Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

Critically Assembling Data, Processes & Things: Toward and Open Smart City

473 vues

Publié le

Cottbus Brandenburg University of Technology Lecture series on Smart Regions Critically Assembling Data, Processes & Things: Toward and Open Smart City June 5, 2018

This lecture will critically focus on smart cities from a data based socio-technological assemblage approach.  It is a theoretical and methodological framework that allows for an empirical examination of how smart cities are socially and technically constructed, and to study them as discursive regimes and as a large technological infrastructural systems.
The lecture will refer to the research outcomes of the ERC funded Programmable City Project led by Rob Kitchin at Maynooth University and will feature examples of empirical research conducted in Dublin and other Irish cities.
In addition, the lecture will discuss the research outcomes of the Canadian Open Smart Cities project funded by the Government of Canada GeoConnections Program. Examples will be drawn from five case studies namely about the cities of Edmonton, Guelph, Ottawa and Montreal, and the Ontario Smart Grid as well as number of international best practices. The recent Infrastructure Canada Canadian Smart City Challenge and the controversial Sidewalk Lab Waterfront Toronto project will also be discussed. 
It will be argued that no two smart cities are alike although the technological solutionist and networked urbanist approaches dominate and it is suggested that these kind of smart cities may not live up to the promise of being better places to live.
In this lecture, the ideals of an Open Smart City are offered instead and in this kind of city residents, civil society, academics, and the private sector collaborate with public officials to mobilize data and technologies when warranted in an ethical, accountable and transparent way in order to govern the city as a fair, viable and livable commons that balances economic development, social progress and environmental responsibility. Although an Open Smart City does not yet exist, it will be argued that it is possible.

Publié dans : Technologie
  • Identifiez-vous pour voir les commentaires

Critically Assembling Data, Processes & Things: Toward and Open Smart City

  1. 1. Cottbus Brandenburg University of Technology Lecture series on Smart Regions Critically Assembling Data, Processes & Things: Toward and Open Smart City June 5, 2018 Dr. Tracey P. Lauriault Assistant Professor of Critical Media and Big Data Communication and Media Studies, School of Journalism and Communication Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada Tracey.Lauriault@Carleton.ca ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-1847-2738
  2. 2. Lecture Content 1. Critical Data Studies 2. Theoretical framework • Assemblage • Dynamic Nominalism • Genealogy • Social-Shaping 3. Methodology • Digital ethnography • Walkthrough 4. Programmable City Case Studies • OSi • Homelessness • Open Data 5. Open Smart Cities • Open Smart Cities Project • Smart City Context in Canada • Research & Methodology • Case Studies • Observations • Open Smart City Guide 6. Q&A Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  3. 3. 1. Critical Data Studies Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  4. 4. 1.1 Critical Data Studies
  5. 5. Research and thinking that applies critical social theory to data to explore the ways in which: Data are more than the unique arrangement of objective and politically neutral facts & It is understood that data do not exist independently of ideas, techniques, technologies, systems, people and contexts regardless of them being presented in that way 1.2 Data – big or small Tracey P. Lauriault, 2012, Data, Infrastructures and Geographical Imaginations. Ph.D. Thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, http://curve.carleton.ca/theses/27431
  6. 6. 1.3 Framing Data 1. Technically 2. Ethically 3. Politically & economically 4. Spatial/Temporal 5. Philosophically 6. Technological Citizenship 7. Data Activism Rob Kitchin, 2014, The Data Revolution, Sage. Andrew Feenberg, 2011, Agency and Citizenship in a Technological Society, https://www.sfu.ca/~andrewf/copen5-1.pdf Tracey P. Lauriault, engaged research
  7. 7. 1.4 Critical Data Studies Vision • Unpack the complex assemblages that produce, circulate, share/sell and utilise data in diverse ways; • Chart the diverse work they do and their consequences for how the world is known, governed and lived-in; • Survey the wider landscape of data assemblages and how they interact to form intersecting data products, services and markets and shape policy and regulation. Chapter 1, Toward Critical Data Studies: Charting and Unpacking Data Assemblages and Their Work By Rob Kitchin and Tracey P. Lauriault in Thinking Big Data in Geography New Regimes, New Research (Eds) Jim Thatcher, Josef Eckert, and Andrew Shears (2018)
  8. 8. 2. Theoretical Framework Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  9. 9. 2.1 Socio-Technological Assemblage Material Platform (infrastructure – hardware) Code Platform (operating system) Code/algorithms (software) Data(base) Interface Reception/Operation (user/usage) Systems of thought Forms of knowledge Finance Political economies Governmentalities - legalities Organisations and institutions Subjectivities and communities Marketplace System/process performs a task Context frames the system/task Digital socio-technical assemblage HCI, Remediation studies Critical code studies Software studies New media studies Game studies Critical Social Science Science Technology Studies Platform studies Places Practices Flowline/Lifecycle Surveillance Studies Critical data studies Algorithm Studies Modified by Lauriault from Kitchin, 2014, The Data Revolution, Sage.
