implementing the solutions? When, where and how will the solutions be implemented? What are all the different possible solutions? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Improve Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Generate potential solutions Select the best solutions Assess the risks Pilot and implement Which solutions are most likely to work? What are the risks of implementing the solutions? When, where and how will the solutions be implemented? What are all the different possible solutions? © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Control Phase Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Implement ongoing measurement Standardise the solutions Quantify the improvement Close the project “To ensure the solutions are embedded, the process has robust controls, and the project has clear closure.” © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Control Phase Have the changes become ‘business as usual‘? Has the project goal been achieved? Does the project have a clear closure process? How will the process be measured after the project? Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Implement ongoing measurement Standardise the solutions Quantify the improvement Close the project © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Control Phase Have the changes become ‘business as usual‘? Has the project goal been achieved? Does the project have a clear closure process? How will the process be measured after the project? Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Implement ongoing measurement Standardise the solutions Quantify the improvement Close the project © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The flow of the Control Phase Have the changes become ‘business as usual‘? Has the project goal been achieved? Does the project have a clear closure process? How will the process be measured after the project? Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Implement ongoing measurement Standardise the solutions Quantify the improvement Close the project © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- Measurement System Analysis Routemap Start here No Is the level of precision acceptable? Is the level of bias (accuracy) acceptable? Is the resolution acceptable? Yes Yes Yes No No Gage R&R Study Attribute GR&R Study MSA Drilldown Attribute GR&R – with a known standard MSA Drilldown Rule of tens Minitab’s ‘number of distinct categories’ The tools for assessing the measurement system… Same as above, plus: Develop operating procedures for use of measurement system, and train users. Ensure measurement system is fit for purpose. Calibrate the measurement system. Improve/communicate the operational definition. Redesign measurement system to reflect the operational definition. Check for rounding during data collection. Use full resolution of measurement system. Improve resolution of measurement system (upgrade or replace equipment or system). Possible actions for improving the measurement system… Move on with the project! © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- Process Capability Routemap Calculate the % Defective Clarify if your % defective is short or long term Convert into a Sigma Level Calculate Sigma Shift Continuous Data Attribute Data Short Term Metrics Long Term Metrics %ST %LT PPM DPMO ZST ZLT Sigma Shift Count Data ZSHIFT You can use the PPM or DPMO metrics to present the % defective in the long term. Short Term Long Term LSL USL Defects Good Bad 0 1 2 3 Good Bad © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The Process Door Routemap Getting to know the process as it actually happens… - Process Mapping & Value Stream Mapping - Time Value Maps and Value Add Charts - Seven Wastes and Spaghetti Diagrams Assessing what could go wrong and where… - Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Understanding what does go wrong in the process and where… - Affinity Diagrams - Measles Charts Identifying possible root causes… - Brainstorming Structure possible root causes in a logical manner… - Fishbone (Cause and Effect) Diagrams Investigate a defect to understand its root cause… - 5 Whys Understand which process inputs are critical to customer requirements… - Cause and Effect Matrix © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- The Data Door Routemap Looking at distributions… - Histogram, Dot Plot - Minitab’s Graphical Summary - Probability Plot Comparing distributions or groups of data… - Box Plots and Individual Value Plots - Multi-Vari Chart Comparing proportions and percentages… - 100% Stacked Bar Chart Looking at different categories of data… - Pareto Chart Looking for relationships between data sets… - Scatter Plot, Matrix Plot - Bubble Plot Deciding if data fits a particular model… - Normality Test (Anderson Darling) - Individual Distribution Identification Deciding if groups of data are different, and quantifying the difference… - Confidence Intervals - Hypothesis testing Quantifying the relationships between process inputs and outputs… - Correlation & Regression - Simple Regression, Fitted Line Plot, - Multiple Regression, Binary Logistic Regression Adjusting the process to look for relationships between its inputs and outputs… - Design of Experiments (DOE) Looking for changes over time… - Time Series Plot, Trend Analysis Deciding if changes over time are significant… - Statistical Process Control (SPC) - Run Charts For graphical analysis… For statistical analysis… © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- Hypothesis Tests for Averages or No Are the samples Normally distributed ? You want to compare the averages of some samples of data to decide if they are statistically different. You could try transforming the data using Data Transformation. You could compare the median values of the samples instead. How many samples do you want to compare ? 1 Sample t-Test For comparing the average of one sample against a specific target or historical average. Yes OR One Two Three or more Start here: Tukey’s Quick Test For comparing the averages of two samples. 2 Sample t-Test For comparing the averages of two samples against each other. One Way ANOVA For comparing the averages of three or more samples against each other. Paired t-Test For comparing the averages of two samples that are linked in pairs. Not sure © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- Hypothesis Tests for Medians Yes Yes Are the samples Normally distributed? You want to compare the medians of some samples of data to decide if they are ‘statistically’ different. How many samples do you want to compare? No One Two or more Don’t forget that you can also test for differences in average. Are there any obvious outliers in your samples? No Kruskal-Wallis Test For comparing the medians of two or more samples (with no outliers) against each other. Mood’s Median Test For comparing the medians of two or more samples (that have outliers) against each other. 1 Sample Sign Test For comparing the median of one sample against a specific target or historical average. Start here: © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- Hypothesis Tests for Standard Deviation You want to compare the standard deviation of some samples of data to decide if their variation is statistically different. How many samples do you want to compare? Levene’s Test For comparing the standard deviations of two or more samples that are not Normally distributed. Are the samples Normally distributed? F-Test For comparing the standard deviations of two samples that are Normally distributed. Bartlett’s Test For comparing the standard deviations of three or more samples that are Normally distributed. Two No Yes Three or more Start here: © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- Types of Data Numerical Defined Categories Age groups Eye Colour Data Discrete Counted Items Defects per hour Num. of Machines Continuous Measured Characteristics Length, Weight, Tensile Strength Start here: Categorical Categorical data, as the name implies, are usually grouped into a category or multiple categories
- Hypothesis Tests for Proportions You want to compare the proportions or percentages of different samples of data to decide if they are statistically different. How many proportions do you want to compare ? 1 Proportion Test For comparing a proportion against a specific target or historical proportion. 2 Proportions Test For comparing two proportions against each other. Chi-Square Test For comparing three or more proportions against each other. One Two Three or more Start here: © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906
- Statistical Process Control - Routemap Is the data in individuals or in rational subgroups? P Chart For analysing proportions or percentages. I-MR Chart For analysing individual data points X Bar–R Chart For analysing the averages of small subgroups (2-9). X Bar-S Chart For analysing the average of large subgroups (more than 10). U Chart For analysing the Count or Defects per Unit (DPU) Subgroups OR Individuals Continuous Count Attribute Start here: Laney U’ Chart For analysing Counts or Defects per Unit with larger samples Laney P’ Chart For analysing proportions or percentages with larger samples. Or Or © OPEX Resources Ltd. 2004-2019 From ‘Lean Six Sigma and Minitab’, ISBN 9780995789906 What type of data do you have?

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