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Toward Open Smart Cities

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URISA BeSpatial'18 Keynote May 2, 2018 University of Toronto, Mississauga Campus

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Toward Open Smart Cities

  1. 1. Toward an Open Smart Cities URISA BeSpatial'18 Keynote May 2, 2018 University of Toronto, Mississauga Campus Dr. Tracey P. Lauriault Assistant Professor of Critical Media and Big Data Media Studies and Communication Carleton University Tracey.Lauriault@Carleton.ca orcid.org/0000-0003-1847-2738 @TraceyLauriault
  2. 2. Open Smart Cities in Canada Project Funded by: GeoConnections Lead by: OpenNorth Project core team: • Rachel Bloom & Jean-Noe Landry, Open North • Dr. Tracey P. Lauriault, Carleton University • David Fewer, LL.M., Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic (CIPPIC) • Dr. Mark Fox, University of Toronto • Research Assistants Carleton University • Carly Livingstone • Stephen Letts Project collaborators: • Expert Smart City representatives from the cities of: 1. Edmonton 2. Guelph 3. Montréal 4. Ottawa • Collaborators include experts from the provinces of: 1. Ontario 2. British Columbia T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  3. 3. Smart City Context in Canada
  4. 4. Smart City Challenge • Launched November 2017, Submission submitted April 24, 2018 • Municipalities, regional governments, & Indigenous communities • Community not-for-profit, private sector company, or expert • $300 million Smart Cities Challenge in 2017 Budget 4T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  5. 5. Sidewalk Toronto the PPP Smart City 5
  6. 6. Research
  7. 7. Critical approach Data, technology, and infrastructures are considered as more than the unique arrangement of objective and politically neutral facts & things & they do not exist independently of ideas, techniques, technologies, systems, people and contexts regardless of them being presented in that way. T. P. Lauriault, 2012
  8. 8. Socio-Technological Assemblage Approach Material Platform (infrastructure – hardware) Code Platform (operating system) Code/algorithms (software) Data(base) Interface Reception/Operation (user/usage) Systems of thought Forms of knowledge Finance Political economies Governmentalities - legalities Organisations and institutions Subjectivities and communities Marketplace System/process performs a task Context frames the system/task Digital socio-technical assemblage HCI, Remediation studies Critical code studies Software studies New media studies Game studies Critical Social Science Science Technology Studies Platform studies Places Practices Flowline/Lifecycle Surveillance Studies Critical data studies Algorithm Studies Rob Kitchin 2012
  9. 9. Smart City Actors • Vendors • Think tanks • Consulting firms • Alliances and associations • Standards organizations • Civil society • Academic • Procurement • Guides, playbooks, Practices • Indicators • Cities T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  10. 10. Cities • E-Scan of 4 cities + 1 Prov. 1. Edmonton 2. Guelph 3. Ottawa 4. Montreal 5. Ontario Smart Grid • Development of semi-structured interview instrument • City officials generously participated in 90 min phone interviews • Interviews were recorded & transcribed • City officials responded to follow-up questions & will validated a final draft • The following was collected: • visions and strategies • reasons for deploying smart city initiatives • beneficiaries • governance models • deployment strategies • citizen engagement • “openness” and open data • access to smart city data • smart city business models • procurement • challenges & benefits. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  11. 11. Edmonton - Smart City Initiative The smart city is “about creating and nurturing a resilient, livable, and workable city through the use of technology, data and social innovation” T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  12. 12. Guelph - Initiative “The vision of a modern City is one that offers services to customers when and where they want them. A Smart City is one that uses technology to achieve this goal, using technology at every appropriate opportunity to streamline processes and simplify access to city services. This is a city that has all the information it needs, available and accessible, to support effective decision- making” T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  13. 13. Ottawa - Initiative A Connected City • Create a city where all residents and busi-nesses are connected in an efficient, affordable, and ubiquitous way. A Smart Economy • Stimulate economic growth by supporting knowledge-based business expansion and attraction, local entre-preneurs, and smart talent development. An Innovative Government • Develop new and innovative ways to impact the lives of residents and businesses through the creative use of new service delivery models, technology solutions, and partnerships. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  14. 14. Montréal – Initiative, Strategy & Action Plan “A smart and digital city means better services for citizens, a universally higher standard of living and harnessing of our metropolis’s resources to ensure its development is in line with the population’s needs” Vice Chair of the Executive Committee, responsible for the smart city, Harout Chitilian T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  15. 15. Ontario Smart Grid The Electricity Act, 1998242 defines a Smart Grid as follows: • (1.3) For the purposes of this Act, the smart grid means the advanced information exchange systems and equipment that when utilized together improve the flexibility, security, reliability, efficiency and safety of the integrated power system and distribution systems, particularly for the purposes of, • (a) enabling the increased use of renewable energy sources and technology, including generation facilities connected to the distribution system; • (b) expanding opportunities to provide demand response, price information and load control to electricity customers; • (c) accommodating the use of emerging, innovative and energy saving technologies and system control applications; or • (d) supporting other objectives that may be prescribed by regulation. 2009, c. 12, Sched. B, s. 1 (5). T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  16. 16. International Best Practices • Chicago • Helsinky • New York • Barcelona • Dublin Open smart cities include: • Rights (GDPR & right to repair) • Are in the public interest • Ethics (Quebec, NyC, Helsinki, Chicago) • Environmental considerations • Critical and meaningful public engagement & dialogue not just consultation • Ecosystems approach (ASDI and Dublin Report) T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  17. 17. Digital Strategies Open Data Open Science Open Platform Open Source Open Government Smart Cities - Openness YesNo MaybeUnlikely Smart Cities/ Precision Ag/ IoT Likely T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  18. 18. Open Data Digital Strategy Open Science IoT Smart City / Prec. Ag. Open Platforms Open Source Open Gov’t Mapping openness onto the smart city requires the Integration digital practices Alllevelsofgovernment T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  19. 19. What did we learn • Smart cities are new & emerging, do citizens know what is coming, and will they be the drivers? • Need to identify issues to be resolved with technology instead of technology looking for issues • More data does not mean better governance • Very few overarching socio-technical and ethical considerations • Requirement for technological citizenship • Is this an innovation bias or is it a smart city that is best for the City and its residents?