  10. 10. 2.2 Dynamic Nominalism Modified from Ian Hacking’s Dynamic Nominalism Tracey P. Lauriault, 2012, Data, Infrastructures and Geographical Imaginations. Ph.D. Thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, http://curve.carleton.ca/theses/27431
  11. 11. 20101990 1995 2000 20051985 2015 Data Liberation Initiative (DLI) Geogratis Data Portal GeoBase Canadian Internet Public Policy Clinic Maps Data and Government Information Services (MADGIC) Carleton U GeoConnections GeoGratis Census Data Consortium Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) Atlas of Canada Online (1st) CeoNet Discovery Portal Research Data Network How'd they Vote CivicAccess.ca Campaign for Open Government (FIPA) Canadian Association of Public Data Users Datalibre.ca VisibleGovernment.ca I Believe in Open Campaign Change Camps Start Nanaimo BC Toronto Open Data Portals Edmonton Mississauga launches open data Citizen Factory B.C.'s Climate Change Data Catalogue Open Parliament DatadotGC.ca Ottawa Ottawa, Prince George, Medicine Hat Data.gc.ca Global TV Hansard in XML Langley Let the Data Flow GovCamp Fed. Expenses Montreal Ouvert Fed.Gov. Travel and Hospitality Expenses London Hamilton Windsor Open Data Hackfest Aid Agency Proactive.ca DataBC Hacking Health 14 Cities Quebec Ontario OGP 3 Cities Alberta G8 Community Data Program FCM Quality of Life Reporting System Geographic and Numeric Information System (GANIS) Int. Open Data Charter ODX/PSD CODS VancouverG4+1 GO Open Data Census E4D First Nations Information Governance OCAP 2.3 Genealogy Lauriault (2014) https://vimeo.com/95726187
  12. 12. 2.4 Social-shaping qualities of data Kitchin, 2012, Programmable City, http://progcity.maynoothuniversity.ie/about/
  13. 13. 3. Methodology Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  14. 14. 3.1 Digital Ethnography • Embedded in organizations • Semi Structured Interviews • Cultural acclimatization in the domain • Meetups • Lists • Twitter • Events • Hackathons • Industry conferences • Advisory Committees • Government meetings • Data science • Etc. Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  15. 15. 3.2 Walkthrough Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444816675438 https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444815 589702 https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118 X.2016.1168471
  16. 16. 4. Programmable City Case Studies Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  17. 17. 4.1 Programmable City Translation: City into code & data Transduction: Code & data reshape city Understanding the city (Knowledge) How are digital data materially & discursively supported & processed about cities & their citizens? How does software drive public policy development & implementation? Managing the city (Governance) How are discourses & practices of city governance translated into code? How is software used to regulate & govern city life? Working in the city (Production) How is the geography & political economy of software production organised? How does software alter the form & nature of work? Living in the city (Social Politics) How is software discursively produced & legitimated by vested interests? How does software transform the spatiality & spatial behaviour of individuals? Creating the smart city Dublin Dashboard Rob Kitchin, (2012) National University of Ireland, Maynooth
  18. 18. 4.2 Ordnance Survey Ireland (OSi) Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University Tracey P. Lauriault, 2018, Chapter 13 Ontologizing the City in Data and the City (Eds) by Rob Kitchin, Tracey P. Lauriault and Gavin McArdle, Routledge.
