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International Trade Logistics - Introduction.pptx

  1. International Trade Logistics
  2. Meaning of Logistics (cont.) Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  3. Meaning of Logistics (cont.) Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  4. Meaning of Logistics (cont.) Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  5. Objectives of Logistics Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  6. Objectives of Logistics (cont.) Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  7. Objectives of Logistics (cont.) Right Place/Point : It is required to deliver the contracted goods at the place or point desired by the buyer. Besides, point of delivery has a direct relationship with the terms used for price quotation agreed by the exporter and importer in the sales contract Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  8. Linkage with International Trade Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  9. International Marketing Channels • International marketing involves coordinating the firm’s marketing activities in more than one nation • The international marketing strategy is effectively realized by choosing the suitable international marketing channel • Marketing Channels are set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption • Every producer seeks to link together the set of marketing intermediaries that best fulfil the firm’s objectives. This set of marketing intermediaries is called the marketing channel • A major focus of channels of distribution is delivery. It is only through distribution that public and private goods and services can be made available for use or consumption Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  10. International Marketing Channels There are different types of channels of distribution and a manufacturer may select any one of these channels. The channels may be broadly divided into two parts: • Distribution Channel of Consumer Goods The channels of distribution for consumer products may be as follows: Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  11. International Marketing Channels Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  12. International Marketing Channels Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  13. International Marketing Channels • Distribution Channel of Industrial Products: The channels for industrial products are generally short as retailers are not needed. Following methods may be adopted: Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  14. International Marketing Channels Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  15. International Marketing Channel System Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  16. Direct Channel (Foreign Market Channel Members) Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  17. Direct Channel (Foreign Market Channel Members) Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  18. Direct Channel (Foreign Market Channel Members) Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  19. Indirect Channel (Domestic Market Channel Members) Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  20. Indirect Channel (Domestic Market Channel Members) Domestic Agents: Agents can be classified according to the principal whom they represent. Some agent intermediaries represent the buyer; others represent the interest of the manufacturer. Those who work for the manufacturer include export broker; manufacturer's export agents, export management companies, etc. Agents who look after the interests of the buyer can include purchasing agents and country controlled buying agents. Let’s discuss each : • Export Management Companies: Export Management Companies (EMC) manage the entire export activities of a manufacturer. When compared with export agents, the EMC has greater freedom and authority. EMCs provide extensive services to manufacturers ranging from promotion of products overseas to shipping arrangement and documentation. In short, the EMC is responsible for all the manufacturer's international marketing activities and they are compensated in forms of commission or retainers plus commission • Manufacturer's Export Agent: Export agents are individual or firms that assist manufacturers in exporting goods. Unlike EMC's, export agents provide limited services. These agents focus more on sale and handling of good. The export agent works on commission Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  21. Indirect Channel (Domestic Market Channel Members) • Export Broker: The function of an export broker is to bring the buyer and the seller together for a fee. The broker may be assigned one or more foreign markets by the seller. He negotiates the terms for the seller (i.e., manufacturer) but cannot conclude the transaction without the principal's approval of the arrangement. For any action performed, the broker receives a fee or commission. An export broker does not take possession or title to the goods • Purchasing Agent: The purchasing agent represents the foreign buyer. By residing and conducting business in the exporter's country, the purchasing agent is in a favourable position to seek a product that matches the foreign principal's (buyer's) preferences and requirements. Operating on the overseas customer’s behalf, the purchasing agent acts in the interest of the buyer by seeking the best possible terms. The purchasing agent's client pays a commission for the services rendered. The purchasing agent is also known as the commission agent or buying agent • Country Controlled Buying Agent: This kind of agent performs exactly the same functions as the purchasing agent, the only distinction being that a country controlled buying agent is a foreign government's agency or a quasi-government firm. The country controlled buying agent is empowered to locate and procure goods for his country. This agent may have offices located in countries that are major suppliers Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  22. Indirect Channel (Domestic Market Channel Members) Domestic Merchant: • Export Merchant: The domestic based export merchant buys the manufacturer's product and sells it abroad on his own. When this type of middlemen is used for overseas marketing, the job of the manufacturer