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NOTES: Learning from the past: Open data in Canada Open Government Canada Webinar Series

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NOTES: Learning from the past: Open data in Canada Open Government Canada Webinar Series

  1. 1. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 4 The story of collecting data about people and territory goes way back. One great example is the late 11th century England Domesday Book, produced under the orders of King William the Conqueror. It one of the earliest surviving public records which includes, statistics, and geography, among other data. From 1455 the printing press sped up the publication of data, maps and government records. 900 years later, the BBC Domesday Project became pre-Web-2.0 crowdsourcing projects in 1986 with Schools and community groups submitted 147,819 + pages of text and 23,225 photos. Data Source: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110911075508/http://www.bbc.co.uk/ history/domesday/story. Image Sources: Top: UK National Archives Domesday Book: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/domesday/ Bottom: SN:5694 - Electronic Edition of Domesday Book: Translation, Databases and Scholarly Commentary, 1086: https://beta.ukdataservice.ac.uk/datacatalogue/studies/study?id=5694#!/documentat ion Slide 5 Colonial explorers made maps, and compiled data in notebooks and ship ledgers and Jean Talon in 1665-66, conducted the world’s first census by name in New France. These data were tabulated by hand, and later transcribed into new tables by human computers. Census data were cost prohibitive and inaccessible to most Canadians. The Data Liberation Initiative in the 90s purchased data under a special consortia licence so that scholars and students in universities could study Canada and the DLI were the 1st to exchange government data over the Internet. Census data became open data just after the long-form census was cancelled by the Harper Government in 2011. References: • Many of the old books, tabulations and original census schedules have been digitized and can be found in the Library and Archives Canada (https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/census/Pages/census.aspx), • See DataVerse (https://dataverse.scholarsportal.info/dataverse/odesi-1665- 1871censusesofcanada) • Read about the affairs of the state including maps, data, laws and policy in the Canada Year Books (https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/11-402-X). Image Sources: Left: https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/fra/decouvrez/exploration-colonisation/nouvelle- france-horizons-nouveaux/Pages/vivre.aspx#1 Middle: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-20-0002/892000022019001- fra.htm
  2. 2. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Right: Recensement du Canada 1665-66: https://archive.org/details/1871981871FV41873engfra Slide 6 Today’s access to government information laws stem from the Swedish Freedom of the Press Act of 1776 which enshrined in its constitution the publishing of official documents and making them accessible to the public. In Canada today, the Access to Information Act gives any person or corporation present in Canada the right to access records of government institutions that are subject to the Act. This is not open data, but is part of opening government. Reference: • Access to Information and Privacy: https://www.canada.ca/en/treasury-board- secretariat/services/access-information-privacy.html • Open Government Canada: https://open.canada.ca/en Image Source: https://sweden.se/society/20-milestones-of-swedish-press-freedom/ Slide 7 National atlases were also a means to make data accessible in maps and charts. The 1st Atlas in Canada was published in 1906. Atlases include demographics, economic data about industry, forests, fisheries and agriculture, and data about natural resources and communication infrastructure among other data including data about culture and society. Canada was an internet pioneer with School Net in 1994 and produced the world’s first open source and online atlas, with the National Atlas of Canada in 1999. Today, we no longer have an official Atlas that narrates the story of Canada, however, as part of the Action Plan on Open Government data from the Canada Open Data Portal are made visual in maps via the Federal Geospatial Data Platform. References: • Action Plan on Open Government (https://open.canada.ca/en/content/canadas- 2018-2020-national-action-plan-open-government) • Open Data Portal (https://open.canada.ca/en/open-data) • Federal Geospatial Data Platform (https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/science- data/science-research/earth-sciences Image Sources: • Atlas Photos taken by Tracey P. Lauriault for her PhD Dissertation: https://curve.carleton.ca/7eb756c8-3ceb-4929-8220-3b20cf3242cb • Atlas of Canada Maps: https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth-sciences/geography/atlas- canada/about-atlas-canada/16890 • Atlas of Canada Map Archives: https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth- sciences/geography/atlas-canada/explore-our-maps/map-archives/16868