  19. 19. 4.2.1 Ontologizing the City - From Old School National Cartographic Based Classification toward a Rules Based Real-World Object Oriented National Database Object of Study • Data assemblage of OSi PRIME2 • Examine how ‘real’ things are understood in the new object oriented data model • Assess if these change how space is modelled and then acted upon Time frame • Jan. 2015-2018 Data Management and Ethics • ERC • Maynooth University • SSHRC Tri-Council Case Study Outputs • Case study report • Data assemblage • Tracing the production of space • Genealogy from class to object • Academic publications Funding • Programmable City Project • P.I. Prof. Rob Kitchin • NIRSA, Maynooth University • European Research Council Advanced Investigator Award • ERC-2012-AdG-323636-SOFTCITY Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  20. 20. 4.2.2 Data Collection Attend OSi & 1Spatial Road shows and public speaking events • One day coordinated field trip & group interviews at OSi Sligo (survey data capture unit) • Examine the Prime & Prime2 flow lines • Real-time survey and data update of a building • 1.5 months as an embedded researcher, OSi in Phoenix Park • One-on-one interviews with key actors (Transcribed audio recordings) • Group interview • Document Collection • Collection of objects across time for Dublin Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  21. 21. 4.2.3 OSi Socio-Technological Transformation • Institutionally • Colonial surveyor • Military Mapping Organization • Civil Service National Mapping Organization (NMO) • State Body NMO • Becomes the NMO w/in Tailte Éireann • Trans-institutional CSO • Technologically • Data collection • Techniques • Scale • Geometry • Skill • Technologies • Dissemination • Linked data across institutions • Scope • Colonial mapping • National mapping • Post Colonial mapping • OSi/OSNI/OSGB • EU / Inspire / NSDI • Global / UNGGI Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  22. 22. 4.2.4 From map sheets to a database The objective is the provision of a single vision of the geographic ‘truth’ of the state, one that is standardized to align with OSi’s mission “to create, maintain and provide the State’s definitive mapping and geospatial information services to support citizens, business and government”, and its vision to be “the national provider of trusted, maintained geospatial data and platforms to ensure the State’s location data is easy to find, share and use” (OSi 2016). Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  23. 23. Polygon Ireland Reference Polygon Polygon Polygon Polygon Polygon 4.2.5 Ireland in a data model Ireland becomes a real- world, feature-based information, national- scale spatial data platform which consisted of the sum of its materially defined parts defined by rules with topologically accurate, uniquely identified objects with spatial coordinates, attributes and spatial relations. Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  24. 24. A intersects B A B B A A B A is within B A touches B A crosses B A is Z+1 over BA = B+C+D+E A B C D E A B 4.2.6 Topology In the database objects are described in code as having geometry, coordinates and attributes. Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  25. 25. 4.2.7 Skin of the Earth Model Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  26. 26. 4.2.8 Data Re-Engineering Cassini, 6”, 1st ed. Circa? Cassini 6”, 1943-44Cassini 25”, 1st ed, Circa? Cassini25”, 1936 Heuston Station, Prime2 MapGenie Heuston Station, Prime2 SOE Seamless, topologically consistent blanket of polygons that cover the entire surface of Ireland w/no holes or gaps Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  27. 27. 4.2.9 Socio-technological transformation The model becomes a core infrastructure upon which new knowledge is produced. These ‘new’ data can now be linked to near real time data, sensor feeds and be the framework for smart city technologies. These data now allow for the modeling of dynamic processes, ebbs and flows of water, traffic, climate. They become an authoritative, reliable, and trusted state framework dataset that can be linked to others (I.e. utilities, RTE, museum collections). Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  28. 28. 4.2.10 Etymology Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  29. 29. 4.2.11 Models echoe the past Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  30. 30. 4.2.12 Genealogy of a model Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  31. 31. 4.2.13 Genealogy of a data model
  32. 32. 4.2.14 Iconic City Things Prime2 Data Model Iconic Object Way M50 – Red Cow interchange Water Docklands – Samuel Beckett Bridge / Gasometers Vegetation Collins Barracks / Esplanade Building Observatory, GPO, Liberty Hall, Heuston Station, Connelly Station, Collins Barracks, OSI, Conference Centre, Digital hub Guinness Factory, Ivy trust Guinness – flat complexes, park area beano, public baths, Hilton Hotel / Rowntree Sweets, Kilmainham jail & museum, Croke Park / Lansdowne Road Artificial Bull Wall island Z-Order Priority Samuel Becket Bridge, Kings Bridge, Halfpenny Bridge (Way & Structure) Superimposed Objects - Structure Nelsons pillar blow up in 1966/Spire? Stiletto in the Ghetto, Wellington monument – obelisk Divisions City Walls / Antiquity, The Pale, Guinness Walls Networks – water, rail, roads Liffey & Grand Canal, M50, North & South Circular, Heuston, Connelly, Luas Grouped Objects M50 road network Names. N & S Circular Road, Rivers & Canals Sites, Locals Trinity (Site), Temple Bar (Locale) Boundaries Dublin, EDs in Dublin, Baronies, County, Parish
  33. 33. 4.2.15 Models are actors • Models shape • how the world is viewed • the world of work • tools & techniques • the structure of an organization • how organizations interconnect with others • Models augment space • Models are socially constructed by people
  34. 34. I would like to express my gratitude to all at the Ordnance Survey Ireland (OSi) for generously sharing their knowledge and time. This research was funded by a European Research Council Advanced Investigator award (ERC-2012-AdG- 323636-SOFTCITY.
