Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch11

T
TheSlapsNursing Student
Physical and
Cognitive
Development
in Adolescence
Chapter 11
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 2
Chapter Outline
• The nature of adolescence
• Physical changes
• Issues in adolescent health
• Adolescent cognition
• Schools
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 3
The Nature of Adolescence
• Adolescents face
– Biological changes
– New experiences
– New developmental tasks
• Influences on the adolescent
– Ethnic
– Cultural
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 4
The Nature of Adolescence
– Gender
– Socioeconomic
– Age
– Lifestyle differences
• Youth benefit when they have caring adults in
their lives in addition to parents or guardians
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 5
Physical Changes
• Puberty: Period of rapid physical maturation,
occurring primarily in early adolescence, that
involves hormonal and bodily changes
– Sexual maturation, height, and weight
• Marked weight and height gains
• Facial and chest hair growth in males
• Pubic hair growth
• Breast growth in females
• Menarche: Girl’s first menstruation
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 6
Figure 11.1 - Pubertal Growth Spurt
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 7
Physical Changes
• Puberty
– Hormonal changes
• Hormones: Chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands
and carried throughout the body by the bloodstream
• Increases in testosterone and estradiol
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 8
Physical Changes
• Puberty
– Timing and variations in puberty
• Average age of menarche has declined significantly
since mid-19th century
• Improved nutrition and health
• Pubertal sequence begins:
– Boys - 10-13 1/2 years
– Girls - Between ages of 9 and 15 years
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 9
Figure 11.2 - Age at Menarche in Northern European
Countries and the United States in the Nineteenth and
Twentieth Centuries
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 10
Physical Changes
• Puberty
– Body image
• Preoccupation with body image is strong throughout
adolescence
• Girls are less happy with their bodies and have more
negative body images
• Puberty
– Early and late maturation
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 11
Physical Changes
• Boys
– Early-maturing boys view themselves more positively and
have more successful peer relations
– Late maturing boys report a stronger sense of identity in their
30s
• Girls
– Early-maturing girls show greater satisfaction early but less
satisfaction later
» More likely to smoke, drink, be depressed
» Have an eating disorder
» Struggle for earlier independence
» Have older friends
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 12
Figure 11.3 - Early-and Late-Maturing Adolescent Girls’
Perceptions of Body Image in Early and Late Adolescence
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 13
Figure 11.4 - Changes in the
Adolescent Brain
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 14
Changes in the Brain
• Corpus callosum: The location where fibers
connect the brain’s left and right hemispheres
• Amygdala: The region of the brain that is the
seat of emotions
• Prefrontal cortex
– The highest level of the frontal lobes involved in
reasoning, decision making, and self-control
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 15
Physical Changes
• Adolescent sexuality
– Developing a sexual identity
• Learning to manage sexual feelings
• Developing new forms of intimacy
• Learning skills to regulate sexual behavior
– Sexual identity includes:
• Activities
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 16
Physical Changes
• Interests
• Styles of behavior
• Indication of sexual orientation
– Gay males and lesbians struggle with same-sex
attractions
• Adolescent sexuality
– Risk factors in adolescent sexual behavior
• Drug use, delinquency, and school-related problems
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 17
Figure 11.5 - Timing of First Sexual
Intercourse in U.S. Adolescents
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 18
Physical Changes
• Socioeconomic status
• Family/parenting
• Peers
– Reproductive health outcomes
• Family connectedness
• Parent-adolescent communication about sexuality
• Parental monitoring
• Partner connectedness
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 19
Physical Changes
• Adolescent sexuality
– Contraceptive use
• Adolescents are increasing their use of contraceptives
• Younger adolescents are less likely to take
contraceptive precautions
– Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Contracted
primarily through sexual contact
• Including oral-genital and anal-genital contact
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 20
Physical Changes
• Adolescent sexuality
– Adolescent pregnancy
• U.S. has 1 of the highest rates in the world
• Creates health risks for baby and mother
• Low birth weight, neurological problems, childhood
illness
• Mothers drop out of school and never catch up
economically
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 21
Figure 11.6 - Cross-Cultural Comparisons
of Adolescent Pregnancy Rates
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 22
Issues in Adolescent Health
• Adolescent health
– Poor health habits and early death in adulthood
begin during adolescence
– Nutrition and exercise
• 17% of 12–19-year-olds are overweight
• Decreased intake of fruits and vegetables and less
exercise
– Sleep patterns
• Only 31% of U.S. adolescents sleep 8 or more hours a
night
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 23
Issues in Adolescent Health
• Adolescent health
– Leading causes of death in adolescence
• Unintentional injuries
• Homicide
• Suicide
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 24
Issues in Adolescent Health
• Substance use and abuse
– United States has one of the highest rates of
adolescent drug use of any industrialized nation
– Adolescent alcohol and cigarette consumption has
declined in recent years
– The roles of development, parents, peers and
education
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 25
Issues in Adolescent Health
• Eating disorders
– Anorexia nervosa: Relentless pursuit of thinness
through starvation
• Main characteristics
– Weight less than 85% of what is considered normal for a
person’s age and height
– An intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with
weight loss
– Having a distorted image of their body shape
– Amenorrhea
• 10 times more likely to occur in females than males