  3. 3. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 8 All levels of Government in Canada have been collecting, compiling, managing, and archiving data for the purpose of governing for centuries. The data discussed so far have been: • Administrative data: • which are data collected for the purpose of administering government, such as budgets, departmental expenditures, grants and contributions, data about programs such as student loans or citizenship and immigration, data about the administration of the treaty rights with First Nations, Inuit and Metis. But also Government Data: • which are data that are collected purposefully by the state to inform governing, for example: • Census data and • Geospatial data Government information on the other hand, and sometimes data in publications are accessible to the public for the purpose of communicating the affairs of the state are distributed as part of the Depository Service Program. Government publications as official records of the state are also archived at Library Archives Canada and current records can be requested via Access to Information and Privacy (ATIP). In the next section of this webinar, I will discuss Scientific & ResearchData, which are natural and social data derived from publicly funded science. They could be government data, but mostly these are data produce by researchers outside of government. References: • Depository Service Program: https://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pol/doc- eng.aspx?id=27167&section=html • Access to Information and Privacy (ATIP): https://atip- aiprp.apps.gc.ca/atip/welcome.do Image Source: 1st image: http://www.publications.gc.ca/site/eng/programs/aboutDsp.html 2nd image: https://www.bac- lac.gc.ca/eng/services/MARC21/Pages/introduction.aspx
  4. 4. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 10 The discussion so far has been about access, but the history of sharing of data and open science of course can be attributed to scientists. Scientific societies formalized international alliances, developed standards, and built international infrastructures to collect and share observations. One of the earliest accounts was with the International Meteorological Organization (IMO). The 1st president Buys Ballot, in 1873 stated that: “It is elementary to have a worldwide network of meteorological observations, free exchange of observations between nations and international agreement on standardized observation methods and units in order to be able to compare these observations” (from the WMO Website). These scientists understood then, as we do today, that climate patterns cross territorial boundaries, and the creation of global datasets requires international and multisectoral collaboration. Image Source: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001485634 Slide 11 The sharing of data was later codified into the CUDO-norms of science in 1942 by sociologist of science Robert K. Merton. CUDO stood for communism, universalism, disinterestedness and organized skepticism, whereby scientists and scientific institutions were encouraged to share the results of their work for the common good, for the purpose of advancing the scientific enterprise and to ensure that scientific claims were scrutinized before being accepted. Reference: • R. K. Merton: https://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/S/bo28451565.html Image Source: https://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=30433308750&searchurl=an %3Drobert%2Bmerton%26sortby%3D17%26tn%3Dsociology%2Bscience%2Bthe oretical%2Bempirical%2Binvestigations&cm_sp=snippet-_-srp1-_- image3#&gid=1&pid=1 Slide 12 Data sharing evolves, and I like to start with the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, as it is negotiated legal agreement. It can be traced back to meteorologists, and early statistical, social science and scientific associations such as the International Council of Scientific Unions (1931) which became the International Association of Academies and the International Research Council, that today informs government granting councils. It is about research, knowledge and people across domains and most important for our purposes the free exchange of data. Image Source: https://www.ats.aq/e/antarctictreaty.html
  5. 5. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 13 In addition to treaties, making data accessible is also the policy of transnational organizations. The UN Earth Summit of 1992, put data sharing on the international agenda as seen in Chapter 40: “Information for decision-making,” that mandated nation states to collect and manage their data and information assets, but also to openly share them and build the capacity beyond government to use them. Image Source: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf Slide 14 The International Polar Year Polar (IPY), which started in 1882, held about every 50 years, continues with polar and climate scientists coordinating their research efforts, continue to produce data standards, portal infrastructures and archives and important Data Management Principles and Guidelines for Research. The IPY in Canada led to much scientific output and the exemplary Polar Data Catalog continues to openly disseminate data. References: • International Polar Year in Canada: http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/389212/publication.html • IPY Research: http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/389212/publication.html Image Sources: Left: https://www.canada.ca/en/polar-knowledge/publications/data-management- principles-and-guidelines-2017-may.html Middle: http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/9.694397/publication.html Right: https://www.polardata.ca/ Slide 15 The history of data access, data sharing, open science and open data has evolved. The timeline above includes a selection of important actors. The Open Definition, has a history and a context. Prior to that scientific communities, primarily climate, environmental and spatial scientists developed data sharing protocols, standards and data infrastructures and this includes the open source community which built some of the underlying technical enablers of openness. We also see social scientists advocating to make research data and information accessible, and those involved with the publishing of scientific research developing open access protocols. In Europe we see the Re-Use of Public Sector Information directive to open administrative data and this is followed by efforts by transnational organizations and NGOs. After 2005 open science and access to research and scientific data continue and are advanced by natural, statistical and social scientific organizations, but it is not until 2011-2012 that open data takes hold and appears in official documents, principles, and Charters and is operationalized by governments.