  35. 35. 4.3 Automating Homelessness Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University Tracey Lauriault, 2018, Automating Homelessness, Conference of Irish Geographies, The Earth as Our Home, Maynooth University.
  36. 36. 4.3.1 Homeless case study scope Object of Study: A. Dublin Ireland: • Pathway Accommodation and Support System (PASS) • Dublin Street Count • Central Statistics Office (CSO) national census enumeration of the homeless. B. Boston, MA, USA: • Homelessness Data Exchange (HDX) Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Housing Inventory Count (HIC) • Boston Health Commission Annual Street/Point- in-Time (PIT) Count of Homelessness • US Census Bureau National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) C. Ottawa, ON, Canada: • National Homelessness Information System (HIFIS) • Ottawa Street Count • Statistics Canada national census enumeration of the homeless. • Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) Municipal Data Collection Tool (MDCT) indicators on Homelessness Funding • Programmable City Project • P.I. Prof. Rob Kitchin • NIRSA, Maynooth University • European Research Council Advanced Investigator Award • ERC-2012-AdG-323636-SOFTCITY
  37. 37. 4.3.2 Homeless case study outputs A. 3 site specific city case studies for comparative analysis • 3 CS reports with accompanying data, information and literature including: • 3 national homeless shelter intake software systems • 3 city specific point in time street counts • 3 national statistical agency censuses which enumerated people who are homeless • Interview recordings and transcripts from key informants • Repository of related grey literature B. Data Assemblages • Data assemblage for each intake data system, street count and homeless census • Comparative analysis of these data assemblages C. Construction of homeless people and homelessness • Application of the modified Ian Hacking framework to the making up of homeless people and spaces • 3 homelessness data classification genealogies • Comparative analysis of genealogies
  38. 38. 4.3.3 Data collection • Semi-Structured & Transcribed Interviews with: • Developers • Creators • Policy advisors and analysts • Users – Agencies • Dublin • Grey literature in Boston and Ottawa • Engaged research • Participation in Rough Sleeper / Street Counts / Point in Time Counts • Ireland CSO Census Working Group on Homelessness • Member of the Dublin Regional Homelessness Initiative • Attend 2 Calgary Homeless Foundation Homelessness Research Symposium • Modified walkthrough • Downloading & using the software • Observing users • Call for Tender • Specification Manuals • Training Manuals • Examining data models • Screen captures of interfaces • Grey literature • Policies, directives, strategies • Laws, regulation • Performance indicators, metrics • Reports • Community literature • Funding mechanisms Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  39. 39. 4.3.4 3 Homelessness Intake Systems Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University Ottawa, Canada Homeless Individuals and Families Information System (HIFIS) Dublin, Republic of Ireland Pathway Accommodation and Support System (PASS) Boston, US, Homelessness Management Information Systems (HMIS)
  40. 40. 4.3.5 Intake System Objectives • HIFIS • Comprehensive and comparative data collection • ESDC will grant a licence in return for non-identifiable personal information related to the Service Provider and its clientele ("Personal Information"). • PASS • Provision of 'real-time' information in terms of homeless presentation and bed occupancy • Dublin local authorities, Health Service Executive and all homeless services • Improve service delivery • Monitor the delivery of services • Coordinate services • Planning and development of services Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University • HUD HMIS Coordinated housing and services funding for homeless families and individuals with: • Outreach, • Intake and assessment, • Emergency shelter, • transitional housing and • permanent supportive housing.
  41. 41. 4.3.6 Intake System Interface Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  42. 42. 4.3.7 Intake System Governance • HIFIS • 1999 • 1st Developed by Canada Housing Mortgage Corporation (CHMC) • 2004? Ongoing dev. by Homelessness Secretariat, Employment Social Development Canada ( ESDC Fed) • Community Coordinators • Deployed in independent shelters and other service points • +/- 500 service points • Not complete coverage • PASS • 2013 • Developed & Coordinated by Dublin Region Homeless Executive (DRHE) • In collab. w/Office of the Data Protection Commissioner (ODPC) • Regional PASS Coordinator • Deployed in all service points in Ireland that receive state funding • Multiple agencies, including local authorities and Voluntary Organizations • Complete Coverage Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University • HUD HMIS • 2004 • US Dept. of Housing & Urban Development (HUD), w/ the Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS), Dept. of Veterans Affairs (VA), of the Data Standards • Neighborhood Development Supportive Housing Division, w/ direction from Continuum of Care Board the Boston Continuum of Care Leadership Council • Coverage?
