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Common sense in philosophical and scientific perspective

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Common sense in philosophical and scientific perspective

  1. 1. Common Sense in Philosophical and Scientific Perspective
  2. 2. Modern Philosophical Scientific
  3. 3. Common Sense in Philosophical and Scientific Perspective
  4. 4. • Plato’s writings, to distance philosophers from the common people and to differentiate true scientific knowledge (episteme) from the misguided and murky opinion (doxa) of the multitude. • He advanced the notion that knowledge of absolute truths is in some sense innate->Dialectical Reasoning.
  5. 5. Influenced by the discoveries and methodologies of modern science, but mirrored this trend and the long term-effect was to place into DOUBT—SELF-EVIDENTLY TRUE
  6. 6. He demonstrate the limitations of the senses, Descartes proceeds with what is known as the Wax Argument. He considers a piece of wax: SENSES such as •shape •texture •size •color •Smell •When he brings the wax towards a flame, these characteristics change completely Therefore, in order to properly grasp the nature of the wax, he cannot use the senses: He must use his mind. Descartes concludes: “Thus what I thought I had seen with my eyes, I actually grasped solely with the faculty of judgment, which is in my mind”.
  7. 7. Influenced by the discoveries and methodologies of modern science, but mirrored this trend and the long term-effect was to place into DOUBT—SELF-EVIDENTLY TRUE
  8. 8. Hobbes rejected the approach of Descartes. Deriving all ideas from the senses in ways that would become standard fare for later British Empiricists. IDEA OF SPACE derived from mental images - present things to us as though they were distinct from us IDEA OF EXISTENCE derived from the thought of empty space being filled.
  9. 9. Influenced by the discoveries and methodologies of modern science, but mirrored this trend and the long term-effect was to place into DOUBT—SELF-EVIDENTLY TRUE
  10. 10. •An Essay Concerning Human Understanding - “sense that is common to the others” • The “common” sense, the sense that unites disparate impressions under a single concept or experience. It is therefore allied with "fancy," and opposed to "judgment," or the capacity to divide like things into separates • All believed that there is a sense in the human understanding that sees commonality and does the combining—this is "common sense."
  11. 11. Influenced by the discoveries and methodologies of modern science, but mirrored this trend and the long term-effect was to place into DOUBT—SELF-EVIDENTLY TRUE
  12. 12. Hume believes that all human knowledge comes to us through our senses. 2 CATEGORIES OF PERCEPTIONS: 1. ideas 2. impressions
  13. 13. By the term impression, then, I mean all our more lively perceptions, when we hear, or see, or feel, or love, or hate, or desire, or will. And impressions are distinguished from ideas, which are the less lively perceptions, of which we are conscious, when we reflect on any of those sensations or movements above mentioned.
  14. 14. He further specifies ideas, saying, It seems a proposition, which will not admit of much dispute, that all our ideas are nothing but copies of our impressions, or, in other words, that it is impossible for us to think of anything, which we have not antecedently felt, either by our external or internal senses. This forms an important aspect of Hume's skepticism, for he says that we cannot be certain a thing, such as God, a soul, or a self, exists unless we can point out the impression from which the idea of the thing is derived.
  15. 15. Influenced by the discoveries and methodologies of modern science, but mirrored this trend and the long term-effect was to place into DOUBT—SELF-EVIDENTLY TRUE
  16. 16. Common Sense in Philosophical and Scientific Perspective
  17. 17. SCIENTIFIC
  18. 18. Foundation and starting point of Scientific Inquiry. -Scientific Reasoning must begin with known as obvious truths and assumptions
  19. 19. SCIENTIFIC
  20. 20. Bacon used to be called the father of experimental science, but his claim to this title was denied because his method of tables and exclusions is not the procedure of modern science whereby an experimenter somehow formulates a guess, tentative theory, or hypothesis and then tests it in experiments.
  21. 21. Read between the lines and interprets Bacon with common sense, it is clear that he realized the impossibility of reaching final truth by means of tables and exclusions or from the 'axioms' or hypotheses which emerged from them. Hypothesizing inevitably was involved in the classifying, in the selection of prerogative instances, and in the formulation of the 'axioms'. Scientific truths would emerge when these were tested by systematic experiments.
  22. 22. SCIENTIFIC
  23. 23. Johannes Kepler contributed importantly to every field he addressed. He changed the face of astronomy by abandoning principles that had been in place for two millennia, made important discoveries in optics and mathematics, and was an uncommonly good philosopher. Kepler's philosophical ideas have been dismissed as irrelevant and even detrimental to his legacy of scientific accomplishment
  24. 24. Galileo was a great scientist and was surely a genius. He was the first person on earth to have ever told that the laws of nature were purely based on mathematics.
  25. 25. For Boyle, the acquisition of knowledge was an end in itself. He had a lot to say about experimenting as a means to gain knowledge about the natural world. He was the first natural philosopher to establish that the suppositions employed in setting up an experiment must be validated before proceeding with the experiment itself. Something in this approach is akin to a mathematician's insistence on fundamental truths (such as the establishment of geometrical theorems) before proofs can be produced.
  26. 26. SCIENTIFIC
  27. 27. When Isaac Newton published his Principia, he stated that he intended to illustrate a new way of doing natural philosophy that overcomes some of the limitations of the axiomatic method. This method is now called the empirical scientific method. The goal of Newton’s method was to find empirically the forces of nature.
  28. 28. SCIENTIFIC
  29. 29. Common Sense in Philosophical and Scientific Perspective
  30. 30. Thomas Reid defended the common sense, or natural judgment, of human beings, by which the real existence of both subject and object is directly known (natural realism).
  31. 31. He argued that if there is no logical or scientific proof of a real external world or continuously existing mind, it is not because they do not exist or cannot be known, but because human consciousness of them is an ultimate fact, which does not require proof but is itself the ground of all proof. Common-sense beliefs automatically govern human lives and thought.
  32. 32. Thomas Reid did not give a definition of common sense per se, but offered several "principles of common sense:" • Principles of common sense are believed universally (with the apparent exceptions of some philosophers and the insane)
  33. 33. • It is appropriate to ridicule the denial of common sense • The denial of principles of common sense leads to contradictions
  34. 34. "All knowledge and all science must be built upon principles that are self- evident; and of such principles every man who has common sense is a competent judge"
  35. 35. Pinkers refers to these core truths and rules as features of common sense, and argues convincingly that the preciously dominant understanding of the mind as a “blank slate” at birth is false.
  36. 36. Common Sense in Philosophical and Scientific Perspective III-H BSE Social Studies •Caliwagan, Cholo •Dela Cerna, Cindy Joy •Bombane, Christine •Sison, Lyka Marie Prof. Sagadraca

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