  20. 20. Internet of Things (IoT) • Security & privacy vulnerabilities (hacking) • E-waste – cost, short shelf life • Mission creep - potential • Surveillance / dataveillance potential • Ownership / procurement • Repair – DRM • Device lock in • Archiving - the lack thereof • Reuse – unintended purposes • Sustainability & maintenance & management • Interoperability – the lack therefor • Standards – emerging 20
  21. 21. Open Smart City Guide V 1.0
  22. 22. 1. What is a city? T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  23. 23. A city is •a complex and dynamic socio-biological system •territorially bound •a human settlement •governed by public city officials who manage •the grey, blue and green environment •within their jurisdictional responsibility T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  24. 24. 2. What is a smart city? T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  25. 25. A smart city is • technologically instrumented & networked w/ systems that are interlinked & integrated, where vast troves of big urban data are being generated by sensors & administrative processes used to manage & control urban life in real-time (Kitchin, 2018). • where administrators and elected officials invest in smart city technologies & data analytical systems to inform how to innovatively, economically, efficiently & objectively run & manage the city. • The focus is most often to quantify & manage infrastructure, mobility, business & online government services. • a form of technological solutionism. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  26. 26. 3. What is an open smart city? Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  27. 27. Definition of the Open Smart City V 1.0 An Open Smart City is where residents, civil society, academics, and the private sector collaborate with public officials to mobilize data and technologies when warranted in an ethical, accountable and transparent way to govern the city as a fair, viable and liveable commons and balance economic development, social progress and environmental responsibility. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  28. 28. 5 Open Smart City Themes 1.Governance 2.Engagement 3.Data & Technology 4.Data Governance 5.Effective and values based smart cities T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  29. 29. 1. Governance in an Open Smart City is ethical, accountable, and transparent. These principles apply to the governance of social and technical platforms which include data, algorithms, skills, infrastructure, and knowledge. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  30. 30. 30T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  31. 31. Theme 1. Resources arranged as follows: • Ethical Governance • Governance Structures and Participation • Cooperative and Multi-jurisdictional Governance • Accountable Governance • Transparent Governance • Cooperative Governance 31T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  32. 32. 2. An Open Smart City is participatory, collaborative, and responsive. It is a city where government, civil society, the private sector, the media, academia and residents meaningfully participate in the governance of the city and have shared rights and responsibilities. This entails a culture of trust and critical thinking and fair, just, inclusive, and informed approaches. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  33. 33. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  34. 34. Theme 2. Resources arranged as follows: • Participatory • Collaborative • Responsive • Trust • Critical Thinking • Fair & Just • Inclusive & Informed T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  35. 35. 3. An Open Smart City uses data and technologies that are fit for purpose, can be repaired and queried, their source code are open, adhere to open standards, are interoperable, durable, secure, and where possible locally procured and scalable. Data and technology are used and acquired in such a way as to reduce harm and bias, increase sustainability and enhance flexibility. An Open Smart City may defer when warranted to automated decision making and therefore designs these systems to be legible, responsive, adaptive and accountable. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. Theme 3. Resources arranged as follows: • Fit for Purpose • Repaired and Queried • Open Source • Open Standards • Cybersecurity and Data Security • Reduction of Harm and Bias • Local Procurement • Balancing Sustainability T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  38. 38. 4. In an Open Smart City, data management is the norm and custody and control over data generated by smart technologies is held and exercised in the public interest. Data governance includes sovereignty, residency, open by default, security, individual and social privacy, and grants people authority over their personal data. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  39. 39. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  40. 40. Theme 4. Resources arranged as follows: • Data Management • Custody of Data • Residency • Open by Default • Security • Privacy • Personal Data Management T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  41. 41. 5. In an Open Smart City, it is recognized that data and technology are not always the solution to many of the systemic issues cities face, nor are there always quick fixes. These problems require innovative, sometimes long term, social, organizational, economic, and political processes and solutions. T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  42. 42. Complex urban social issues needing more than technology for resolution: T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  43. 43. Final Remarks • The Open Smart City Guide V1.0 is a Living Document that will be updated on a regular basis and we are counting on you for your help. • http://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide • Please send feedback, ideas, critiques etc. to • info@opennorth.ca
  44. 44. Project Outputs • Open Smart Cities in Canada: Environmental-Scan and Case Studies – Executive Summary • (https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/e4fs8/) • Open Smart Cities in Canada: Assessment Report • (https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/qbyzj/) • Open Smart Cities Legal FAQ • (https://cippic.ca/en/Open_Smart_Cities) • Webinars 1 & 2 & 3 • (http://bit.ly/2yp7H8k and https://vimeo.com/247378746) • Open Smart Cities Guide V1.0 • (http://www.opennorth.ca/open-smart-cities-guide) T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project
  45. 45. Thank you T. P. Lauriault, R. Bloom & J.-N. Landry, Open Smart Cities in Canada Project

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