  43. 43. 4.3.8 Intake System Design • HIFIS • In collaboration with service providers • National consensus Bldg. • National User Group • Joint Application Design • In house developers • HIFIS 4 web based • PASS • w/Service Providers • Open Sky • Cloud based MS BI Platform • Cloud based • Proprietary • Intake and case management Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University • HUD HMIS • Social Solutions’ Efforts to Outcomes (ETO®) HMIS • Platform, SaaS w/TouchPoint CMS • Cloud based • Open Path Warehouse developed by GreenRiver • Intake Social Solutions Inc.
  44. 44. 4.3.9 Intake System Policy & Regulation • HIFIS • PIPEDA • Data Provision Agreements • Homelessness Partnering Strategy (HPS) • National Homeless Information System (NHIS) • PASS • Data Protection Acts 1988 & 2003 and fulfils the role of certified Data Controller. • Health Act, 1953 • Childcare Act, 1991, • Housing Act 1988 • Housing (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2009 Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University • HUD HMIS • Housing First • US Dept. of HUD awards Homeless Assistance Program funding through Continuum of Care (CoC)
  45. 45. 4.3.10 Intake System Data Output & Reporting • HIFIS • PASS Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University • HUD HMIS
  46. 46. 4.3.11 Data Model Open Path Warehouse Boston Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  47. 47. Data Person • Data Double (Virilio, 2000) • Digital doppelgänger (Robinson, 2008) • Data Ghost (Sports analytics) • Data Trails / Traces / Shadows / Footprints • Data (statistical) Person (Dunne & Dunne, 2014) • Dataveillance (Clarke, 1988)
  48. 48. I would like to express my gratitude to Dublin City Council, the ESDC Homelessness Secretariat and all the people interviewed as part of this study. The research for this study was funded by a European Research Council Advanced Investigator award ERC- 2012-AdG-323636-SOFTCITY.
  49. 49. 4.4 Open Data Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University Lauriault, T. P. , 2014, A genealogy of data assemblages: tracing the geospatial open access and open data movements in Canada, the Data-based Living – Peopling and Placing Big Data Session, Association of American Geographers (AAG) Tampa, FL.
  50. 50. Research Data Canada Archiving, Management and Preservation of Geospatial Data National Consultation on Access to Scientific Data Final Report (NCASRD) 20101990 1995 2000 2005 National Data Archive Consultation (SSHRC) Stewardship of Research Data in Canada: A Gap Analysis The dissemination of government geographic data in Canada: guide to best practices Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology Toward a National Digital Information Strategy: Mapping the Current Situation in Canada (LAC) Canadian Digital Information Strategy (CDIS) (LAC) IPY 1985 Open Data Consultations Mapping the Data Landscape: Report of the 2011 Canadian Research Data Summit Digital Economy Consultation, Industry Canada Community Data Roundtable Privacy (Geo) Sensitive Data (Geo) Resolution of Canada’s Access to Information and Privacy Commissioners Geomatics Accord Signed Canadian Geospatial Data Policy Liberating the Data Proposal VGI Primer Cloud (Geo) OD Advisory Panel OGP G8 • Policies • Reports • Proposals • Recommendations • Consultation 2008 2015 Int. Open Data Charter 4.4.1 Open Data Context
  51. 51. 20101990 1995 2000 20051985 2015 Data Liberation Initiative (DLI) Geogratis Data Portal GeoBase Canadian Internet Public Policy Clinic Maps Data and Government Information Services (MADGIC) Carleton U GeoConnections GeoGratis Census Data Consortium Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) Atlas of Canada Online (1st) CeoNet Discovery Portal Research Data Network How'd they Vote CivicAccess.ca Campaign for Open Government (FIPA) Canadian Association of Public Data Users Datalibre.ca VisibleGovernment.ca I Believe in Open Campaign Change Camps Start Nanaimo BC Toronto Open Data Portals Edmonton Mississauga launches open data Citizen Factory B.C.'s Climate Change Data Catalogue Open Parliament DatadotGC.ca Ottawa Ottawa, Prince George, Medicine Hat Data.gc.ca Global TV Hansard in XML Langley Let the Data Flow GovCamp Fed. Expenses Montreal Ouvert Fed.Gov. Travel and Hospitality Expenses London Hamilton Windsor Open Data Hackfest Aid Agency Proactive.ca DataBC Hacking Health 14 Cities Quebec Ontario OGP 3 Cities Alberta G8 Community Data Program FCM Quality of Life Reporting System Geographic and Numeric Information System (GANIS) Int. Open Data Charter ODX/PSD CODS VancouverG4+1 GO Open Data Census E4D First Nations Information Governance OCAP 4.4.2 Open Data Materialities
  52. 52. 4.4.3 Data as political platforms
  53. 53. 4.4.4 Data Communities of Practice Research/scientific Data GovData GeoData Physical Sciences AdminData Public Sector Data NGOs Access to Data Open Data Social Sciences 2005 Operations Data Infrastructural Data Sensor Data Social Media Data AI/Machine Learning Data Smart Open Data? 2015 Private Sector IOT - Smart Cities - Precision Agriculture - Autonomous Cars SM Platforms Algorithms P2P – Sharing Economy Predictive Policing Surveillance Digital Labour Drones 5GPublic/Private Sector Data? Crowdsourcing Citizen Science Civic Teck OCAP Local and Traditional Knowledge
