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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

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ELEMENTS AND IMPORTANCE

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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

  1. 1. A REPORT ON LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE IMPORTANCE AND ELEMENTS SUBMITTED TO DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE HIMALAYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SUBMITTED BY Ashish Parajuli | 069/B.ARCH/05
  2. 2. 069/B.ARCH/05 | Aashish Parajuli Landscape Architecture| Page: 1 Contents Importance of Landscape Design...........................................................................................................2 Landscape Elements................................................................................................................................3 Vegetation...........................................................................................................................................3 Landforms ...........................................................................................................................................4 Sculptures and Water Bodies..............................................................................................................5 Use of “Sculptures” in the Landscape Design.................................................................................5 Use of “Water Bodies” in Landscape Design ..................................................................................5 Pavement Materials............................................................................................................................5 Use of Stone as a Paving material...................................................................................................6 Use of Bricks as a Paving material...................................................................................................6 Use of concrete as a Paving material..............................................................................................7 Use of Asphalt as a Paving material................................................................................................7 Site Amenities and street furnitures...................................................................................................7 The significance of street furniture.................................................................................................8 Lighting................................................................................................................................................8
  3. 3. 069/B.ARCH/05 | Aashish Parajuli Landscape Architecture| Page: 2 Landscape Architecture Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor public areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes .Landscape is not just about rearranging new Stuff in our yard, it is all about beautifying our Surroundings’ and giving an amazing look of the nature. Involves systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and geological conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. • The activities of a landscape architect can range from – the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks, – from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infrastructure and – the management of large wilderness areas or reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills. • Landscape architects work on all types of structures and external space - large or small, urban, suburban and rural, and with "hard" (built) and "soft" (planted) materials, while integrating ecological sustainability. Importance of Landscape Design • Landscape architecture is the art and science of designing exterior areas to improve visual appeal and functionality. • One of the most effective means of improving the appearance and unity of a base. • Quality landscape architectural design and implementation also improve the quality of life for our people and visitors.
  4. 4. 069/B.ARCH/05 | Aashish Parajuli Landscape Architecture| Page: 3 Landscape Elements • The coordination and effective use of landscape elements contribute to the overall success of the design. • Landscape elements consist of the following:  Vegetation  Land Forms  Sculptures and Water Bodies  Pavement Materials  Site Amenities and street furnitures  Lighting  Signs Vegetation Vegetation consists of trees, shrubs, ground covers, annuals, perennials, vines, and turf. They serve many of the following functions: ◆ Visual Enhancement - Vegetation strengthens the appearance of the installation and improves the users’ quality of life. ◆ Wind Control - Strategic placement of trees and shrubs helps to break, guide, and deflect wind currents. ◆ Erosion Control - Ground cover and turf reduce the amount of soil surface exposed to natural forces. The root structure binds the soil, thereby reducing erosion potential. ◆ Noise Reduction - Dense foliage and earth berms effectively reduce noise levels by absorbing sound waves. ◆ Climate Modifications - Vegetation helps reduce temperatures by shading the ground and by the cooling effect of water emitted from its foliage. ◆ Energy Conservation - Deciduous trees (trees which loose their foliage) shade building surfaces in the summer and, as a result, reduce the demand on air conditioning systems. During winter months, sunlight passes through the trees to
  5. 5. 069/B.ARCH/05 | Aashish Parajuli Landscape Architecture| Page: 4 provide natural solar heat for the building’s interior. ◆ Glare and Reflection Reduction - Plants can effectively soften glare and reflection from man-made materials. ◆ Air Purification - Vegetation is a natural filter that removes dust and pollutants from the air. ◆ Wildlife Conservation - Diverse vegetation types provide wildlife habitat for nesting, shelter, and food. Landforms Study of the landform helps facilitates site planning and landscape design. Topography and slopes determine framing, screening of views, plant growth with which the former is achieved; siting of built surfaces and artifacts in landscape. However, the topography and the associated slopes when based on geology and soil characteristics assist in economic and sustainable landscape design. All of landscape design ultimately depends on soil and water retention. At large or small scale, the shape of the earth indicates geological forces at work or of modern landuse, hints at the work of our ancestors or of ancient people. Three important factors to consider in landscape design: 1. Shape of the ground 2. Provision of Circulation 3. Vertical elements of Planting and Enclosure The shape of the earth has primary consideration since reshaping has to consider existing levels within and adjacent to the site. This avoids flooding and accommodates surface drainage enabling quick reuse of the site after rain. In small sites ground modeling can give depth and mystery to the site in directing the view and the focus of the user. At its most elemental earth shaping is a sculptural concept, a rearrangement of mass and void, a subdivision of space. Technical conditions for stable earth shaping are contouring and slope stability. Existing drainage systems, swales, streams, gullies seasonal floods need to be recorded through survey. Settlement and consolidation of new slopes has to consider existing trees that may become unstable or die due to absence of water retention in new slopes.