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 26
Issues in Adolescent Health
• Eating disorders
– Bulimia nervosa: Individual consistently follows a
binge-and-purge pattern
• Most bulimics
– Are preoccupied with food
– Have an intense fear of becoming overweight
– Are depressed or anxious
– Have a distorted body image
• Typically fall within a normal weight range
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 27
Adolescent Cognition
• Piaget’s theory
– Formal operational stage
• More abstract than concrete operational thought
• Increased verbal problem-solving ability
• Increased tendency to think about thought itself
• Thoughts of idealism and possibilities
• More logical thought
– Hypothetical-deductive reasoning: Creating a hypothesis and
deducing its implications
– Evaluating Piaget’s theory
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 28
Adolescent Cognition
• Adolescent egocentrism: Heightened self-
consciousness of adolescents
• Imaginary audience: adolescents’ belief that others are
as interested in them as they themselves are
– Attention-getting behavior
• Personal fable: Involves a sense of uniqueness and
invincibility
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 29
Adolescent Cognition
• Information processing
– Cognitive control
• Control attention and reduce interfering thoughts
• Be cognitively flexible
– Decision making
• Dual-process model: View of thinking in which decision
making is influenced by two systems
– Critical thinking
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 30
Schools
• The transition to middle or junior high school
– Drop in school satisfaction
– Less stressful when students have positive
relationships
• Top-dog phenomenon: Move from the top
position in elementary school to:
– The lowest position in middle or junior high
school
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 31
Schools
• Effective schools for young adolescents
– Develop smaller communities that lessen
impersonality of middle schools
– Lower student-counselor ratios to 10-to-1
– Involve parents and community leaders
– Integrate several disciplines in a flexible
curriculum
– Boost students’ health and fitness with more
programs
– Provide public health care© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 32
Schools
• High school
– Graduate with inadequate reading, writing, and
mathematical skills
– High schools should discourage dropping out
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 33
Figure 11.13 - School Dropout Rates of U.S. 16-to
24-Year-Olds by Gender and Ethnicity
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 34
Schools
• Extracurricular activities
– Sports, academic clubs, band, drama, and math
clubs
– High-quality extracurricular activities provide:
• Competent, supportive adult mentors
• Opportunities for increasing school connectedness
• Challenging and meaningful activities
• Opportunities for improving skills
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
11 - 35
Schools
• Service learning: Form of education that
promotes social responsibility and service to
the community
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
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Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch11

  • 1. Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence Chapter 11 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 2. 11 - 2 Chapter Outline • The nature of adolescence • Physical changes • Issues in adolescent health • Adolescent cognition • Schools © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 3. 11 - 3 The Nature of Adolescence • Adolescents face – Biological changes – New experiences – New developmental tasks • Influences on the adolescent – Ethnic – Cultural © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 4. 11 - 4 The Nature of Adolescence – Gender – Socioeconomic – Age – Lifestyle differences • Youth benefit when they have caring adults in their lives in addition to parents or guardians © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 5. 11 - 5 Physical Changes • Puberty: Period of rapid physical maturation, occurring primarily in early adolescence, that involves hormonal and bodily changes – Sexual maturation, height, and weight • Marked weight and height gains • Facial and chest hair growth in males • Pubic hair growth • Breast growth in females • Menarche: Girl’s first menstruation © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 6. 11 - 6 Figure 11.1 - Pubertal Growth Spurt © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 7. 11 - 7 Physical Changes • Puberty – Hormonal changes • Hormones: Chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands and carried throughout the body by the bloodstream • Increases in testosterone and estradiol © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 8. 11 - 8 Physical Changes • Puberty – Timing and variations in puberty • Average age of menarche has declined significantly since mid-19th century • Improved nutrition and health • Pubertal sequence begins: – Boys - 10-13 1/2 years – Girls - Between ages of 9 and 15 years © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 9. 11 - 9 Figure 11.2 - Age at Menarche in Northern European Countries and the United States in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 10. 11 - 10 Physical Changes • Puberty – Body image • Preoccupation with body image is strong throughout adolescence • Girls are less happy with their bodies and have more negative body images • Puberty – Early and late maturation © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 11. 11 - 11 Physical Changes • Boys – Early-maturing boys view themselves more positively and have more successful peer relations – Late maturing boys report a stronger sense of identity in their 30s • Girls – Early-maturing girls show greater satisfaction early but less satisfaction later » More likely to smoke, drink, be depressed » Have an eating disorder » Struggle for earlier independence » Have older friends © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 12. 11 - 12 Figure 11.3 - Early-and Late-Maturing Adolescent Girls’ Perceptions of Body Image in Early and Late Adolescence © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 13. 11 - 13 Figure 11.4 - Changes in the Adolescent Brain © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 14. 11 - 14 Changes in the Brain • Corpus callosum: The location where fibers connect the brain’s left and right hemispheres • Amygdala: The region of the brain that is the seat of emotions • Prefrontal cortex – The highest level of the frontal lobes involved in reasoning, decision making, and self-control © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 15. 