  54. 54. 4.4.5 Institutional Disconnect Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  55. 55. 5. Open Smart Cities Lauriault, T. P. , Bloom, R. Landry, J.-N. 2018, Open Smart Cities Project https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  56. 56. 5.1 Open Smart Cities in Canada Project Funded by: GeoConnections Lead by: OpenNorth Project core team: • Rachel Bloom & Jean-Noe Landry, Open North • Dr. Tracey P. Lauriault, Carleton University • David Fewer, LL.M., Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic (CIPPIC) • Dr. Mark Fox, University of Toronto • Research Assistants Carleton University • Carly Livingstone • Stephen Letts Project collaborators: • Expert Smart City representatives from the cities of: 1. Edmonton 2. Guelph 3. Montréal 4. Ottawa • Collaborators include experts from the provinces of: 1. Ontario 2. British Columbia T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  57. 57. 5.2 Project Outputs 1. Executive summary of a smart city environmental scan (E-Scan) and 5 Canadian case studies. • This report identifies international shapers of smart cities and their components and describes current smart city practices across Canada. 2. Assessment of Canadian smart city practices • In depth city profiles were developed as a result of interviews with smart city representatives from the cities of Edmonton, Guelph, Montreal, and Ottawa.. 3. Review of selected open smart city best practices in 4 international cities (Chicago, Dublin, Helsinki, and New York) • The literature review focuses on approaches to open and geospatial data standardization in a smart city context. These cities were chosen for their innovative geospatial and open data policies and practices. 4. Inter-jurisdictional case study • To situate open smart city policies and data management practices in Canada’s inter-jurisdictional context, interviews with officials from the Province of Ontario and consulted with officials at the Province of British Columbia. 5. Open Smart Cities FAQ • In collaboration with the Open Smart Cities in Canada core team, the Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic (CIPPIC) has created a FAQ to answer common legal and regulatory questions about smart city technologies. 6. Open Smart Cities Guide V1.0 • This final phase of the project provides a definition for an Open Smart City. This output intends to guide Canadian municipalities toward co-creating Open Smart Cities with their stakeholders and residents. Results will be disseminated broadly and were presented during the project’s third webinar on April 17. Watch the presentation here. https://www.opennorth.ca/projects T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  58. 58. 5.2 Context in Canada T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  59. 59. 5.2.1 Smart City Challenge • Launched November 2017, 225 Submissions, 130 Eligible, 20 shortlisted • Municipalities, regional governments, & Indigenous communities • Community not-for-profit, private sector company, or expert • $300 million Smart Cities Challenge in 2017 Budget 59 T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  60. 60. 5.2.2 Canada Smart City Challenge http://www.infrastructure.gc.ca/sc-vi/map-applications.php https://impact.canada.ca/en/challenges/smart-cities/results T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  61. 61. 5.2.3 Sidewalk Toronto the PPP Smart City https://sidewalktoronto.ca/
  62. 62. 5.3 Open Smart Cities Research Methodology T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  63. 63. 5.3.1 Data collection & Methodology • E-Scan of 4 cities + 1 Province 1. Edmonton 2. Guelph 3. Ottawa 4. Montreal 5. Ontario Smart Grid • Development of semi-structured interview instrument • City officials generously participated in 90 min phone interviews • Interviews were recorded & transcribed • City officials responded to follow-up questions & validated reports The following was collected: • visions and strategies • reasons for deploying smart city initiatives • beneficiaries • governance models • deployment strategies • citizen engagement • “openness” and open data • access to smart city data • smart city business models • procurement • challenges & benefits. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  64. 64. 5.3.2 Smart City Actors • Vendors • Think tanks • Consulting firms • Alliances and associations • Standards organizations • Civil society • Academic • Procurement • Guides, Playbooks, Practices • Indicators • Cities T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  65. 65. 5.4 4 Canadian Cities, 1 Province, International Best Practices T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  66. 66. 5.4.5 Reference Statistics Guelph Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  67. 67. 5.4.1 Edmonton - Smart City Initiative The smart city is “about creating and nurturing a resilient, livable, and workable city through the use of technology, data and social innovation” T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  68. 68. 5.4.2 Guelph - Initiative “The vision of a modern City is one that offers services to customers when and where they want them. A Smart City is one that uses technology to achieve this goal, using technology at every appropriate opportunity to streamline processes and simplify access to city services. This is a city that has all the information it needs, available and accessible, to support effective decision- making” T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  69. 69. 5.4.3 Ottawa - Initiative Connected City • Create a city where all residents and busi-nesses are connected in an efficient, affordable, and ubiquitous way. Smart Economy • Stimulate economic growth by supporting knowledge-based business expansion and attraction, local entre-preneurs, and smart talent development. Innovative Government • Develop new and innovative ways to impact the lives of residents and businesses through the creative use of new service delivery models, technology solutions, and partnerships. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  70. 70. 