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Personality theories and testing

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Personality theories and testing

  1. 1. Personality Theory
  2. 2. Essential Questions • How do psychologists study personality, and what theories have resulted? • How do psychologists reliably measure personality and interpret personality’s role in behavior?
  3. 3. Perspectives on Personality • Psychodynamic: – Role of the unconscious – Biological causes • Behaviorist /Social-Cognitive : – Learning – Interaction between cognition, behavior, and environment – Conscious thoughts influence on action (vice versa) • Humanistic: – Reaction to psychodynamic and behaviorist – Focuses on the role of a person’s conscious life experience and choices. • Trait Perspective: – Unlike other three (Doesn’t focus on causes) – Focuses on the results (characteristics themselves)
  4. 4. Freud
  5. 5. Lesson 2: Sigmund Freud • Sigmund Freud • Conscious • Preconscious • Unconscious • Id • Ego • Superego EQ: How were Freud’s theories shaped by his life? According to Freud, how does the interaction between ID/Ego/Superego determine behavioral outcomes? Vocabulary
  6. 6. Freud’s Personality Concept • Id (Latin “it”) – Basic biological drives (hunger, thirst, sex, etc.…) – Present at birth – Pleasure Principles – Eros and Thanitos • Ego (Latin “I”) – Consciousness – Develops at age 2 – Reality Principles • Superego (Latin “over the self”) – Internalized sense of right/wrong and societal expectation – Fully Develops around age 11 – Morality Principles
  7. 7. Freudian Role Play • Create two role plays. (>1 minute each) • One role play will demonstrate the id or superego being satisfied at the expense of the other and the consequences of such an action. • The second role play will demonstrate a successful mediation between all three parts. • The role plays must demonstrate an understanding of the interaction between the Id, ego, and superego. • Everyone in the group must have a meaningful role in the skit
  8. 8. Freudian Role Play Rubric Criteria Excellent (4) Good (3) Limited (2) Inadequate (1) Works Cooperatively with Group Always willing and focused during assigned tasks. Usually willing and focused during assigned tasks. Sometimes willing and focused during assigned tasks. Rarely willing and focused during assigned tasks. Presentation of Perspective Convincing communication of understanding of the interaction between the id, ego, superego. Competent communication of understanding of the interaction between the id, ego, superego. Limited communication of understanding of the interaction between the id, ego, superego. Inadequate communication of understanding of the interaction between the id, ego, superego. Use of Non- Verbal Cues (voice, gestures, eye contact, props, costumes) An impressive variety of non- verbal cues were used in an exemplary way. Good variety (3 or more) verbal cues were used in a competent way. A Limited variety of non-verbal cues were used in an adequate way. Inadequate variety of non- verbal cues were used in a developing way. Time > 1:15 minute 1. minute >45 seconds < 45 seconds Rubric
  9. 9. Lesson: Defense Mechanisms ACTIVATOR: What do you know about denial and repression?
  10. 10. Lesson: Defense Mechanisms • Defense Mechanisms • Identification w/ aggressor • Regression • Denial • Rationalization • Projection • Repression • Sublimation EQ: How do defense mechanisms affect behavior? Vocabulary
  11. 11. Assignment 1: Defense Mechanisms • In pairs, students use text to discuss and enter definition/examples into the graphic organizer. • Discuss and record an example of each defense mechanism.
  12. 12. Repression • Preventing painful or dangerous thoughts from entering consciousness • Example: Individual abused as a child represses feelings and memories, so that feelings and memories no longer remain in the conscious memory. The abuse continues to affect the individual’s behavior in relationships.
  13. 13. Regression • Reverting to coping at an earlier stage of development. • Example: Adult throwing a temper tantrum
  14. 14. Denial • Refusal to accept reality, external facts, events, implications because nature of the reality threatens individual. • Example: Alcoholic who refuses to believe his drinking makes an impact on his job performance or family life
  15. 15. Rationalization • Convincing oneself no wrong was done or all is or was all right through faulty/false reasoning. • Example: You are turned down by someone you are interested in, and rationalize that you were not that attracted to them. Protects self-esteem.
  16. 16. Projection • Attributing one’s own unacknowledged unacceptable/unwanted thoughts and emotions to another. • Example: Assuming that someone you extremely dislike extremely dislikes you. Severe prejudice, severe jealousy, hyper vigilance to external danger, and “injustice collecting”.
  17. 17. Reaction Formation • Behavior completely opposite of what one really wants or feels; taking opposite belief because true belief causes anxiety. • Example: A manager treats employee whom they extremely dislike ultra kindly, making many special efforts to cater to that person and thus hide true feelings of dislike.