  6. 6. 069/B.ARCH/05 | Aashish Parajuli Landscape Architecture| Page: 5 Sculptures and Water Bodies The combination of Sculptures and Water Bodies has always been considered unique since the Roman Times. Use of “Sculptures” in the Landscape Design  Sculptures sometimes act as focal points in courtyards or plaza areas. They maybe created from natural or artificial materials at a great variety of forms, colours and textures are possible.  Stone and wood are some natural elements which may be employed to make sculptures.  Placement of a sculpture within a space depends upon sunlight and shadow patterns, which project the object in various ways during different times of the day.  Night lights can also be adjusted to highlight the interesting aspects of the sculptures from various angles.  The sculpture should be so located to take advantage of varying sight lines. Use of “Water Bodies” in Landscape Design  This is the most interesting object in landscape design.  Water, which is a natural element, can be a prominent feature in the landscape.  It may be used in the form of fountains or pools for its reflective qualities, differences in sound or cooling effect.  Programming the flow of water in fountains is done by an electronic timing system which may also control the night light sequence.  The water flow and lighting must be coordinated to achieve maximum effect.  Sculptural elements of granite or concrete can be integrated in a water cascade or fountain effect. Pavement Materials
  7. 7. 069/B.ARCH/05 | Aashish Parajuli Landscape Architecture| Page: 6 The Path defines the passage in the landscape created. It could be paved or unpaved. Paving materials are used to eliminate hazards from mud and dust and to form a smooth surface for ease of circulation. Various design patterns in the pathways help beautify the surroundings and look pleasing to the eye. The paving material could be natural or man-made. Man-made paving materials are available in a wide variety of textures and colours. Some of the materials used are explained in the following. Use of Stone as a Paving material  Stone, one of the oldest paving materials, offers good, durable, wearing surface with a minimum maintenance required. Rubble and ashlar masonry are the two forms of stone used for paving. Rubble masonry is rough stone, as it comes from the quarry, but may be trimmed somewhat where necessary.  Ashlar masonry is hewed or cut stone from the quarry and is used much more often than rubble for the surfacing of the walls. Use of Bricks as a Paving material  Bricks are the oldest artificial building material in use today. They offer a great variety of textures and colours as well as flexibility in use.  Composed of hard, burnt clay and shale, brick is available in many colours due to the variation in the chemical content of clay. Bricks can be used to make tiles with varied shapes. Because of the hard surface and resistance to wear and cracking, these tiles are best suited for outdoor paving.  These could be laid on stone bases or on concrete slabs. The most common patterns are running bond, herringbone and basket weave.
  8. 8. 069/B.ARCH/05 | Aashish Parajuli Landscape Architecture| Page: 7 Use of concrete as a Paving material  Concrete maybe poured in situ, offers a variety in texture and colour and forms a durable walking surface. It is extensively used as a paving material.  Concrete lends itself to variations in finish, and maybe smooth or rough, with aggregates exposed when desired Use of Asphalt as a Paving material  Asphalt does not offer the variety of textures that concrete does, although it provides a softer walking surface.  Asphalt is not as durable as concrete; it is less expensive and is used extensively for walkways on college campuses, in large parks and recreational areas, and in the construction of roads. Site Amenities and street furnitures It is often difficult to understand fully how site design integrates the elements of furniture that are used for various designated purposes and create a sense of place. Such an understanding can open up creative possibilities for designers of outdoor areas and enable them to shape spaces that can succeed in achieving their aims over the long term. Generally speaking, there are five basic criteria involved in selecting and placing items of street furniture: function (i.e. seeing how necessary an item is and how it can serve its purpose), siting and layout (i.e. deciding where each item should be places), form and appearance (i.e. making sure there a continuity or at least a linkage between the designs of different items), durability (given expected usage), and cost
  9. 9. 069/B.ARCH/05 | Aashish Parajuli Landscape Architecture| Page: 8 The significance of street furniture Street furnishings create the settings for resting, sitting and eating, and social encounters with others. Such settings may be of great importance to the elderly, those with limited mobility, and adults who have small children; but in addition to their functional aspect, items of urban furniture such as benches and tables in parks and squares can also be socially significant, as they give these sites a comforting and appealing air and draw people in together. Appropriately selected and placed furniture can draw people to outdoor spaces and add to the pleasure of using these spaces; the main challenge is getting them outdoors, with the aim of making them feel welcome, relaxed, and involved. The quality of urban spaces is indicated by their character and how well they create a sense of identity, as well as by the quality and placement of their street furniture, as can be seen in various cities: London’s red telephone booths and Paris’ metro entrances, for example, have become iconic and essential to these cities’ identities. In addition to their functional and symbolic roles, items of street furniture may also set standards and expectations of quality for the development of the areas where they are found and can serve as talking points for planning. Lighting  Outdoor Lighting is used to illuminate pedestrian walkways, roads and entry areas. It may also provide a dramatic effect when it lights up benches and fountains.  The level of illumination varies with the extent of usage of the various external spaces.  High intensity light is required for highways and other heavily used areas.  Warm and coloured illumination is best suited for quiet areas along minor residential streets and parking areas.

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