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Also known as Penicillium notatum.
It is common in temperate and subtropical regions and
can be found on salted food products, but it is mostly
found in indoor environments, especially in damp or
It is the source of several β-lactam antibiotics, most
significantly penicillin which inhibits the biosynthesis
of bacterial cell walls affecting lysis of the cell.
Penicillium chrysogenum exhibits typical eukaryotic
cell structure; it has a tubulin cytoskeleton which is
used for motility.
TAM structure of P.
Structure of P. Chrysogenum
This image displays the typical filamentous hyphae that
contain many conidia.
The oblong structures in the image are conidia, the asexual
spores of the fungus.
In P. chrysogenum, the conidia are blue to blue-green.
These conidia are the cause of pathogenicity in humans as
in the cases of allergy and endophthalmitis.
The conidia originate from complexes known as
The growth of conidiophores begins when a stalk sprouts
out of a foot cell.
The stalk swells at the end and forms a vesicle. Sterigmata
form from the vesicle which give way to long chains of
It produces the hydrophobic β-lactam compound
Penicillium chrysogenum remains the primary producer
of Penicilian G and Penicilian V
P. chrysogenum has been used industrially to produce
Penicilian G and Penicilian V and Xanthocillin X, and
to produce the enzymes polyamine oxidase,
phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose oxidase.
Penicillium chrysogenum can be used to assist crops to
fight off other pathogenic species.
P. chrysogenum is high yielding strain and therefore most widely
used as production strain.
Purpose is to develop a pure inoculum in an adequate amount.
To do so various sequential steps are necessary like:
1) A starter culture is needed for inoculation.
2) After getting growth on solid media, one or two growth stages
should allowed in shaken flask cultures to create a suspension,
which can be transferred to seed tanks for further growth.
3) After about 24-28 hours, the content of the seed tanks is
transferred to the primary fermentation tanks.
4) All the bio parameters like temperature, pH, aeration,
agitation etc. should be properly maintained.
pH: near 6.5
Temperature: 26°C to 28°C
Aeration: a continuous stream of sterilized air is
pumped into it.
Agitation: have baffles which allow constant agitation
Fermentation broth contains all the necessary elements
required for the proliferation of the microorganisms.
Generally, it contains a carbon source, nitrogen source,
mineral source, precrsors and antifoam agents.
Lactose in a concentration of 6%.
Other carbohydrates like glucose & sucrose.
Complex as well as cheap sources like molasses, or
soya meal can also be used which are made up of
lactose and glucose sugars.
Ammonium salts such as ammonium sulphate,
ammonium acetate, ammonium lactate or ammonia gas
are used for this reason.
Sometime corn steep liquor may be used.
These elements include phosphorus, sulphur,
magnesium, zinc, iron, and copper which generally
added in the form of water soluble salts.
Various types of precursors are added into production
medium to produce specific type of penicillin.
For example, if phenyl acetic acid is provided then only
penicillin-G will be produced but if hydroxy phenyl
acetic acid is provided then penicillin-X will be
Phenoxy acetic acid is provided as precursor for
When corn steep liquor is provided as nitrogen source,
it also provides phenyl acetic acid derivatives; therefore
it is widely used in the production of penicillin-G.
Anti-foaming agents such as lard oil, octadecanol and
silicones are used to prevent foaming during
The recovery of penicillin is carried out in three
1. Removal of mycelium
2. Counter current solvent extraction of penicillin
3. Treatment of crude extracts
At harvest the fermentation broth is filtered on a rotatory
vacuum filter to remove the mycelium and other solids.
Phosphoric or sulfuric acids are added to lower the pH (2 to
2.5) in order to transform the penicillin to the anionic form.
Then the broth is directly extracted in a Podbielniak
Counter Current Solvent Extractor with an organic solvent
such as methyl isobutyl ketone, amyl acetate or butyl
Penicillin is then again extracted into water from the
organic solvent by adding an adequate amount of potassium
or sodium hydroxide to form a salt of the penicillin.
The resulting aqueous solution is again acidified & re-
extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone.
This shifts between water and solvent help in
purification of the penicillin.
The solvent extract is carefully back extracted with
NaOH and from this aqueous solution; various
procedures are utilized to cause the penicillin to
crystalize as sodium or potassium penicillinate.
The resulting crystalline penicillin salts are then
washed and dried.
Sometimes the crude extract of penicillin is passed out
from charcoal treatment to eliminate pyrogens; even
sterilization can also be done.