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Maersk	Line	and	Corporate	Social	Responsibility	
	
A	Sustainability	Analysis		
	
...
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An	Introduction	to	Maersk	Line	and	its	Primary	Sustainability	Challenges	
	
Maersk	Line	is	the	world’s	largest	containe...
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For	the	safety	area,	Maersk	shows	how	many	fatal	accidents	have	happened	in	the	past	three	years,	and	what	steps	they	
...
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In	late	2012,	Maersk	Line	became	the	first	shipping	company	to	receive	global	
certification	from	the	American	Bureau...
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Worker	Safety	
	
Various	automation	technologies	have	been	introduced	to	shipbuilding	and	ship	operations,	including	se...
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Appendix	1:	Interview	with	Caroline	Mortensen,	Maersk	Line	Supply	Chain	Department	–	December	5th
,	2014	
	
What	are,	i...
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Maersk Lines - Sustainbility Analysis

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Maersk Lines - Sustainbility Analysis

  1. 1. 1 Maersk Line and Corporate Social Responsibility A Sustainability Analysis Monterey Institute of International Studies Business Sustainability & Society By Thomas Lyons Thursday, December 11, 2014
  2. 2. 2 An Introduction to Maersk Line and its Primary Sustainability Challenges Maersk Line is the world’s largest container shipping company, and the industry leader in advancing eco-efficient transport. The company provides global transport through its 374 offices in 116 countries. They employ 7,000 seafarers and 25,000 land-based employees. In 2012, the company transported goods valued at $675 billion. Their industry- leading Triple-E vessels can hold 18,000 TEUs (twenty foot equivalents).1 Maersk Line is a subsidiary company of the Maersk Group, which is also involved in oil drilling and other forms of transportation. The group has an overall sustainability strategy: To unlock growth for society. This is divided into three focus areas: 1) Energy efficiency, 2) enabling trade, and 3) investing in education. All of these began implementation in 2014, so no reporting is currently available. The 2013 Maersk sustainability report had a more widespread focus on sustainability, as the report covers the whole Maersk group with 121,000 employees represented in around 190 countries. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) annually ranks all global carriers in the marine shipping industry.2 The maritime shipping industry assesses the relative dominance of global carriers not by their revenue, but by the total cargo carrying capacity of their fleets.3 As measured in 2013 carrying capacity, Maersk Line, headquartered in Denmark, as in years previous, was the number one largest shipping company globally. Maersk Line currently is responsible for nearly 14% of all maritime shipping, with 2,149,524 TEUs (twenty foot equivalents) shipped in 2013. Figures 1 illustrates Maersk Line’s relative dominance in the industry. Maersk Line is responsible for 90% of Maersk Group’s C02 emissions. The CO2 emissions from a tanker is measured very similar to a car. Therefore, Maersk has a very clear view of how much it emits. Given the thorough transparency of their emissions data, it is easy track the progress of their stated ambition to reduce emissions each year. Maersk provides an exact number for their CO2 emissions, as well as showing how much one tanker emits on average. In 2013, Maersk emitted 34,056 million tons of CO2. This is a drop of 9% from 2012. In the sustainability report, it is clear, that greenhouse gas emissions are of high importance to the Maersk group. In our interview with their supply chain department, CO2 emissions reductions were confirmed as Maersk Line’s primary sustainability challenge. (see our Interview in the Appendix).4 1 http://www.maerskline.com/ar-ae/about/facts-figures 2 Asariotis Regina, et al. “United Nations Review of Maritime Transport.” United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Geneva, Switzerland. January 2014. 3 Ibid, page 51. 4 Maersk Lines Sustainability Office. “Big impact. Big responsibility. Sustainability Progress Update 2013”. Maersk Lines. Copenhagen, Denmark. January 2014. Global Rank (in TEUs) Shipping Company (Company Headquarters) Number of Vessels (count) Average Vessel Size (TEUs) 2013 Cargo Volume (TEUs) 2012 Cargo Volume (TEUs) Share of Global Fleet Capacity (percentag e) Cargo Capacity Growth 2012- 2013 (percentage) 1 Maersk Line (Denmark) 453 4,745 2,149,524 2,104,825 13.4% 2.1% 2 MSC (Switzerland) 398 5,186 2,064,118 2,025,179 12.9% 1.9% 4 COSCO (China) 155 4,614 715,219 624,055 4.5% 14.6% -- All 3 Target Carriers 1,006 4,899 4,928,861 4,754,059 30.8% 3.7% -- All Non-Target Carriers 4,823 2,308 11,129,372 13,155,223 69.2% -15.4% -- Global Fleet 5,829 2,755 16,058,233 17,909,282 100.0% -10.3% Figure 1: 2013 Global Cargo Capacity Breakdown