is limited to essentially production and at most domestic marketing. In such cases, except production related function such as carry out modifications in the product and product mix which may-be sometimes required to suit the export market, all other international marketing tasks are handled by the export merchant • Export Houses: In India, there are a number of export houses that export products produced by manufacturers. Some companies have established their own export marketing subsidiaries. They perform export marketing functions for manufacturing companies including physical handling of the products, promotion in overseas markets, etc. leaving the manufacturer to concentrate on production. They have good contacts in the overseas markets and may also have established network of sales offices round the world Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  23. Advantages of Direct Distribution Channel Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  24. Advantages of Direct Distribution Channel Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  25. Disadvantages of Direct Distribution Channel (i) Goodwill of the Middleman: A new exporter’s name will be unknown in the foreign market, therefore, even though the price and quality of the product may match those of known companies, the new entrant will be at a disadvantageous position. In such a situation, it would be better to gain credibility in the market if a known distributor handle the product, because the standing of the distributor will help in assuring the customers about the quality of the product. (ii) Huge Resources: Direct exporting requires large funds in order to support adequately the cost of selling, to provide necessary credits, the expense of financing, the development of an export organisation, engaging own staff. (iii) More Distribution Cost: In this system, the distribution cost is more. In direct exporting, export house has to undertake the responsibility of marketing, while indirect exporting enables the manufacturer exporter to concentrate on production problems, leaving the question of foreign selling to the intermediaries. Big and medium export firms generally prefer to appoint agents in the foreign markets. In such a case, the exporting firm must evolve a system of control and monitoring the agents for evaluating their performance. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  26. Factors Affecting the Channel Choice Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  27. Factors Affecting the Channel Choice Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  28. Factors Affecting the Channel Choice Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  29. Factors Affecting the Channel Choice Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  30. Physical Distribution Physical Distribution: In the context of marketing, physical distribution may be defined as the activities involved in the flow of products as they move physically from producer to consumer or industrial user The process of physical distribution involves handling and movement of products from the point of production to the point of consumption or use. The important activities involved in this process include order handling, information processing, inventory control, storage and transportation The major elements of physical distribution may be listed as follows: Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  31. Physical Distribution Logistics System Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  32. Total Systems Approach to Physical Distribution The systems approach is a scientific way of management. It looks at the physical distribution in its total form as a system consisting of several interconnected tasks or parts operating together to achieve the given objectives Thus, the systems approach of physical distribution envisages integration of all the components of physical distribution as parts of a whole whose market impact is maximum when they operate in synergy In other words, it is looking at the managing distribution activities as an integrated exercise in which decisions in respect of different components are taken not in isolation of one another but as a whole Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  33. Total Systems Approach to Physical Distribution The task of distribution in any marketing organisation consists of the following major elements: • Transportation • Warehousing • Inventory Carrying and Handling • Interest on Capital Employed The traditional approach of management treats all these components as independent of each other. In other words, the decision regarding say, transportation can be taken independently of the decision regarding inventory or storage. Thus, according to this approach, the cost of distribution can be minimised by keeping the cost of each of these elements at a minimum level. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  34. Total Systems Approach to Physical Distribution However, a closer examination of the situation reveals that the costs of each of these elements described above cannot be minimised without affecting the other elements as these activities often have conflicting and even diametrically opposite goals. For example, use of rail transport over air transport would reduce the total cost of transportation of the goods. But, as rail transport is relatively slow, the cost incurred on other elements such as inventory carrying cost, interest on capital employed, etc., would increase. This, in turn affects the level of customer service. Thus, it may be stated that different physical distribution activities are interrelated. A decision in respect of one activity cannot be taken in isolation of the other activities. So decisions with regard to physical distribution activities should be based on a total systems approach. