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I will begin with something about the background for my ideas. It seems that a tension is formed between the global network and local identity. The information phase of development seems to be happening at the same time as restructured capitalism. At the same time new innovation an d new technology are forming a new paradigm. We see this paradigm in the form of global networks of instrumental exchange and flow of capital information. But at the same time ordinary people continue to live in their communities and continue their everyday processes. It is between these two phenomena that a basic tension has formed. This basic tension creates a type of democracy deficit and personal alienation, uncertainty, and a feeling of being out-of-control. And other conflicts also develop. The governments of countries of the European Union have taken note of these phenomena and you are discussing how we can correct these problems. This gives you the background to see why we need communication capabilities for all of our people. Sonera, the company I represent, is a good example of what I am explaining. Sonera is entering the stock markets and at the same time we are developing new services for local markets both at home and abroad.
There may be a statistical error in the category of the oldest people!
I have been considering new communication services to meet the basic needs of people in general. The basic needs of people are three: to be organised, to belong, and to do. To be organised means knowing how the environment functions. To belong means feeling that one is an integral part of one’s environment. To do means having a necessary role in the environment. The flow of global information intimidates the satisfaction of these basic needs. At the same time, the flow of local information provides possibilities for satisfying these needs. It is difficult to be organised if most of the information we get comes from abroad. If it comes at us too fast and too randomly, it is confusing. When all issues are global in nature and very complicated the ordinary person feels confused because he or she cannot fully understand the situation. It is difficult to belong when so many people are moving to new locations because of their work. The fast work turnover also influences the need to belong. The need to do is threatened by automation. Some of the current problems in society are burnout, tiredness, loneliness, and depression. We can understand this model when we think of the refugee situation: without their own culture, families, work, and so on. Communication technologies could help these people if they themselves want to develop their own newspapers, radio programs, and videos in order to satisfy their basic needs.
People need communication capabilities to satisfy their basic needs. I have identified three communication capabilities. One of these is access. Those of us in the same room have access to communicate with each other. If we are in different places we need to communicate by means of technology, such as telephone, email, mobile phone, telefax. etc. The second capability is competence which is how to send and receive messages, and which equipment to use to do this. But this is not enough. We also need the motivation to communicate. These three together form communication capabilities.
We cannot communicate alone. We need at least one partner. Our communication capabilities must be compatible and an example of compatibility is the telephone. Now that mobile telephony is so popular, if a person has a mobile phone with him or her, he or she can be reached in almost every place in the world. Email is not yet compatible, especially as regards sending attachments. As for motivation, I’d like to give an example from my own experience. I recently got a new little micro which can be connected to my mobile phone which was also new. My son, at this time, was in Malaysia and he regularly sent me text messages. It happens that the memory in my mobile phone has memory for only 15 messages. It was filled when my son sent me a new message. I had to learn how to transfer the messages from my mobile phone to my little micro in order to get my son’s new messages. So, you can understand how high my motivation was to learn how to use my new equipment. This was connect my basic need to belong.
In a community, everyone should have compatible access, competence, and motivation for social communication. It is very important that ordinary people learn how to use the necessary technology so that they have compatible access to the community. If they haven’t got their own equipment, then access should be available at community centres, libraries, and other public places. For example we need to continue to improve and develop the services already available for the deaf and blind so that they can communicate fully. The deaf should be able to read all auditory messages and the blind should be able to hear all written messages. It is also important that ordinary people develop the competence needed to interpret the message. For example, if the community speaks Finnish and some new people cannot speak the language some methods be used that enable mutual communication. For example, if the newcomer speaks French and he wants to join the Finnish community he can either be provided with a Finnish teacher or an interpreter. In the future the interpreter should at least be a part of the network automatic and electronic. It is important that a society be composed of enough local communities so that every person is a member of at least one community where he or she shares compatible access, competence, and motivation with the others. If any one of these components is missing, the community will disappear because there will not be enough people to take charge of organisational tasks and take responsibility to inform the others of coming events.
In communication, we need both Integrative and creative communication. This is a big challenge for network communication because communication needs both sides. At the present moment, we find that network communication which has been designed and developed almost completely by men, incorporated the characteristics of integrative communication but lacks those of creative communication. This imbalance should be corrected as soon as possible. The telephone, right now, uses more of these characteristics than other technological devices.