11 - 15 Physical Changes • Adolescent sexuality – Developing a sexual identity • Learning to manage sexual feelings • Developing new forms of intimacy • Learning skills to regulate sexual behavior – Sexual identity includes: • Activities © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 16. 11 - 16 Physical Changes • Interests • Styles of behavior • Indication of sexual orientation – Gay males and lesbians struggle with same-sex attractions • Adolescent sexuality – Risk factors in adolescent sexual behavior • Drug use, delinquency, and school-related problems © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 17. 11 - 17 Figure 11.5 - Timing of First Sexual Intercourse in U.S. Adolescents © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 18. 11 - 18 Physical Changes • Socioeconomic status • Family/parenting • Peers – Reproductive health outcomes • Family connectedness • Parent-adolescent communication about sexuality • Parental monitoring • Partner connectedness © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 19. 11 - 19 Physical Changes • Adolescent sexuality – Contraceptive use • Adolescents are increasing their use of contraceptives • Younger adolescents are less likely to take contraceptive precautions – Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Contracted primarily through sexual contact • Including oral-genital and anal-genital contact © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 20. 11 - 20 Physical Changes • Adolescent sexuality – Adolescent pregnancy • U.S. has 1 of the highest rates in the world • Creates health risks for baby and mother • Low birth weight, neurological problems, childhood illness • Mothers drop out of school and never catch up economically © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 21. 11 - 21 Figure 11.6 - Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Adolescent Pregnancy Rates © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 22. 11 - 22 Issues in Adolescent Health • Adolescent health – Poor health habits and early death in adulthood begin during adolescence – Nutrition and exercise • 17% of 12–19-year-olds are overweight • Decreased intake of fruits and vegetables and less exercise – Sleep patterns • Only 31% of U.S. adolescents sleep 8 or more hours a night © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 23. 11 - 23 Issues in Adolescent Health • Adolescent health – Leading causes of death in adolescence • Unintentional injuries • Homicide • Suicide © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 24. 11 - 24 Issues in Adolescent Health • Substance use and abuse – United States has one of the highest rates of adolescent drug use of any industrialized nation – Adolescent alcohol and cigarette consumption has declined in recent years – The roles of development, parents, peers and education © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 25. 11 - 25 Issues in Adolescent Health • Eating disorders – Anorexia nervosa: Relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation • Main characteristics – Weight less than 85% of what is considered normal for a person’s age and height – An intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with weight loss – Having a distorted image of their body shape – Amenorrhea • 10 times more likely to occur in females than males © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 26. 11 - 26 Issues in Adolescent Health • Eating disorders – Bulimia nervosa: Individual consistently follows a binge-and-purge pattern • Most bulimics – Are preoccupied with food – Have an intense fear of becoming overweight – Are depressed or anxious – Have a distorted body image • Typically fall within a normal weight range © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 27. 11 - 27 Adolescent Cognition • Piaget’s theory – Formal operational stage • More abstract than concrete operational thought • Increased verbal problem-solving ability • Increased tendency to think about thought itself • Thoughts of idealism and possibilities • More logical thought – Hypothetical-deductive reasoning: Creating a hypothesis and deducing its implications – Evaluating Piaget’s theory © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 28. 11 - 28 Adolescent Cognition • Adolescent egocentrism: Heightened self- consciousness of adolescents • Imaginary audience: adolescents’ belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are – Attention-getting behavior • Personal fable: Involves a sense of uniqueness and invincibility © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 29. 11 - 29 Adolescent Cognition • Information processing – Cognitive control • Control attention and reduce interfering thoughts • Be cognitively flexible – Decision making • Dual-process model: View of thinking in which decision making is influenced by two systems – Critical thinking © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 30. 11 - 30 Schools • The transition to middle or junior high school – Drop in school satisfaction – Less stressful when students have positive relationships • Top-dog phenomenon: Move from the top position in elementary school to: – The lowest position in middle or junior high school © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 31. 11 - 31 Schools • Effective schools for young adolescents – Develop smaller communities that lessen impersonality of middle schools – Lower student-counselor ratios to 10-to-1 – Involve parents and community leaders – Integrate several disciplines in a flexible curriculum – Boost students’ health and fitness with more programs – Provide public health care© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 32. 11 - 32 Schools • High school – Graduate with inadequate reading, writing, and mathematical skills – High schools should discourage dropping out © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 33. 11 - 33 Figure 11.13 - School Dropout Rates of U.S. 16-to 24-Year-Olds by Gender and Ethnicity © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 34. 11 - 34 Schools • Extracurricular activities – Sports, academic clubs, band, drama, and math clubs – High-quality extracurricular activities provide: • Competent, supportive adult mentors • Opportunities for increasing school connectedness • Challenging and meaningful activities • Opportunities for improving skills © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 35. 11 - 35 Schools • Service learning: Form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.