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  35. Total Cost Approach to Physical Distribution Let’s look at an Example: Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  36. Total Cost Approach to Physical Distribution If the decision regarding choice of the mode of transportation is taken independent of the other components of cost, rail transport (Alternative B) would be selected as the cost in this case is Rs. 200, as compared to the road transport (Alternative A) where it is Rs. 230. But if we prefer rail transport, the cost of other components (interest cost and warehousing cost) increases. We can see from the table that the total cost in case of Alternative A is lower than that of Alternative B, Thus, if the total cost taken into consideration, Alternative A will be selected as it is less expensive. From this illustration it is clear that a reduction in the cost of one component may be possible at the expense of the other element. If the transportation cost is reduced, the cost of warehousing and inventory goes up Therefore, in any attempt to improve the physical distribution efficiency and reduce cost, the total cost of performing the physical distribution function should be taken into account. Management should think in terms of trade off in reducing alternative costs so as to maximise profits. By doing this, the firm can maximise potential profit Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  37. Objectives of Physical Distribution The objective of any physical distribution system is to move the goods to the right place at the right time, and at the lowest cost. Thus, customer service and cost reduction are the two basic objectives of an effective distribution system in an organisation. However, there may be some more specific objectives in a given marketing situation. Some such objectives are described in detail below: • Improving Customer Service • Reduce Distribution Costs • Generating Additional Sales • Creating Time and Place Utilities • Price Stabilisation Let’s look at each of the above objectives in detail!! Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  38. Objectives of Physical Distribution • Improving Customer Service:  As you know, the marketing concept assumes that the sure way to maximise profits in the long run is through maximising the customer satisfaction. Thus, an important objective of all marketing efforts, including the physical distribution activities, is to improve the customer service. This in turn, produces better sales and profits  An efficient management of physical distribution helps to improve the level of customer service by developing an effective system of warehousing quick and economic transportation and optimum level of inventory. But the level of service directly affects the cost of physical distribution. Therefore, while deciding the level of service, a careful analysis of the customers' wants and the policies of the competitors is necessary  The customers may be interested in several things like timely delivery, careful handling of merchandise, reliability of inventory, economy in operations and so on. But the relative importance of these factors in the minds of customers may vary. Thus an effort should be made to know whether they value timely delivery or economy in transportation, and so on  Once the relative weights are known, an analysis of what the competitors are offering in this regard should be made. This together with an estimate about the cost of providing a particular level of customer service would help in deciding the level of customer service Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  39. Objectives of Physical Distribution • Reducing Distribution Costs:  Another most commonly stated objective is to reduce the cost of physical distribution of the products. It has already been explained that the cost of physical distribution consists of various elements such as transportation, warehousing and inventory maintenance, and a reduction in the cost of one of the elements may result in an increase in the cost of the other elements  Thus, the objective of the firm, should be to reduce the total cost of distribution and not just the cost incurred on any one element.  For this purpose, the total cost of alternative distribution systems should be analysed and the one which has the minimum total distribution cost should be selected  The cost of distribution is also related to the level of customer service offered by a firm. The higher the level of service offered, the greater would be the cost of distribution  Thus, the objective of the firm may be to minimise the total distribution cost to achieve a target level of customer service. In other words, cost minimisation is related to the level of customer service set by the company Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  40. Objectives of Physical Distribution • Generating Additional Sale:  Another important objective of the physical distribution system in a firm is to generate additional sales  A firm can attract additional customers by offering better services at lower prices through improvements in the physical distribution of the products  For example, by decentralising its warehousing operations or by using economic and efficient modes of transportation; a firm can achieve larger market share. Also by arresting the out-of-stock situation, the loss of loyal customers can be arrested • Creating Time and Place Utilities  Physical distribution activities help in creating time and place utility. This is done through transportation and warehousing  Transportation system creates place utility as it makes available the goods at the right place where they are required  Warehousing creates time utility by storing the goods and releasing them when they are required Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  41. Objectives of Physical Distribution • Price Stabilisation  Physical distribution may also aim at achieving stabilisation in the prices of the products. It can be achieved by regulating the flow of the products to the market through a judicious use of available transport facilities and compatible warehouse operations  For example, in the case of industries such as cotton textile industry using agricultural products as raw material, there will be fluctuations in the supply of raw materials. In such cases if the market forces are allowed to operate freely, the raw material would be very cheap during harvesting season and very dear during off season. This fluctuation may be stabilised by keeping such raw material in warehouses during the period of excess supply (harvest season) available during the periods of short supply. Thus, prices can be stabilised with the help of physical distribution activities Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  42. