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Benjamin Cogrel, Accès aux données à un niveau conceptuel avec Ontop

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L'utilisation d'Ontop pour connecter une ou plusieurs bases de données à une ontologie afin de les interroger avec SPARQL

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Benjamin Cogrel, Accès aux données à un niveau conceptuel avec Ontop

  1. 1. Acc`es aux donn´ees `a un niveau conceptuel avec Ontop Benjamin Cogrel KRDB Research Centre for Knowledge and Data Universit´e Libre de Bozen-Bolzano, Italie Free University of Bozen-Bolzano Journ´ees Ontologie en Sciences Humaines et Sociales, Tours, le 9 novembre 2015
  2. 2. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Un cas d’usage d’Ontop : le projet EPNET Bases de donn´ees relationnelles EPNET et EDH : objets antiques (amphores, monuments, etc.) Pleiades : informations g´eographiques sur des sites arch´eologiques Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (1/17)
  3. 3. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Besoins d’information Donne moi toutes les transcriptions des inscriptions ´ecrites sur des amphores retrouv´ees dans telle ville Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (2/17)
  4. 4. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion D´efinition d’une nouvelle requˆete SQL Sans syst`eme OBDA Exp. M´etier Sources hétérogènes Application Expert SI Traduction Besoin d’information Requˆete SQL R´esultats Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (3/17)
  5. 5. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion F´ed´eration SQL Base de donn´ees f´ed´er´ees Sources de donn´ees h´et´erog`enes. . . . . . f´ed´er´ees en une seule base de donn´ees virtuelle Syst`emes support´es par Ontop Teiid (LGPL) : http://teiid.jboss.org/ Exareme (licence libre, partenaire Optique) : http://exareme.org/ Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (4/17)
  6. 6. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Exemple de requˆete SQL (extrait) SELECT * FROM ( SELECT QVIEW8."simplifiedtranscription" AS "transcription" FROM Inscription QVIEW1, InformationCarrier QVIEW2, LinguisticObject_Inscription QVIEW3, Finding QVIEW4, Activity_Location QVIEW5, Location_FallsWithin QVIEW6, GeographicLocation QVIEW7, LinguisticObject QVIEW8 WHERE (QVIEW1."carrier" = QVIEW2."id") AND QVIEW1."id" IS NOT NULL AND QVIEW1."carrier" IS NOT NULL AND (QVIEW1."id" = QVIEW3."inscription") AND QVIEW3."linguisticobject" IS NOT NULL AND (QVIEW2."finding" = QVIEW4."id") AND (QVIEW2."finding" = QVIEW5."activity") AND QVIEW5."location" IS NOT NULL AND (QVIEW5."location" = QVIEW6."location1") AND QVIEW6."location2" IS NOT NULL AND (QVIEW6."location2" = QVIEW7."id") AND (QVIEW7."name" = ’Barcelona’) AND (QVIEW3."linguisticobject" = QVIEW8."id") AND QVIEW8."simplifiedtranscription" IS NOT NULL UNION ALL [... 12 autres sous-requˆetes ...] SELECT QVIEW1."taggedtranscription" AS "transcription" FROM edh.inscriptions QVIEW1, edh.findingPlaces QVIEW2, edh.places QVIEW3, edh.places_not_in_corpus2 QVIEW4, edh.places QVIEW5, edh.places QVIEW6 WHERE (QVIEW1."objtypeurl" = ’http://www.eagle-network.eu/voc/objtyp/lod/140’) AND QVIEW1."id" IS NOT NULL AND QVIEW1."taggedtranscription" IS NOT NULL AND (QVIEW1."ancientfindingplace" = QVIEW2."id") AND (QVIEW2."spot" = QVIEW3."id") AND (QVIEW3."numberid" = QVIEW4."id") AND QVIEW3."pleiadesid" IS NULL AND QVIEW3."numberid" IS NOT NULL AND (QVIEW3."numberid" = QVIEW5."numberid") AND (QVIEW3."numberid" = QVIEW6."numberid") AND (QVIEW6."name" = ’Barcelona’) ) SUB_QVIEW Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (5/17)
  7. 7. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Automatisation avec la plateforme Optique Ontology-Based Data Access (OBDA) Acc`es aux donn´ees `a un niveau conceptuel Exp. M´etier Application Sources hétérogènes Ontop 1. Requˆete SPARQL (haut-niveau) 4. R´esultats SPARQL 2. Requˆete SQL (bas-niveau) 3. R´esultats SQL Onto- logie Map- pings Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (6/17)
  8. 8. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Extrait de l’ontologie du projet EPNET Hi´erarchies Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (7/17)