  6. 6. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Open data however, are primarily about administrative data, government data and information, not research and scientific data. The actors change. The focus shifts to the administration of opening data across governments, actors are administrators and C-Class executives but no longer data producers, and there is an absence of the data quality, management and infrastructural practices of the research and scientific communities, and a separation of the data from their producing institutions in portals, but there is beneficial focus on cultural change in the administration and a push for evidence based decision making. The Open Data community, situated in the realm of open government, and loosely in the realm of e-government and digital strategies, in cities and other levels of government, did not see emerging ‘data enclosures’ brought on by multinational corporate actors building smart cities, precision agriculture, the Internet of Things (IoT), big data analytics and AI, data brokers and the influence of platforms. There was also a disconnect between science and spatial data infrastructures. References: • Open Definition: Open Knowledge (2015). The Open Definition V 2.1. Retrieved May 10, 2019 from https://opendefinition.org/od/2.1/en/ • Open Knowledge Foundation (2005). History of the Open Definition. Retrieved May 11, 2019 from https://opendefinition.org/history/ • EU Re-Use of PSI: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/european- legislation-reuse-public-sector-information • Open Data Charter: https://opendatacharter.net/ Image Source: Tracey P. Lauriault Slide 17 The evolution of access to data in Canada, is situated in the international story just discussed with some particularities. The Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (CISTI), for example, created in 1974 at the National Research Council of Canada formed to ensure that scientists had access to the data and information they needed to do their work. Data Librarianship emerges as a field, and develop university data libraries with access, standards, policies, user guides as well as technological and user services (Ruus, 1982). Also, new organizations emerge, for example in 1986, the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) created a research data consortium; and in 1988 the Canadian Association of Public Data Users (CAPDU). And thanks to librarians and university research administrators, a parallel data infrastructure for publicly funded research emerges in Portage (2015) which includes expertise and a data sharing archives infrastructure. Research Data Canada also now operates at the National Research Council. References: • ICIST : https://data.bnf.fr/fr/12180523/institut_canadien_de_l_information_scientifique_ et_technique/
  7. 7. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault • CNRC : https://www.rdc-drc.ca/ • Ruus : Ruus, L. (1982) The University of British Columbia Data Library: an overview. Library Trends 30(3):397-406. • Rankin : Rankin, M. (1978). Access to Information vital to researchers. • RDC: https://www.rdc-drc.ca/ Image Source: Top: http://www.carl-abrc.ca/ Bottom: https://portagenetwork.ca/ Slide 18 Discourse on access to data was also part new managerialist shifts in government, most notably in the mid-1980s the Nielsen Ministerial Task Force on Program Review, under then Prime Minister Mulroney, as part of Ministerial Task Force on Program Review, did an extensive inventory of data assets and concluded that these data should be made publicly available (1985). The Mulroney government chose cost-recovery for data instead, making government data cost prohibitive. This may have spearheaded the movement to make data open and accessible (Humphrey, 1994). References: • Nielsen, E. (1984). New management initiatives: initial results from the Ministerial Task Force on Program Review. Government of Canada. • Humphrey : Humphrey, C. (1994) The Case for a Canadian National Social Sciences Data Archive, Government Information in Canada, 1, No. 2.7, Retrieved June 26 from https://library2.usask.ca/gic/v1n2/humphrey/humphrey.html. • Bernard : Bernard, P. (1991). Discussion Paper on the Issue of the Pricing of Statistics Canada Products. • Bernard, P. (1992). Data and Knowledge: Statistics Canada and the Research Community, Society 21. Slide 19 Sociologists in 1992 were also responsible for Liberating the Data: A Proposal for a Joint Venture between Statistics Canada and Canadian Universities (1992), which led to the creation of the Data Liberation Initiative (DLI) in 1994 and, for the first time Statistics Canada data were disseminated via the internet FTP. The DLI made data open to faculty and students accessible but not to the public, as that would have contravened the Statistics Canada licence. A similar issue occurred in the UK over Ordnance Survey data, which led to the creation of Open Street Map and the UK Guardian data campaign. References: • Open Street Map : https://www.openstreetmap.org/about • Données Guardian du Royaume-Uni : https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2006/mar/09/education.epublic Image Sources: Left: https://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/dli/dli Right: http://www.ihsn.org/node/505