5.4.4 Montréal – Ville Intelligente, Strategy & Action Plan “A smart and digital city means better services for citizens, a universally higher standard of living and harnessing of our metropolis’s resources to ensure its development is in line with the population’s needs” Vice Chair of the Executive Committee, responsible for the smart city, Harout Chitilian T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  71. 71. 5.4.4 Ontario Smart Grid The Electricity Act, 1998242 defines a Smart Grid as follows: • (1.3) For the purposes of this Act, the smart grid means the advanced information exchange systems and equipment that when utilized together improve the flexibility, security, reliability, efficiency and safety of the integrated power system and distribution systems, particularly for the purposes of • (a) enabling the increased use of renewable energy sources and technology, including generation facilities connected to the distribution system; • (b) expanding opportunities to provide demand response, price information and load control to electricity customers; • (c) accommodating the use of emerging, innovative and energy saving technologies and system control applications; or • (d) supporting other objectives that may be prescribed by regulation. 2009, c. 12, Sched. B, s. 1 (5). T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  72. 72. 5.4.6 International Best Practices • Chicago • Helsinky • New York • Barcelona • Dublin Open smart cities include: • Rights (GDPR & right to repair) • Are in the public interest • Ethics (Quebec, NyC, Helsinki, Chicago) • Environmental considerations • Critical and meaningful public engagement & dialogue not just consultation • Ecosystems approach (ASDI and Dublin Report) T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  73. 73. 5.5 Observations T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  74. 74. Digital Strategies Open Data Open Science Open Platform Open Source Open Government 5.5.1 Smart Cities - Openness YesNo MaybeUnlikely Smart Cities/ Precision Ag/ IoT Likely Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  75. 75. Mapping openness onto the smart city requires the Integration of digital practices Alllevelsofgovernment 5.5.2 Smart Cities – Openness T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  76. 76. 5.5.3 What did we learn • Smart cities are new & emerging & citizens do not generally know what is coming, may not be the drivers • Need to identify issues to be resolved with technology instead of technology looking for issues • More data does not mean better governance • Very few overarching socio-technical and ethical considerations • Requirement for technological citizenship • Is this an innovation bias or is it a smart city that is best for the City, the environment and its residents? T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  77. 77. 5.5.4 Smart City Challenges • Data governance – residency, privacy, etc. • Security & privacy vulnerabilities (hacking) • E-waste – cost, short shelf life • Mission creep - potential • Surveillance / dataveillance potential • Ownership / procurement • Repair – DRM • Device lock in • Archiving - the lack thereof • Reuse – unintended purposes • Sustainability, maintenance & management • Interoperability • Standards – emerging T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  78. 78. 5.6 Open Smart City Guide V 1.0 T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  79. 79. 5.6.1 What is a city? T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  80. 80. A city is • a complex and dynamic socio-biological system • territorially bound • a human settlement • governed by public city officials who manage • the grey, blue and green environment • within their jurisdictional responsibility T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  81. 81. 5.6.2. What is a smart city? T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  82. 82. A smart city is • technologically instrumented & networked w/ systems that are interlinked & integrated, where vast troves of big urban data are being generated by sensors & administrative processes used to manage & control urban life in real-time (Kitchin, 2018). • where administrators and elected officials invest in smart city technologies & data analytical systems to inform how to innovatively, economically, efficiently & objectively run & manage the city. • The focus is most often to quantify & manage infrastructure, mobility, business & online government services. • a form of technological solutionism. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  83. 83. 5.6.3 What is an open smart city? T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  84. 84. Definition of the Open Smart City V 1.0 An Open Smart City is where residents, civil society, academics, and the private sector collaborate with public officials to mobilize data and technologies when warranted in an ethical, accountable and transparent way to govern the city as a fair, viable and liveable commons and balance economic development, social progress and environmental responsibility. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  85. 85. 5 Open Smart City Themes 1. Governance 2. Engagement 3. Data & Technology 4. Data Governance 5. Effective and values based smart cities T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  86. 86. Theme 1. Governance in an Open Smart City is ethical, accountable, and transparent. These principles apply to the governance of social and technical platforms which include data, algorithms, skills, infrastructure, and knowledge. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  87. 87. 87T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  88. 88. Theme 1. Resources arranged as follows: • Ethical Governance • Governance Structures and Participation • Cooperative and Multi-jurisdictional Governance • Accountable Governance • Transparent Governance • Cooperative Governance T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  89. 