• Effective O&M is one of the most cost-effective methods for
ensuring reliability, safety, and energy efficiency
• To implement best maintenance approaches, it is important to;
– Applied technical systems along with the competent personnel
operating and maintaining them.
– Structured changes are required to reflect the business
– Recognize the importance of the involvement of all personnel at
all levels for achieving business objectives
– Apply suitable tools to strive for continuously improved
– Increase involvement and integration at all levels in order to
pursue cost effective maintenance within the framework of life-2
• Maintenance-BS 3811:1984 defines maintenance as:
– A combination of any action carries out to retain an item in or
restore it to an acceptable condition.
• The physical execution of maintenance work, and its
initiation, financing and organizing
• The effective usage of the building and its parts, which in
turn compels broader consideration of building performance.
• Operations and Maintenance is the decisions and actions
regarding the control and upkeep of property and equipment.
• Actions focused on scheduling, procedures, and
work/systems control and optimization; and
• Performance of routine, preventive, predictive, scheduled
and unscheduled actions aimed at preventing equipment
failure or decline with the goal of increasing efficiency,
reliability, and safety.
Represents-Life-cycle, cost-effective mix of
preventive, predictive, and reliability-centered
Coupled with Equipment calibration, tracking, and
computerized maintenance management
All targeting reliability, safety, occupant comfort,
and system efficiency
5. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT
• The overall program should contain five very
distinct functions making up the organization:
• Conduct of Operations
• Equipment Status Control
• Operator Knowledge and Performance
• Work Control System
• Conduct of Maintenance
• Preventive Maintenance
• Maintenance Procedures and Documentation
6. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT Cont..
• Engineering Support Organization and Administration
• Equipment Modifications
• Equipment Performance Monitoring
• Engineering Support Procedures and Documentation
• General Employee Training
• Training Facilities and Equipment
• Operator Training
• Maintenance Training
• Organization and Administration
• Management Objectives
• Management Assessment
• Personnel Planning and Qualification
• Industrial Safety
8. O&M POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS AND
OTHER POSITIVE IMPLICATIONS
Energy Efficiency improvement -5 to 20 %
Mitigates any potential hazard arising from deferred
Improves Indoor Air Quality.
Design life expectancy of equipment can be
Proactive in its response and corrects situations
before they become problems.
9. MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL
A key element in maintenance is continuous
improvement of the skills of the personnel in
maintenance through education and training.
There is continual need to improve the overall
performance of equipment through communication
The maintenance personnel can be segregated to
three main categories.
10. MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL Cont..
LEVEL A LEVEL B LEVELC
University degree in
Higher certificate in
recognised training or
12. Maintenance Establishment
This stage involves the planning and development
activities associated with building maintenance, and
consist of four closely related processes:
Developing a departmental maintenance policy
Assigning condition standard ratings
Preparing a departmental maintenance strategy
Technical strategy, Risk management strategy, Financial management
strategy, Procurement strategy, Management strategy
Developing a Strategic Maintenance Plan.
13. Maintenance planning
Maintenance planning is defined as those activities
involved in developing, recording and modifying
standard maintenance procedures.
Standard maintenance procedures are used for:
Periodic component replacements
Condition based investigations and component
Predicting component failures
14. Maintenance implementation
Define and agree on some fundamental principles
Discover improvement potential
Evaluation of how your present practices and
performance compares to Current Best Practices
Structure them in nine key processes
Identify the improvement opportunities.
Root Cause Problem Elimination
15. MEASURING THE QUALITY OF THE O&M
O&M managers need to be responsible for improving
reliability, controlling costs, evaluating and
implementing new technologies, tracking and reporting
on health and safety issues, and expanding their
O&M manager must be aware of the various indicators
that can be used to measure the quality or effectiveness
of the O&M program
They are useful in cost justification of equipment
purchases, program modifications, and staff hiring.
16. MEASURING THE QUALITY OF THE O&M PROGRAM
Capacity factor – Relates actual plant or equipment operation to the full-capacity
operation of the plant or equipment.
Work orders generated/closed out – Tracking of work orders generated and
completed (closed out) over time .
Backlog of corrective maintenance – An indicator of workload issues and
effectiveness of preventive/predictive maintenance programs.
Safety record – Commonly tracked either by number of loss-of-time incidents or
total number of reportable incidents. It is useful in getting an overall safety
Energy use – A key indicator of equipment performance, level of efficiency
achieved, and possible degradation.
Inventory control – An accurate accounting of spare parts can be an important
element in controlling costs.
Overtime worked – Weekly or monthly hours of overtime worked.
Absentee rate – A high or varying absentee rate can be a signal of low worker
morale and should be tracked. In addition, a high absentee rate can have a
significant economic impact.
Staff turnover – High turnover rates are also a sign of low worker morale.
Significant costs are incurred in the hiring and training of new staff. Other costs
include those associated with errors made by newly hired personnel that
normally would not have been made by experienced staff.
17. MAINTENANCE PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
Start small – Choose a project that is manageable and can be
completed in a short period of time, 6 months to 1 year.
Select troubled equipment – Choose a project that has
visibility because of a problematic history.
Minimize risk – Choose a project that will provide immediate
and positive results. This project needs to be successful, and
therefore, the risk of failure should be minimal.
Keep accurate records – This project needs to stand on its own
merits. Accurate, if not conservative, records are critical to
compare before and after results.
Tout the success – When you are successful, this needs to be
shared with those involved and with management. Consider
developing a “wall of accomplishment” and locate it in a place
where management will take notice.
Build off this success – Generate the success, acknowledge
those involved, publicize it, and then request more
money/time/resources for the next project.
18. Key processes
1. Leadership and Organization.
2. Planning and Scheduling of Operations and Maintenance.
3. Maintenance Prevention and Preventive Maintenance.
4. Technical Database.
5. Root Cause Problem Elimination.
6. Stores Management interface with maintenance.
7. Facilities, Tools and Workshops.
8. Engineering Interface with maintenance.
9. Skills development.
19. Assigning ratings
Functional Purpose Specified Standard Rating
Highly sensitive purpose with critical
results (eg hospital operating theatre)
or high profile public building (eg
Building to be in the best possible
condition. Only minimal deterioration
will be allowed.
Good public presentation and a high
quality working environment are
necessary (eg modern multi-storey CBD
Building to be in good condition
operationally and aesthetically,
benchmarked against industry
standards for that class of asset.
Functionally-focused building (eg
Building to be in reasonable condition,
fully meeting operational
Ancillary functions only with no critical
operational role (eg storage) or building
has a limited life.
Building to meet minimum
operational requirements only. S2
Building is no longer operational - it is
dormant, pending disposal, demolition,
Building can be allowed to deteriorate,
however, must be marginally
maintained to meet minimum