  8. 8. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 20 Outside the academy, social planning councils in the mid-1990s developed data- purchasing consortia, such as the Geographic and Numeric Information Systems (GANIS) and the Canadian Council on Social Development Community Data Program. These groups coalesced hundreds of community-based organizations in urban and rural areas across Canada to co-purchase customized data about socio- economic issues in communities from Statistics Canada. Here hundreds of NGOs negotiated data purchases from government to study Canada’s most marginalized. Image Source: Left: https://ganis.spno.ca/ Right: https://communitydata.ca/ Slide 21 As discussed the geospatial community were pioneers, but also launched the 1st open data portals with Geogratis (1993) and Geobase (1994), and formed one of the world’s first open source, open access, open architecture and open specifications and standards-based distributed Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) in 1999, and spearheaded the first discussions to openly licence data under Crown Copyright (2001). Reference: • NRCan operational policies and standards: https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth- sciences/geomatics/canadas-spatial-data-infrastructure/8902 Image Source: Top Left: https://web.archive.org/web/20010117010700/http://geogratis.cgdi.gc.ca/index2.ht ml Bottom left: https://web.archive.org/web/20040110004111/http://www.geobase.ca/ Right: https://slideplayer.com/slide/13449716/80/images/25/Canadian+Geospatial+Data+I nfrastructure.jpg Slide 22 The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure continues to build and evolve with open, distributed, decentralized, and is standards based, and data are trusted and are managed at the source. There is engagement from users and these practices extend into the Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure for which Canada is a leader. This is systems based, scientific and infrastructural thinking at work. Reference: • 2012, Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure Vision, Mission and Roadmap - The Way Forward http://ftp2.cits.rncan.gc.ca/pub/geott/ess_pubs/292/292417/cgdi_ip_28e.pdf • Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure: https://arctic-sdi.org/
  9. 9. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 23 Access to data and Open Data become a key issue at the 2005 UNESCO WSIS II civil society conference in Winnipeg these coalesce as seen in the preamble: “We firmly maintain that democracy is reliant on an informed citizenry and civil society that has access to the data, information, knowledge and technology necessary to keep governments accountable (WSIS II, 2005). Image Source: https://www.itu.int/net/wsis/docs2/pc3/contributions/Co13.pdf Slide 24 Furthermore, Open data in Canada emerges as a civil society concept in 2005, with the How’d They Vote application, the Civicaccess.ca list and the DataLibre.ca blog and ‘government as a platform’ ideas begin to emerge from actors such as David Eaves. This was also a time when Web 2.0 tools such as GoogleMaps come online, as does Open Street Map (2004), and mobile devices and apps being to appear. Social media and Web 2.0 created new data users, and non-government data producers, in a sense open data actors that were not necessarily tied to an institution. Image Source: Left: https://civicaccess.ca/mailman/listinfo/civicaccess-discuss Middle: https://www.ctvnews.ca/liberal-mps-lead-in-absences-in-the-house- 1.615448 Right: http://datalibre.ca/links-resources/ Slide 25 Open Data formalizes in cities, with G4+1, with the Vancouver Open Data Summit and the BC Institute for Open Data and, with the Toronto GO Open Data conference, the Open Data Institute chapter, and Ajah.ca, Powered by Data and OpenNorth. Many of the open data actors are now part of the first Open Government Canada Multistakeholder Advisory Group on Open Government. Cities are the open data leaders in Canada, and the G4+1 - Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto and Ottawa, had fledgling open data programs and Montreal as the +1 as it had not launched its program still meets today to resolve common issues. References: G4+1: https://canadiangovernmentexecutive.ca/the-g4-setting-city-data-free/ CODS: https://opendatasummit.ca/call-for-proposals-2020.html BC Institute for Open Data: GOOD: http://2019.go-opendata.ca/ Open Data Institute Chapter: https://theodi.org/organisation/odi-toronto/ Open North: https://www.opennorth.ca/ Ajah.ca: https://www.ajah.ca/ Powered by Data: https://poweredbydata.org/ MSF: https://open.canada.ca/en/multi-stakeholder-forum-open-government Open Data Cities: http://datalibre.ca/links-resources/