  3. 3. 3 For the safety area, Maersk shows how many fatal accidents have happened in the past three years, and what steps they are taking to lower their annual death rate. This is done through various campaigns as well as training the staff. The number of fatal accidents has dropped dramatically in the past years, from over twenty to only four in 2013. Unfortunately, Maersk does not report data on key air pollutants such as SOx and NOx. Maersk aims to maintain the sustainability of their supply chain by requiring all of their suppliers to sign a third party code of conduct. As with the safety area, it is hard to measure how much impact such actions has. Therefore the reporting is mainly how many people in-house at Maersk, are dealing with making the supply chain more sustainable. The reporting on safety and supply chain sustainability may seem a little vague, as no numbers are being reported. On the other hand, this is a fairly complex and difficult area to report on. Maersk reports which initiatives are in place in each area, but does not provide data on all of them. Maersk is clearly invested in sustainability reporting, but time shall tell if they are able to bring analytics to all their focus reporting areas. By analyzing the sustainability report, the reader gets the understanding that the management in Maersk Lines is primarily focused on greenhouse gas emissions reductions. This is embedded sustainability because the management saves money, by reducing fuel consumption, which is a win-win situation. Maersk’s primary sustainability challenge is CO2 emissions reductions. Its second challenge, which is very much secondary in importance to their CO2 emissions reductions, is worker safety and accident mitigation. They aim to be an industry leader in addressing both of these key sustainability challenges. Addressing the Key Sustainability Issues – Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Worker Safety Carbon Dioxide Emissions Global seaborne trade, carried by sea and handled by ports, accounts for 80 percent (%) of the trade of all merchandise by volume. Developed and developing countries rely upon marine shipping and port infrastructure to enable trade and empower economic development and prosperity. The maritime transportation industry is paramount in driving the increased globalization of supply chains. Comparative trade competitiveness in the global economy, for all countries – including landlocked countries – relies significantly on efficacious access to port networks and international shipping services.5 The interconnected challenges presented by climate change, sea level rise, energy security, and environmental sustainability are at the top of the agenda for shipping and port businesses around the world. Increasingly, businesses, industry groups, and policymakers alike are scrutinizing ways to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions in the global shipping fleet as it continues to grow in concert with the global economy. Shipping CO2 emissions already increased by more than 90% since 1990 and if no action is taken, shipping carbon emissions are expected to triple by 2050, representing up to 18% of the 2°C carbon budget by 2050. The industry is responsible for 3% of global GHG emissions, emitting approximately 870 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually, which, by comparison, is more than twice the amount attributable to airline transportation.6 The International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Marine and Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC), in their most recent greenhouse gas emissions study, estimates that technical and operational measures have the potential to reduce shipping industry CO2 emissions by 25 – 75% of their current levels.7 5 Asariotis Regina, et al. “United Nations Review of Maritime Transport.” United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Geneva, Switzerland. January 2014. P XI. 6 Buhaug, Øyvind, et al. “Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships: Second IMO GHG Study.” International Maritime Organization. 7 Asariotis Regina, et al. “United Nations Review of Maritime Transport.” United Nations Conference on Trade and Development”. Geneva, Switzerland. January 2014.