  18. 18. Intellectualization • Focusing on only intellectual parts of a situation to create distance from relevant anxiety provoking emotions. • Example: After learning they have a terminal illness, an individual begins spending all time studying about the illness to avoid thinking about the direct effect in their own life.
  19. 19. Identification (w/ Aggressor) • The unconscious modeling of one’s self upon another person’s character and behavior. • Example: Mimicking another’s dress, or mannerisms.
  20. 20. Sublimation Redirecting ‘wrong’ urges into socially acceptable actions. • Example: Individual redirects aggressive impulses and becomes a football player.
  21. 21. Assignment 2: Defense Mechanisms • Read A Short Story in your packet. • Underline and identify examples of defense mechanisms in use within the story.
  22. 22. Assignment 2: Paragraph 2 I remember one time when a relationship ended and I was completely devastated. I cried for days and refused to leave my house. I was looking for someone, anyone, to come and have pity on me. By the time I emerged from my depression, I was convinced that the break-up was for the best. My girlfriend really had unappreciated me and everything I tried to do for her. I figured that there had to be a woman out there somewhere who was meant for me, I just had to find her.
  23. 23. Assignment 2: Paragraph 3 When I finally got over the break-up, I really threw myself into my work. I was determined to be the best that I could be. I worked long hours and even my boss began to notice what a great job I was doing. Soon, the whole nasty break-up was behind me, and I rarely thought about my ex-girlfriend. It seemed as if the whole thing had happened years ago, and I was finally happy again.
  24. 24. Assignment 2: Paragraph 4 However, as with all things happiness is only appreciated when you’re unhappy. One day, from out of the blue, I received a call from my old girlfriend. She was inviting me to her wedding next month. I tried the best I could to sound happy, but inside I was totally crushed. All along I had imagined that she was home feeling sorry for having dumped me and wishing she had me back. I had taken great comfort in thinking that she felt the same way that I did and might someday regret the break-up. When we finally said good-bye to each other, I was so angry that I threw the phone across the room and watched it shatter into a million pieces. She couldn’t be getting married; not so soon. I refused to believe that it would happen. She would come to her senses and come back to me. She couldn’t marry some bozo who didn’t love her the way that I did.
  25. 25. Assignment 2: Paragraph 5 I stormed from the house, jumped into my car, and began driving. I didn’t know where I was going, and I didn’t really care. All I cared about was going as fast as I could. While I drove I imagined that it was me getting married next month and living happily ever after. Soon, I was lost in my imagination, which could take me farther than my car ever could.
  26. 26. Lesson: Psychosexual Development • Erogenous Zone • Fixations • Gratification • Oedipus Complex • Castration Anxiety • Electra Complex • Penis Envy EQ: According to Freud, how do individuals psychosexually develop? Vocabulary
  27. 27. Oral Stage • Age: Birth-2 • Erogenous Zone: Mouth • Primary Conflict: Weaning – If a child is weaned too early or too late that can result in either too much or insufficient gratification of the id. This can result in an oral fixation. • Oral Fixations:
  28. 28. Anal Stage • Age: 2 • Erogenous Zone: Bowel/Bladder • Primary Conflict: Potty Training – If a child is trained too leniently or harshly this can result in insufficient or excessive control of the ego over the id. • Fixations: – Anal Retentive: individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive – Anal Expulsive: individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality
  29. 29. Oedipus Rex
  30. 30. Oedipus Rex • Oedipus’ birth father and mother are the king and queen of Thebes. • They are told by a prophet that their son will kill his father. • They leave infant Oedipus to die in the mountains • Oedipus is found and raised in Corinth (He does not know he is adopted) • As a young man in Corinth he receive a prophecy that he would kill his father and sleep with his mother. He leaves Corinth to avoid this. • He has a fight and kills a man while traveling the road. (later revealed it is his birth father) • He arrives in Thebes, defeats the Sphinx, and awarded the queens hand in marriage. (It is his birth mother) • He later finds out and gouges out his eyes.
  31. 31. Phallic Stage • Age: 3-6 • Erogenous Zone: Genitals • Conflict: Children begin to view same-sex parent as a rival for opposite sex parent’s affection. Oedipus complex: feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to replace the father. However, the boy also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear Freud termed castration anxiety. Electra complex: Female version of the Oedipus Complex. Females desire this because they have penis envy.