  10. 10. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 26 In this timeline, we see Librarians, archivists, and researchers as early advocates for the release of social science and research data as the geospatial community develop open spatial data infrastructures. The former countering cost recovery, while the latter were data producers developing systems for environmental and resource management which required multisectoral and multi-jurisdictional collaboration, and operationalizing technical, legal, policy and institutional interoperability. The Canadian Council on Geomatics (CCOG) provincial and territorial accord remains one of the most important collaborations. Cities were the early adopters of open data in Canada, with the 1st open data portal coming online in Nanaimo in 2009, G4+1 and who together with Canadian Internet Public Policy Interest Clinic (CIPPIC) developed the first open licence (2010), and together continue to work on the standardization of open data metadata, the sharing best practices and growing open data in cities. References: • Accord du COCG : http://www.ccog-cocg.ca/en/accord • Licence ouverte de la CIPPIC : https://cippic.ca/en/publications/city_of_ottawa_open_data_license_recommend ations Image Source: Tracey P. Lauriault Slide 27 Federally the first mentions of open data appear in the Standing Committee on Industry Science and Technology (Lauriault 2008) which was later followed in 2010 by the Resolution of Canada’s Access to Information and Privacy Commissioners under the leadership of Commissioner Suzanne Legault, where open data, open government and freedom of information are linked. In 2011 the Treasury Board Secretariat of Canada launches data.gc.ca a CKAN data portal and the Canadian Government officials attend the first Open Government Partnership meeting in Brazil accompanied by Civil Society Actors from the Community Data Program as the civil society representatives. Canada officially joins the OGP and delivers its 1st Action plan in 2012. References: • Open Government Partnership: https://www.opengovpartnership.org/members/canada/ Image Sources: Top Left: https://www.ourcommons.ca/Committees/en/INDU?parl=40&session=1 Bottom Left: https://www.priv.gc.ca/en/about-the-opc/what-we-do/provincial-and- territorial-collaboration/joint-resolutions-with-provinces-and- territories/res_100901/ Right: https://open.canada.ca/en
  11. 11. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 28 Canada’s joins the Open Government Partnership in 2012 and in 2018 becomes the co-Chair of the Open Government Partnership and in 2019 hosts the prestigious and important Open Government Partnership in Ottawa. In addition, Canada forms the Multi-Stakeholder Forum on Open Government in 2018 that includes academics, individual experts and open data actors from NGOS and the private sector such as Open Data Institute, Open North, Canadian Civil Liberties Association, Open Contracting Partnership, Powered by Data and the Director of Open Government, the Chief Data Officer and Engagement Expert. The tremendous work of the Treasury Board Secretariat on Open Data and Open Government can be read from their website, and we have the ever so wonderful Jaime Boyd, formerly with the TBSC and now is the Chief Digital Officer at Government of British Columbia as part of this webinar who can answer more detailed questions. Reference: Open Government Canada: https://open.canada.ca/en Multi-Stakeholder Forum on Open Government: https://open.canada.ca/en/multi- stakeholder-forum-open-government Image Sources: Top: https://www.opengovpartnership.org/members/canada/ Bottom: https://ogpsummit.org/en/ Slide 29 We need to look back to be able to see the future. Open data is evolving, it is not stand alone and it is now part of open government programming at the national level and, as technologies and processes evolve, as new policy priorities emerge, and as public engagement and discussion about automated decision-making grow, as digital strategies and Charters take form, and as smart cities become a priority, open data becomes less topical but ever more important in light of emerging data enclosure initiatives. Image Source: Tracey P. Lauriault