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components The important decisions in respect of physical distribution are: • How orders should be handled? • Where should the stock be located? • How much stock should be kept on hand? • How should goods be transported? Let us discuss about the components in detail !! Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  43. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components • Order Processing:  The starting point of the physical distribution activities is the processing of customers‘ orders. In order to provide quicker customer service, the orders received from customers should be processed within the least possible time  Order processing include receiving the order, recording the order, filling the order, and assembling all such orders for transportation. The company and the customers benefit when these steps are carried out quickly and accurately. The error committed at this stage at times can prove to be very costly  For example, if a wrong product or the same product with different specifications is supplied to the customer, it may lead to cancellation of the original order (apart from loss in the credibility of the firm)  Similarly, if the order is not executed within a reasonable time, it may lead to serious consequences. High speed data processing techniques are now available which allow for rapid processing of the orders Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  44. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components • Storage & Warehousing:  Storage means making proper arrangements for retaining the goods in proper condition till they are demanded by customers. Warehousing provides the storage function. The basic purpose of the warehousing activity is to arrange placement of goods, provide storage facility to store them, consolidate them with other similar products, divide them into smaller quantities and build up assortment of products.  Some of the important decision areas in respect of warehousing are:  how many warehouses should the firm have?  where should these warehouses be located?  what should be the pattern of ownership of the warehouse (owned or rented)?  Generally larger the number of warehouses a firm has, the lesser would/be tie time taken in serving customers at different locations, but greater would be the cost of warehousing. Thus, the firm has to strike a balance between the cost of warehousing and the level of customer service  For products requiring long-term storage (such as agricultural products or products in Physical Distribution limited demand), the warehouses are located near production sites  On the other hand, the products which gain weight during production and bulky, hard for shipment (machinery, automobiles), and perishable in nature (bakery, meat, vegetables, etc.) are kept at different locations near the markets Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  45. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components  Factors which influence the location of warehouses include the following:  Product Type  Transportation Cost  Proximity to Markets  Rent  Labour Supply  Taxes  Geography  Competition  Public vs Private Warehousing  Public warehousing facilities are owned and operated by a third party. In this model, pricing is based on the level of service utilized by the customer. Public warehousing facilities are used for short-term or long-term storage, with some locations offering additional services and amenities  Private warehousing facilities are owned and operated by a company division. Also known as proprietary warehousing, these facilities often require a significant front-end investment for building, facilities management, and regular maintenance Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  46. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components  Own warehousing is better for those firms which have financial resources and use full capacity throughout the year. To avoid capital investment on construction, the firm can lease in some warehouse depending on its requirement.  Some of the other criteria used for deciding between public and private Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  47. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components • Inventory Control  Linked to warehousing decisions are the inventory decisions which hold key to success of physical distribution. The decision regarding level of inventory involves estimation of demand for the product.  A correct estimate of the demand helps to hold proper inventory level & control the inventory costs. This not only helps the firm in terms of the cost of inventory & supply to customers in time but also to maintain production at a consistent level. The major factors determining the inventory levels are:  The firm's policy regarding the customer service level  Degree of accuracy of the sales forecasts  Responsiveness of the distribution system i.e., ability of the system to transmit inventory needs back in the factory and get the products in the market  The cost of inventory which consists of holding cost (such as cost of warehousing, tied up capital and obsolescence) and replenishment cost (including the manufacturing cost) Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  48. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components • Material Handling  Material handling includes all those activities which are associated in moving products when it leaves the manufacturing plant but before it is loaded on the transport  It involves moving the goods from plant to warehouses and from warehouses to place of loading in transport modes  Proper management of material handling helps in avoiding unnecessary movement of goods, avoiding damage to the goods, facilitate order processing and efficient movement of goods Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  49. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components • Transportation Transportation seeks to move goods from points of production and sale to points of consumption in the quantities required at times needed and at a reasonable cost. The transportation system adds time and place utilities to the goods handled and, thus, increases their economic value. To achieve these goals, transportation facilities must be adequate, regular, dependable and equitable in the costs and benefits of the facilities and service provided. Often called carriers, transportation agents are classified by method of movement - roads, railroads, airways, shipways and pipelines  Road Transportation  Road transport is characterised by the ability to move small shipments economically, to move shipments of varying sizes, short distances and to deliver shipments to any point in the country that is served by roads and highways  Road carriers of goods for the market are commonly classified into three types:  Common Carriers: They serve the public at large, moving goods of all types to any part of the country. In practice, however, certain carriers restrict their operations to the handling of one line of goods or closely related lines Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  50. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components  Contract Carriers: Contract carriers consist of carriers that work exclusively with one organization or company under a contract position. As a result, they only transport vehicles for that one company  Private Carriers: These are operated by business firms and individuals for transportation of their own goods. Often, they are also let out to have a better return  Truck is the main vehicle used for road transportation of nearly all kinds of goods, particularly manufactured products such as textiles, machinery and rubber and plastic products. Trucks dominate in the movement of household goods and small packages. However, now a variety of LCVs, auto carriers Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  51. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components  Rail Transportation The main advantage of railways is their ability to handle heavy bulk products. Some of the special services provided by railways are:  Unitised Train: It consists of 100 or more cars carrying commodities like coal on a shuttle basis between mines and a utility company The use of modern loading and unloading facilities, full time operation of the train and avoidance of switching at yards allow excellent service at substantial cost savings In recent years, unitised trains have been used for transporting grains, iron ore, and other commodities too and their use continues to grow Computerised loading and unloading too exists between major power plants and collieries Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  52. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components  Piggy-back Service: In rail transport, the practice of carrying trailers or semi- trailers in a train atop a flatcar is referred to as "piggybacking” It is also known as “Trailer on float car” service. Shippers fighting higher transportation costs have shown an increasing interest in this mode of transport because it affords substantial savings in freight handling. Since, it costs less per mile to transport a trailer on a flat rail car than over the road, lower rates can be charged. Further advantages include less damages while en-route and reduction in delivery time. Piggy-back service is also available on waterways where loaded vans/trailers are moved by steamers/ships between designated points Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  53. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components  Containerization refers to the design and use of filled van or, trailer-size container, which may be moved interchangeably between various types of carriers without breaking bulk. For example, a container may be moved from truck to rail, or from truck to ship, thus reducing the handling charges, damages, losses, and pilferage as well as speeding up the movement of shipments Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  54. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components  Air Transportation In recent years, significant growth has taken place in the transportation of freight by air, although total air-freight volume is still small as compared to movement by railroads and roadways. The primary advantage of air shipment of course;is the speed with which the traffic moves between air terminals. But, the main disadvantage of air-freight has been its higher costs  Water Transport Water way is an important mode of transport for heavy and bulky goods in large quantities. It consists of inland water transport and ocean transport. Inland water transport is used for transporting goods within county and ocean transport is used to transport goods to other countries. Water transport is a cheapest form of transport, having great carrying capacity and is highly suitable for heavy and bulky goods, but it has low speed and higher degree of risk due to seasonal difficulties.  Pipeline Transportation: These are specialized carriers design to transport the crude and refined petroleum and natural gas from wells to refineries and further to distribution centre. It is an economical mode as it involves less handling and labour cost, but it is the slowest mode of transportation and very limited in number Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  55. Physical Distribution Tasks/Components • Information Monitoring: The physical distribution managers continuously need up-to-date information about inventory, transportation and warehousing For example, in respect of inventory, information about present stock position at each location, future commitment and replenishment capabilities are constantly required.. Similarly, before choosing a carrier, information about the availability of various modes of transport, their costs, services and suitability for a particular product, etc., is required. About warehousing, information with respect to space utilisation, work schedules etc., is required In order to receive all the information stated above, an efficient management information system would be of immense use in controlling costs, improving services and determining the overall effectiveness of distribution. Of course, it is difficult to correctly assess the cost of physical distribution operations. But if correct information is available it can be analysed systematically and a great deal of saving can be ensured Source: Secondary Sources on Google