  9. 9. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Requˆete SPARQL de haut-niveau Niveau conceptuel Ind´ependant du stockage Vue homog`ene Terminologie du domaine formalis´ee (ontologie) Requˆetes concises SELECT ?transcription WHERE { ?inscription a :Inscription ; :engravedOn ?amphora ; :isTranscribedBy ?trans . ?amphora a :Amphora ; :hasFindingPlace ?findingPlace . ?findingPlace :fallsWithin ?city . ?city dcterms:title "Barcelona" . ?trans :hasTranscription ?transcription . } Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (8/17)
  10. 10. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion SPARQL et les bases de donn´ees relationnelles Transformation d’une BD relationnelle en un graphe RDF Pour ˆetre requˆet´ee avec SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF (R2RML) Contraintes de l’ontologie (opt.) Virtuelle ou mat´erielle RDFR2RML Graphe RDF mat´erialis´e Mat´erialisation du graphe RDF satur´e − Maintenance + Profils d’ontologie expressifs (comme OWL 2 RL) Graphe RDF virtuel Reformulation de requˆete + Aucune mat´erialisation − Profil d’ontologie moins expressif (OWL 2 QL) * Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (9/17)
  11. 11. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion SPARQL et les bases de donn´ees relationnelles Transformation d’une BD relationnelle en un graphe RDF Pour ˆetre requˆet´ee avec SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF (R2RML) Contraintes de l’ontologie (opt.) Virtuelle ou mat´erielle RDFR2RML Graphe saturé Graphe RDF mat´erialis´e Mat´erialisation du graphe RDF satur´e − Maintenance + Profils d’ontologie expressifs (comme OWL 2 RL) Graphe RDF virtuel Reformulation de requˆete + Aucune mat´erialisation − Profil d’ontologie moins expressif (OWL 2 QL) * Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (9/17)
  12. 12. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion SPARQL et les bases de donn´ees relationnelles Transformation d’une BD relationnelle en un graphe RDF Pour ˆetre requˆet´ee avec SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF (R2RML) Contraintes de l’ontologie (opt.) Virtuelle ou mat´erielle RDFR2RML Graphe saturé Graphe RDF mat´erialis´e Mat´erialisation du graphe RDF satur´e − Maintenance + Profils d’ontologie expressifs (comme OWL 2 RL) Graphe RDF virtuel Reformulation de requˆete + Aucune mat´erialisation − Profil d’ontologie moins expressif (OWL 2 QL) * (*) Inclut toutefois un m´ecanisme d’inf´erence absent du profil OWL 2 RL Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (9/17)
  13. 13. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Mapping SQL-RDF Format natif d’Ontop (similaire au standard R2RML) AmphoraT amId place inscription A24 Latium ’aaaa’ A52 Barcelona ’bbbb’ Source (SQL) SELECT amId, inscription FROM AmphoraT Cible (RDF, Turtle-like) :db1/{amId} a :Amphora ; :hasInscription "{inscription}"^^xsd:string . Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (10/17)
  14. 14. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Mappings SQL-RDF Rendre les informations plus accessibles Classification de p´eriodes par gouvernement Exemple : le gouvernement Caligula est d´efini par la p´eriode 37-41 Permet de requˆeter un gouvernement plutˆot que des dates Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (11/17)
  15. 15. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Alignement des donn´ees R´eutilisation d’IRIs IRIs construites `a partir de donn´ees pivots Attention `a l’indexation ! Tables de correspondances (exp´erimental) Propri´et´es owl:sameAs sp´ecifi´ees par les mappings Patrons d’IRIs diff´erents entre les donn´ees align´ees Phase de r´e´ecriture de la requˆete SPARQL Ontology-based Integration of Cross-linked Datasets (ISWC 15) Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (12/17)