  12. 12. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 31 A relatively new phenomenon called smart cities is appearing, where we see technologically instrumented & networked w/ systems that are interlinked & integrated, which collect vast troves of big urban data being generated by sensors & administrative processes to manage & control urban life in real-time (Kitchin, 2018). We see in cities, that open data program are being subsume by smart city programs, and data analytics units are emerging, while smart city produced data are not necessarily open and the IoT involved in their production are proprietary, involve AI and closed outsourced platforms. The rational given for smart cities is to innovatively, economically, efficiently & objectively run & manage the city in real-time. There are many actors involved such as, GE, CISCO, INTEL, Siemens, IMB, MS and Sidewalk Toronto with the controversial Quayside Project in Toronto. Image Sources: Open North Collected as part of the Open Smart Cities Project: https://www.opennorth.ca/publications/#open-smart-cities-guide Slide 32 Alternatively, Infrastructure Canada launched a Smart City Challenge, where 225 large and small communities, including aboriginal communities, submitted proposals; 20 were shortlisted, and four winners were announced on May 14, 2019. This was not about technological solutionism, and there was a requirement that data, decision-making and technological processes be open, transparent and interoperable. The call also mandated technologies be transferable, and preferably open source and standards-based for reuse by other communities; that communities have ownership over their data; and that technologies empower and enable communities large and small, as well as traditional and non-traditional partners, to collaborate and strengthen relationships between residents and public organizations (2018). This demonstrated foresight, infrastructural and systems thinking. References: • Infrastructure Canada Smart City Challenge: https://www.infrastructure.gc.ca/cities-villes/index-eng.html • Applicant Guide: https://impact.canada.ca/en/challenges/smart-cities/applicant- guide
  13. 13. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 33 The Open Smart Cities Project, funded by GeoConnections at Natural Resources Canada and led by Open North with Tracey Lauriault and in partnership with cities was launched. The objective was to map all the good practices of OPENESS into the smart city and to provide a systems based infrastructural approach to the open smart city which governs data, processes, software & platforms and technology. References: OSC: https://www.opennorth.ca/publications/#open-smart-cities-guide State of…: https://www.opennorth.ca/publications/#the-state-of-open-smart- communities-2019 Open Data for…: https://www.opennorth.ca/publications/#open-data-for-smart- city-and-urban-development-cases-of-open-data-production-and-use-in-the-global- south • Responsible Use of Artificial Intelligence (AI): https://www.canada.ca/en/government/system/digital-government/modern- emerging-technologies/responsible-use-ai.html • Canada’s Digital Charter in Action: A Plan by Canadians, for Canadians https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/062.nsf/eng/h_00109.html Slide 34 We need to look back to see the future. Open data like all data and related technologies: are more than the unique arrangement of objective and politically neutral facts & we need thinking that understands that data do not exist independently of ideas, techniques, technologies, systems, people and contexts regardless of them being presented in that way.
  14. 14. NOTES:Learningfromthe past: Opendata in Canada,OpenGovernmentCanadaWebinarSeries, 27/11/2019 by Tracey P.Lauriault Slide 35 The sharing of data and the development of open science which includes the opening of data, information, processes, technologies and systems, and interoperability, can be argued to have come from science, particularly meteorologists. System thinking led to the evolution and creation of this ‘vast machine’ called climate science. The ASDI, is an extension of that, it blends the best of climate systems thinking and infrastructure. We may have to think of open data as a system and as an infrastructure, and we may need to cross disciplines and government departments and levels of government. It will also mean expanding from administrative data and government data, and back to the fusion of many data, especially from the natural and social sciences. We need to go to the next level together.

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