SIS: Arkitiedon digitalisointi Mainepääoman kasvattaminen Sosiaalinen- ja mainepääoma perustuvat luottamukseen Viestintäkulttuuri muuttuu ja kehittyy kussakin alueessa Viestintäkulttuuri muuttaa ja kehittää kutakin aluetta Asiakkaiden, sijoittajien ja muiden yhteistyöosapuolien usko organisaatioon on sen mainepääomaa Toimiva vuorovaikutus kaikkien osapuolten kesken on organisaation viestintäpääomaa Organisaation todellinen näkymätön pääoma on sen kyvyssä rakentaa, ylläpitää ja vahvistaa vuorovaikutusverkostoja sekä sisällään että suhteessa toimintaympäristöön. Organisaation sosiaalinen pääoma on yleensä sen jäsenten yhteinen tavoitesuuntaus ja keskinäinen luottamus, joka synnyttää osapuolten välistä tuloksellisuutta. Osaamisen hyödyntäminen edellyttää kommunikaatiokykyisiä työntekijöitä ja kommunikaation mahdollistavia rakenteita
This slide represents the results of my interviews with eighteen key informants. I divided their responses relative to the civil society into five groups
This slide represents the results of my studies. I divided the civil society into five groups: trend setters, organisers, unwilling participants, non-participants and small entrepreneurs. Trend setters are the people to whom it is important to participate in discussion, who buy equipment and who use every possible form of communication. Organisers organise things - meetings. They need tools and services. And their tools are not very useful unless the other participants have the same tools. A key aspect in the future will be that young people who do not have a GSM phone with the ability to send and receive short messages will be put on the edge of society in Finland. Unwilling participants are those who don't participate even though they do have all the equipment and competence to use it. They just do their own thing. In principle they participate, but they don't manage - or bother. They're not interested. Entrepreneurs should be a real focus of attention - what services do they need? Plumbers - electricians - carpenters – we have to find what they really need. Perhaps a team of network secretaries?
This slide follows the previous one. 1) One of my informants was a 65-year old woman who belonged to an international group of economists. She told me that if she had not got access and developed competence with the Internet, she would have been alienated. When I called her 18 months after she had got connected, she told me she had organised a conference with 5 different women from 5 different continents. I said to her that she now belongs to a virtual community but she corrected me. She replied that she belonged to a real community who were just using telecommunications. They perceive telecommunications as their servant, not their master 2) Many Finnish people have 2 homes, one in the city, one in the countryside. One of my informants told me about a community that she and some other people have built in the countryside. She has a mobile phone to organise building of the culture house to this community. She said, she must be very dictatorial because some of the others don’t have compatible email access even though they hold high positions in the firms.
Informational stage / form of development Restructured / Newly stuctured capitalism Global networks of material exchange (instrumental) Innovations New technology Capital intensity Globalization New technologigal and economic paradigm / New paradigm of technology and economy People and communities Everyday processes / everyday life Local conditions Basic tension The Tension Between the Global Network and Local Identity Uncertainty Uncontrolla-bility Conflicts Democracy deficit Alienation Falling out / dropping out Source: Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko
How people feel about themselves and IT development Percentage of the age group 0 % 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 15-19 yrs 20-24yrs 24-29 yrs 30-34 yrs 35-39 yrs 40-44 yrs 45-49 yrs 50-54 yrs 55-59 yrs 60-64 yrs 65-yrs men women Agree completely or to some extent on the statement “I feel like I have completely been tramped by the development of the new information technology” Source: Statistics Finland, 2000
Target of vision Present state of achievements Present communi- cation capabilities Communication capabilities required by the vision Present state Targets to new achievements Sustainable development of Information Society From Industrial Society to Information Society Civil society
Participation and activity Commitment Understanding and objectives Basic Needs of Existence To belong To do To be organised
Communication Capabilities Communi-cation capability Access Competence Motivation
Communication capabilities Access Competence Motivation Access Competence Motivation
Compatible Access, Competence and Motivation for Social Communication A C M Can’t interpret the message C M No motivation to join the community A = Access C = Competence M = Motivation A C M There is no compatible access A A A A C C C M M M
In developing organisations, communication systems, communication skills, and organisational communication culture are equally important. Social capital accumulates as a total of these contributory factors.