  16. 16. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Reformulation de requˆete R´e´ecriture (optionnelle) Reformulation `a partir des mappings Optimisation SPARQL SPARQL SQL SQL Rˆole de l’ontologie OWL 2 QL Marginal : r´e´ecriture de la requˆete SPARQL (cas tr`es particuliers) Principal : saturation des mappings (hors-ligne) Perspective : mieux capturer le pouvoir expressif des mappings Inf´erence de mappings suppl´ementaires Autres formes de contraintes ontologiques (SWRL restreint) Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (13/17)
  17. 17. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Reformulation de requˆete R´e´ecriture (optionnelle) Reformulation `a partir des mappings satur´es Optimisation SPARQL SPARQL SQL SQL Rˆole de l’ontologie OWL 2 QL Marginal : r´e´ecriture de la requˆete SPARQL (cas tr`es particuliers) Principal : saturation des mappings (hors-ligne) Perspective : mieux capturer le pouvoir expressif des mappings Inf´erence de mappings suppl´ementaires Autres formes de contraintes ontologiques (SWRL restreint) Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (13/17)
  18. 18. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Reformulation de requˆete R´e´ecriture (optionnelle) Reformulation `a partir des mappings satur´es Optimisation SPARQL SPARQL SQL SQL Rˆole de l’ontologie OWL 2 QL Marginal : r´e´ecriture de la requˆete SPARQL (cas tr`es particuliers) Principal : saturation des mappings (hors-ligne) Perspective : mieux capturer le pouvoir expressif des mappings Inf´erence de mappings suppl´ementaires Autres formes de contraintes ontologiques (SWRL restreint) Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (13/17)
  19. 19. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Profil d’ontologie OWL 2 QL Principales fonctionnalit´es Hi´erarchies de classes (rdfs:subclassOf) et de propri´et´es (rdfs:subPropertyOf) Signature de propri´et´es (rdfs:domain, rdfs:range) Propri´et´es inverses (owl:inverseOf) Disjonction de classes (owl:disjointWith) Participation obligatoire (avanc´e) Manques Identit´e d’individus (owl:sameAs) Contraintes de cardinalit´e (propri´et´e fonctionnelle, etc.) Et bien d’autres En r´esum´e Ontologies l´eg`eres Un peu plus que RDFS Traductibilit´e garantie vers SQL Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (14/17)
  20. 20. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Optimisation de la requˆete SQL Objectif : obtenir une requˆete SQL. . . Proche de celles ´ecrites par des humains Adapt´ee aux planificateurs existants Optimisations structurelles Jointures d’unions vers unions de jointures D´ecomposition des IRIs pour faciliter les jointures Optimisations s´emantiques ´Elimination des unions et des jointures redondantes `A partir de contraintes fonctionnelles Contraintes fonctionnelles Cl´es primaires, uniques ou ´etrang`eres Implicites dans les processus m´etiers (Statoil) Vitales pour la reformulation de requˆete ! Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (15/17)
  21. 21. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion D´etection d’incoh´erences V´erifier que certaines classes restent disjointes dans le graphe RDF virtuel Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (16/17)
  22. 22. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Conclusion Ontop Logiciel libre (Apache 2) Extension Prot´eg´e Point d’acc`es SPARQL Int´egration Plateforme Optique (FluidOps) Stardog 4.0 (graphes virtuels) Quelques exp´erimentations owl:sameAs via les mappings Support partiel de SWRL Agr´egation SPARQL NoSQL Liens Github : ontop/ontop ontop4obda@googlegroups.com Twitter : @ontop4obda http://optique-project.eu D´emonstration http://136.243.8.213/epnet-pleiades-edh/ Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (17/17)
  23. 23. Motivation SPARQL Mappings SQL-RDF Reformulation et inf´erence Autres fonctionnalit´es Conclusion Conclusion Ontop Logiciel libre (Apache 2) Extension Prot´eg´e Point d’acc`es SPARQL Int´egration Plateforme Optique (FluidOps) Stardog 4.0 (graphes virtuels) Quelques exp´erimentations owl:sameAs via les mappings Support partiel de SWRL Agr´egation SPARQL NoSQL Liens Github : ontop/ontop ontop4obda@googlegroups.com Twitter : @ontop4obda http://optique-project.eu D´emonstration http://136.243.8.213/epnet-pleiades-edh/ Benjamin Cogrel (Universit´e Libre de Bolzano) OBDA/Ontop 09/11/2015 (17/17)

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