  4. 4. 4 In late 2012, Maersk Line became the first shipping company to receive global certification from the American Bureau of Shipping for energy management. ABS requirements for energy management are based on the ISO 50001 international standard. The company saved almost $90 million in energy costs over three years by measuring the performance of individual vessels, Maersk Line announced in July 2012.8 As can be seen on the bar chart shown here in figure 2, Maersk has almost achieved its goal by reducing emission by 40% by 2020. This seems impressive with only 7 years remaining (Figure is from 2013 report) to meet this target. The question is then, whether the target was too low, or the company is really performing well. The answer is a mix of the two. A company sets a target, which can be achieved – this can be used as PR. A target of 40% sounds impressive. Another factor is, that the first part of the reduction is the easiest as well as the cheapest to gain. Now the company has to start being inventive as well as spending more money, to shave of the last percentage. Maersk is reporting a clear number, of how much CO2 it emits. This is a very open approach, and is not a common thing to do. The figure shows, as well as the issue addressed further up, that Maersk is definitely on the right track, and is performing well. It offers a service, very heavy in fuel consumption, so it is no surprise that it is a key factor to limit the fuel consumption and at the same time limit the emission. The effort to optimize the Maersk Line network in 2013 went beyond simple maintenance. 2013 saw a major network overhaul and – equally important – the adoption of a new approach to network planning. This contributed significantly to lower CO2 emissions and fuel consumption in 2013. Network improvements improved efficiency by policies aimed at integrating slow-steaming and making more stops with fewer ships. Furthermore, the speed on the different legs of the individual routes was reviewed and equalized so the speed is more constant. This saves fuel by avoiding sailing legs at high speeds. Since 2007, Maersk Line has seen a 25% reduction in CO2 per container, and since 2010, the group has achieved an 8% improvement in CO2 efficiency, principally through the proliferation of its new Triple-E Vessels. In a recent interview, CEO Soren Skou, was clear about what the next steps will be for the company: “Our CO2 performance has never been better, but we still see significant potential for further improvements as our new and more efficient Triple-E ships enter into service in 2013 and 2014. Based on our performance over the past 5 years, we feel confident setting a new target for 2020: a 40% reduction of CO2 emissions per container – kilometer, using 2007 as a baseline.”9 8 "Maersk Beats 2020 Carbon Goal." Environmental Leader RSS. N.p., 25 Jan. 2013. Web. 07 Dec. 2014. 9 "The Rise of a Sustainability Leader: Maersk's Journey to the Triple-E - GCaptain Maritime & Offshore News." GCaptain Maritime Offshore News ICal. N.p., 02 July 2013. Web. 07 Dec. 2014. Figure 2 Figure 3 - Maersk CO2 Reductions
  5. 5. 5 Worker Safety Various automation technologies have been introduced to shipbuilding and ship operations, including self- loading/unloading systems, computerized navigation, and the global positioning system (GPS). Automation has markedly reduced the number of crew needed and at the same time substantially improved safety standards. According to data service provider “IHS Fairplay”, total vessel losses (due to accidents or sinking) have declined from more than 200 a year in the mid-1990s to about 150 now – a remarkable improvement in safety when measured against the exponential growth of the global fleet. 10 Maersk Line has adopted a principle that “no injury is acceptable.” The graph in Figure 4 illustrates the development in Maersk Line´s safety performance in 2012-2013 for Maersk Line owned vessels. Lost Time Injury Frequency (LTIF) is defined as the frequency of work-related accidents that resulted in at least 24 hours away from work. Total Recordable Case Frequency (TRCF) is defined as the frequency of work-related accidents that were either: lost-time incidents (LTI); incidents that required medical treatment (MWC); or restricted work incidents (RWI).11 In 2013, Maersk Line had no fatalities in their operations. Danish authorities have conducted formal investigations of two work- related fatalities in 2012. These confirmed that early actions taken by Maersk Line in response to the fatalities were appropriate and no further recommendations were made by the authorities. The simple accidents are the most common of all on board Maersk Line vessels. The 2013 Get Home Safe campaign used cartoons and humor to raise awareness on board, and promote safe thought-processes and emergency preparedness and response. The fact that it is not always in high-risk areas was a challenge when deciding on the medium for the campaign. In the end cartoon posters were chosen as the medium for the