Consolidating Formation Coding Decoding Interpretation Comprehension Sonera Information Society Unit, 2000 Thought Transmission Model of Communication Technical Viewpoint Message Message Message Message Information in Physical form Information in Physical form Transmission Idea Sender Recipient
Consolidating Formation Coding Decoding Interpretation Comprehension Sonera Information Society Unit, 2000 Thought Cultural Viewpoint Cultural anthropology, sociology , psycology, education, speech communications, etc Message Message Message Message Information in Physical form Information in Physical form Transmission Idea Sender Recipient
Consolidating Formation Coding Decoding Interpretation Comprehension Sonera Information Society Unit, 2000 Thought Technical Viewpoint Cultural Viewpoint Message Message Message Message Information in Physical form Information in Physical form Transmission Idea Sender Recipient
Consolidating Formation Coding Decoding Interpretation Comprehension Sonera Information Society Unit, 2000 Thought Communication is both a cultural and technical phenomenon Message Message Message Message Information in Physical form Information in Physical form Transmission Idea Sender Recipient
Differences Between Integrative and Creative Communication (Source: Aula, 1998)
Physical capital Communication culture Digital capital Reputation capital Communication's Synergy Social capital Knowledge capital Skill capital
Transmission of Communication Technology Users of communication technology Use of communication technology Individual decisions Source: Kallio, Jäkälä, 2000 Individual adaptive Community Communication culture Group Agreements social rational
Communication Differences Communication shyness Communication courage Individualistic Collective communication communication culture culture Message cost Message amount
Common understanding Information Sharing Theoretical information Understanding Theoretical information Understanding Experience
Groups in the Civil Society <ul><ul><li>1) For opinion leaders , it is important to participate in discussion and to organise their thinking together with other people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) For organisers , it is important to get things done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Participants want to participate, but are reluctant to shoulder the responsibility for actions undertaken or the direction of social development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Non-participants are not interested in dealing with social issues at all. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) Active small entrepreneurs and temporary workers contribute to the development of the community because of their own work. </li></ul></ul>
Groups in the Civil Society <ul><li>For trend setters - it is important to take part in discussion. They also organise their thinking together with other people. </li></ul><ul><li>For organisers - it is important to get things done. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants want to participate, but are unwilling to take the responsibilities for actions or the direction of social development. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-participants are not interested in dealing with social issues at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Small entrepreneurs and temporary workers contribute to the development of the community through their work. </li></ul>
The people taking part in communication could be divided into three groups according to their willingness to change social communication patterns: <ul><li>1) Those with access and competence, but no time or motivation to participate in social activity after working hours. For them, the equipment was merely a working tool. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Those with access and some degree of competence who were actively participating in social communication. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Those with no access, no competence and no motivation to participate in social activity outside their closest circle of friends. </li></ul>
How Citizens Communicate <ul><li>Opinion leaders: Must know how to use different forms of communication in varied ways - or get sidelined </li></ul><ul><li>Organisers: Forerunners in methods of communication who hope to be followed by others </li></ul><ul><li>Participants: Who participate from time to time if they get information </li></ul><ul><li>Non-participants: Do not have either time or desire </li></ul><ul><li>Small Entrepreneurs: Telephone is still most important so that they need network secretaries </li></ul>
Dimensions of Communication <ul><li>Nearest circle (family) </li></ul><ul><li>-”All is OK” </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure activities </li></ul><ul><li>-”Nice to meet” </li></ul><ul><li>Next circle </li></ul><ul><li>-”Nice to know” </li></ul>
<ul><li>Internet sites displayed in shop windows </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to Internet to send GSM text messages </li></ul>Local Service
<ul><li>Key questions </li></ul><ul><li>Is local information left undiscovered in the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Who does the digitalisation of daily information? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we get everyone involved with local information? </li></ul>Environment and Locale Are a Part of Our Identity !
Services Used for these Pictures <ul><li>Transmission of photos </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of voice together </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of text </li></ul><ul><li>Home pages </li></ul><ul><li>- also possible in iPaq and others </li></ul><ul><li>Notification of new messages </li></ul>
<ul><li>Moyens de communication comme catalyseur du capital social/ </li></ul><ul><li>Viestintätavat sosiaalisen pääoman katalysaattorina </li></ul><ul><li>exemples/ esimerkkejä </li></ul><ul><li>Secrétaire de réseau /verkostosihteeri ( entreprise /yrittäjät) </li></ul><ul><li>Systèmes de messages communs à l ’école et à la maison /koulun ja kodin yhteiset viestijärjestelmät </li></ul><ul><li>Atelier de communication /viestintäpaja ( jeunesse/ nuoriso) </li></ul><ul><li>Forum mobile /mobiilipaneeli (Démocratie communale /kuntademokratia) </li></ul><ul><li>Cercle de téléphone /puhelinrinki ( personnes âgées /vanhukset) </li></ul><ul><li>Systèmes de publication /julkaisujärjestelmät </li></ul><ul><li>Tableau d ’information électronique / Sähköinen ilmoitustaulu ( petites boutiques et services /pienet kaupat ja palvelut ) </li></ul>
Meaning of Visions in Decision-making Understanding available options Decision- making Vision Notion of a good life and the desired future Objective Discussions, Interaction Identification of the current situation Feedback Realization, actions
In developing organisations, communication systems, content and communication skills and organisational communication culture are equally important. Social capital accumulates as a total of these contributory factors.
Thank you for your attention ! Make Things click.