  32. 32. Latency Stage • Age: 7-11 • Erogenous Zone: None • Primary Conflict: None – Through the use of defense mechanisms the child deals with the id impulses • Defense Mechanisms: – Identification (w/ Aggressor) – Repression
  33. 33. Genital Stage • Age: 12-Older • Erogenous Zone: Genitals • Conflict: Sexual impulse that is linked to the Oedipus and Electra Complex conflicts with the super-ego’s acceptance of incest taboo. • Resolution – Males: Displace their feeling for their mother on to another women. – Females: Displace their feeling for their father on to another man. They give birth to a child which psychologically fulfills their penis envy.
  34. 34. Stages of Psychosexual Development
  35. 35. Karen Horney (HORN-EYE) • Disagreed with Freud • Womb Envy: men felt a need to compensate for their lack of child bearing by striving in other areas. • Basic anxiety: bigness of the world created anxiety for children. Love, affection, and security from parents lessen anxiety. • Neurotic personality otherwise result. May be clingy or aggressive, demanding, and cruel
  36. 36. Alfred Adler • Birth Order • Inferiority Complex • Compensation
  37. 37. Feelings of Inferiority
  38. 38. Carl Jung (Yoong) • Personal Unconscious • Collective Unconscious • Extrovert • Introvert • Archetypes • Individuation
  39. 39. Behaviorist and Social Cognitive Views Behaviorist: View personality as a result of classical and operant conditioning Social Cognitive Learning Theorists: Emphasize the importance of … -the influences of other people’s behavior -a person’s own expectancies on learning - hold that observational learning, modeling, and other cognitive learning techniques can lead to the formation of patterns of personality.
  40. 40. ar·che·type [ahr-ki-tahyp] • 1.the original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a model or first form; prototype. • 2.(in Jungian psychology) a collectively inherited unconscious idea, pattern of thought , image, etc., universally present in individual psyches.
  41. 41. Using your archetype sheet, share with a partner the examples that you have written for each archetype. Day 2 Activator
  42. 42. Cooperative Group Assignment Create a typical childhood fairy tale using the following characters: • knight in shining armor • wise old man • damsel in distress • sidekick • dragon *Be prepared to share out to the rest of the class
  43. 43. Religion and the Hero’s Quest
  44. 44. Individuation An Archetypical Journey to Find the SELF
  45. 45. Individuation • Simply put, individuation is about transformation. It means being willing to embrace a lifetime of full-fledged metamorphosis analogous to a caterpillar becoming a butterfly over and over again. It means letting go of the defining characteristics that make up our identity for the sake of becoming something further enhanced by the Self, with a capital ―S‖, the Divine spark within us. The pain in this process is the pain of breaking through our own limitations. The joy is our increased capacity for living and feeling at home within ourselves, and experiencing our wholeness. Excerpt from Harris, Bud. “Individuation: The Promise in Jung's Legacy and Why Our Culture Has Trouble Accepting It”. 2011. Web. 12 Dec. 2012
  46. 46. The Path of Individuation -Persona -Ego -Anima/Animus -Shadow -Self
  47. 47. Persona • “That which you present to the outside world” • AKA “The Mask” • What masks do you wear? – Does your personality change with the setting? – What purpose does it serve? • DROP IT!!! Pettifor, Eric. “Process of Individuation”. 1995. Web. 6 Nov. 2012.
  48. 48. EGO • “The ego is the center of consciousness. It is identity. It is “I”. • “The Gate Keeper” -conscious vs. unconscious mind -awareness… Individuation bringing out of unconsciousness Pettifor, Eric. “Process of Individuation”. 1995. Web. 6 Nov. 2012.
  49. 49. Individuation Simply put, individuation is about transformation. It means being willing to embrace a lifetime of full-fledged metamorphosis analogous to a caterpillar becoming a butterfly over and over again. It means letting go of the defining characteristics that make up our identity for the sake of becoming something further enhanced by the Self, with a capital ―S‖, the Divine spark within us. The pain in this process is the pain of breaking through our own limitations. The joy is our increased capacity for living and feeling at home within ourselves, and experiencing our wholeness. Pettifor, Eric. “Process of Individuation”. 1995. Web. 6 Nov. 2012.
  50. 50. Anima / Animus • Anima – “the female soul image of a man” Describe your perfect mate… That is your anima / animus!!! • Animus – “the male soul image of a woman”
  51. 51. • “the receptacle for all of that which we have for one reason or another disowned” • “reveals itself in the selfish, violent and often brutal actions…” • “feeds on greed and fear” • “arouses in us strong emotions of fear, anger or moral outrage” • Technocracy or Animal Man Shadow Pettifor, Eric. “Process of Individuation”. 1995. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. Fontana, David. The Secret Language of Dreams. San Francisco: Chronicle, 2004. Print.