campaign. This made the campaign less like finger-wagging and made sure that the crew was reminded of the message in many different areas on the ship. Looking forward, Maersk Line is focusing on driving down the frequency of incidents on the basis of the principle that no injury is acceptable. They will continue to follow up on all injury cases. Lost time incidents, especially repetitive in- juries, will continue to be a priority. Maersk Line emergency response preparedness was tested a number of times in 2013, for example in an incident on Emma Maersk, where the engine room was flooded with seawater. The crew handled the situation with a very high degree of professionalism, thereby preventing any personal injury.12 10 IMO. “AMENDMENTS TO THE CODE FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF MARINE CASUALTIES AND INCIDENTS.” 21 st Session of the IMO Assembly. 11 Maersk Lines Sustainability Office. “Big impact. Big responsibility. Sustainability Progress Update 2013”. Maersk Lines. Copenhagen, Denmark. January 2014. 12 Ibid. Figure 4 – Worker Safety Improvements (2012-2013) development in 2013. Lost-time inci- dents frequency (LTIF) where employ- ees are forced to stay away from work for a shorter or longer period of time, was reduced for Maersk Line´s owned fleet to 1.26, which beats the annual 2012 ciden medi strict the e his o longe In opera cond two ese taken the f furth by th O focus are r follow occu focus of an our ve In on dr dents no in ue to time juries e graph illustrates the development in Maersk Line´ssafe performancein2012-2013forMaersk Line owned vessels. Lost Time Injury Frequency (LTIF) is defined as the frequency of work-related accidents that re- sulted in at least 24 hours away from work. Total Recordable Case Frequency (TRCF) is defined as thefrequencyofwork-relatedaccidentsthatwere either: lost-time incidents (LTI); incidents that re- quired medical treatment (MWC); or restricted work incidents (RWI). 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 Feb12 Apr12 Jun12 Aug12 Okt12 Dec12 Feb13 Apr13 Jun13 Aug13 Okt13 Dec13 TRCF LTIF Maersk Line's safe performance, 2012-2013
  6. 6. 6 Appendix 1: Interview with Caroline Mortensen, Maersk Line Supply Chain Department – December 5th , 2014 What are, in your opinion, the most important sustainability issues Maersk is facing? For Maersk line of course it is the CO2 issue. The shipping department is responsible of the majority of CO2 emission. (90% red.) This has to come down in the coming years. No doubt about that! We are already achieving some of the targets we’ve set, but we are ambitious and can see possibilities for further reduction. What other areas are you focusing on? For Maersk line that’s the most important. For other parts of the group we’ve set new targets and areas of focus. From 2014 we’ve changed our sustainability strategy. This is done so it is simpler, and creates more value for all parties involved. Other than energy reduction, which is our most important objective, we’re focusing on a fair trade around the world as well as improving education in Maersk. In Maersk line what is second biggest issue? Apart from energy efficiency, that we have already discussed, it is the safety protocol, which we’ve been focusing on the past year. We strive to have the best work and safety environment on board out ships. Compared to the industry we have had a very low number of accidents. You can find all the relevant data in the sustainability report. Going back to the efforts relating to Energy efficiency, how do you rate Maersk’s performance and reporting in an international context? We are doing very well. We see ourselves as industry leaders in all aspects of being environmentally friendly. As you can see in our sustainability report, we are doing well in almost every aspect, and we our meeting the targets we have set for ourselves. Maersk has been a driver in the creation of the Triple E vessels, which have been a revolution to the shipping industry. Other companies have started to follow our lead, which we see as a clear indicator, that we are going in the right direction. So to sum up: We se ourselves as been amongst the best when it comes to reporting and performance. The New type of sustainability report launching in 2014, will be a step further in the right direction. A final question: When looking at the sustainability report, many things are only addressed verbally but not quantified, why is that? Many things in the report is hard to put a number on. That’s why we try to describe what we are doing, and the results we are getting. We have our internal standards and guidelines that we follow in many aspects, to ensure, that we are living up to international standards.

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