89. Theme 2. An Open Smart City is participatory, collaborative, and responsive. It is a city where government, civil society, the private sector, the media, academia and residents meaningfully participate in the governance of the city and have shared rights and responsibilities. This entails a culture of trust and critical thinking and fair, just, inclusive, and informed approaches. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  90. 90. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  91. 91. Theme 2. Resources arranged as follows: • Participatory • Collaborative • Responsive • Trust • Critical Thinking • Fair & Just • Inclusive & Informed T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  92. 92. Theme 3. An Open Smart City uses data and technologies that are fit for purpose, can be repaired and queried, their source code are open, adhere to open standards, are interoperable, durable, secure, and where possible locally procured and scalable. Data and technology are used and acquired in such a way as to reduce harm and bias, increase sustainability and enhance flexibility. An Open Smart City may defer when warranted to automated decision making and therefore designs these systems to be legible, responsive, adaptive and accountable. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  93. 93. 93
  94. 94. Theme 3. Resources arranged as follows: • Fit for Purpose • Repaired and Queried • Open Source • Open Standards • Cybersecurity and Data Security • Reduction of Harm and Bias • Local Procurement • Balancing Sustainability T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  95. 95. Theme 4. In an Open Smart City, data management is the norm and custody and control over data generated by smart technologies is held and exercised in the public interest. Data governance includes sovereignty, residency, open by default, security, individual and social privacy, and grants people authority over their personal data. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  96. 96. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  97. 97. Theme 4. Resources arranged as follows: • Data Management • Custody of Data • Residency • Open by Default • Security • Privacy • Personal Data Management T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart
  98. 98. Theme 5. In an Open Smart City, it is recognized that data and technology are not always the solution to many of the systemic issues cities face, nor are there always quick fixes. These problems require innovative, sometimes long term, social, organizational, economic, and political processes and solutions. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  99. 99. Complex urban social issues need more than technology for resolution: T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, 2018, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project, https://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide
  100. 100. Final Remarks • The Open Smart City Guide V1.0 is a Living Document that will be updated on a regular basis and we are counting on you for your help. • http://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide • Please send feedback, ideas, critiques etc. to • info@opennorth.ca
  101. 101. Thank you
  102. 102. Abstract Critically Assembling Data, Processes and Things in the City: Toward and Open Smart City This lecture will critically focus on smart cities from a data based socio-technological assemblage approach. It is a theoretical and methodological framework that allows for an empirical examination of how smart cities are socially and technically constructed, and to study them as discursive regimes and as a large technological infrastructural systems. The lecture will refer to the research outcomes of the ERC funded Programmable City Project led by Rob Kitchin at Maynooth University and will feature examples of empirical research conducted in Dublin and other Irish cities. In addition, the lecture will discuss the research outcomes of the Canadian Open Smart Cities project funded by the Government of Canada GeoConnections Program. Examples will be drawn from five case studies namely about the cities of Edmonton, Guelph, Ottawa and Montreal, and the Ontario Smart Grid as well as number of international best practices. The recent Infrastructure Canada Canadian Smart City Challenge and the controversial Sidewalk Lab Waterfront Toronto project will also be discussed. It will be argued that no two smart cities are alike although the technological solutionist and networked urbanist approaches dominate and it is suggested that these kind of smart cities may not live up to the promise of being better places to live. In this lecture, the ideals of an Open Smart City are offered instead and in this kind of city residents, civil society, academics, and the private sector collaborate with public officials to mobilize data and technologies when warranted in an ethical, accountable and transparent way in order to govern the city as a fair, viable and livable commons that balances economic development, social progress and environmental responsibility. Although an Open Smart City does not yet exist, it will be argued that it is possible. Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  103. 103. Acknowledgements The research referred to in this lecture was funded by two organizations: Programmable City Led by Prof. Rob Kitchin and funded by the European Research Council Advanced Investigator award ERC-2012-AdG- 323636-SOFTCITY. Open Smart City Conducted in collaboration with Open North, and funded by the GeoConnections Program, Natural Resources Canada I would like to thank all those who participated in interviews.

×