  52. 52. SELF Wholeness Unity God Transformation
  53. 53. Behaviorist & Social Cognitive View of Personality
  54. 54. Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory Reciprocal Determinism Self-Efficacy
  55. 55. Reciprocal Determinism Environmental Factors: -Physical Surroundings -Potential for Reinforcement Personal /Cognitive Factors: -Beliefs -Expectancies (Past Rewards) -Personal Disposition -Self Efficacy Behavioral Factors: Current Behavior Itself Reciprocal determinism: factors affect each other. These factors determine the patterns of behaviors that make up personality.
  56. 56. Self Efficacy -A person’s expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance -Can be high or low depending on -past circumstances (success or failure) -what others tell them about their competence -their own assessment of ability
  57. 57. Rotter’s Social Learning Theory Locus of control: tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not
  58. 58. Locus of Control: tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not
  59. 59. Humanistic Perspective on Personality
  60. 60. Self Acutualizing • Self Actualizing Tendency: the striving to fulfill one’s innate capacities and capabilities • An important tool in human self development of self concept • Real Self vs Ideal Self • Ideal self is formed from parental interaction • A close match of real and ideal self creates as a person tries to self actualize results in a fully functional person
  61. 61. Carl Rogers and Self Concept Real Self Real Self
  62. 62. Self Esteem • Carl Rogers noted that there two types of support parents give to their children. – Unconditional Positive Regard: Parents demonstrate love and affection regardless of a child’s behavior • Children develop high self esteem – Conditional Positive Regard: Parents demonstrate love and affection when child behaves in an acceptable manner • Child feels worthwhile when pleasing authority figures • A sense of competence in cognitive, physical, and social tasks also increases self esteem.
  63. 63. Myers-Briggs
  64. 64. Extraverts vs. Introverts • Extraverts are action oriented, while introverts are thought oriented. • Extraverts seek breadth of knowledge and influence, while introverts seek depth of knowledge and influence. • Extraverts often prefer more frequent interaction, while introverts prefer more substantial interaction. • Extraverts recharge and get their energy from spending time with people, while introverts recharge and get their energy from spending time alone.
  65. 65. Example ESTJ • Some examples of whole types may clarify this further. Taking the ESTJ example above: • Extraverted function is a judging function (T-F) because of the overall J preference • Extraverted function is dominant because of overall E preference • Dominant function is therefore extraverted thinking (Te) • Auxiliary function is the preferred perceiving function: introverted sensing (Si) • Tertiary function is the opposite of the Auxiliary: intuition (N) • Inferior function is the opposite of the Dominant: introverted feeling (Fi)
  66. 66. Example INFP • Extraverted function is a perceiving function (S-N) because of the P preference • Introverted function is dominant because of the I preference • Dominant function is therefore introverted feeling (Fi) • Auxiliary function is extraverted intuition (Ne) • Tertiary function is the opposite of the Auxiliary: sensing (S) • Inferior function is the opposite of the Dominant: extraverted thinking (Te)
  67. 67. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) • 567 Statements – Ex. 1 “I am often very tense” – Ex. 2 “I believe I am being plotted against” • Answer “true”, “false”, or “cannot say” • 10 clinical scales/8 validity scales linked to specific behaviors • Items are repeated to determine if people are trying to “fake” the test – Ex. “I am always happy”
  68. 68. Trait Theories • Trait: consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving • Less concerned with explanation for personality development • Describe personality and predict behavior based on that personality
  69. 69. Gordon Allport • Used dictionary and identified 18,000 terms. • After eliminating synonyms reduced it 200 • Believed traits were wired into nervous system and they guided behavior across different situations • Cattell reduces it to 16 (23) • Five-factor is a reduction to 5
  70. 70. Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors Take Test at http://personality-testing.info/tests/16PF.php
  71. 71. FIVE-FACTOR MODEL (BIG FIVE) Take Test at http://www.personalitytest.org.uk/
  72. 72. Projective Tests • Based on the defense mechanism “projection” • Can be used for personality but most commonly used to uncover problems in personlity • Problems – Subjective – Low Reliability • different scores when given to same person – Low Validity • no standard grading scale to ensure its measuring what it is intended to measure
  73. 73. Rorschach Inkblots 10 Inkblots (5 Black and White/5 Color and White)
  74. 74. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • 20 black and white pictures • Asked to tell a story about the person(s) • Story is examined looking for revealing statements

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