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3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology that allows for production of physical objects from digital data, constructing an object of virtually any shape layer-by-layer, by depositing material layers in sequence. 3D printing is a quickly expanding field, with popularity and uses for 3D printers growing every day.
In this report, ICE Team has aggregated all the intriguing applications of 3D printing. The report also includes information on how 3D printing works and major 3D printers available in the market. Finally our future scenarios for a world with 3D printing will provoke you and help you take a step up and see how the future might look like. As always we look forward to your comments, suggestions and feedback.
A person creates a 3D
image of an item using a computer- aided design (CAD) software program. The CAD information is sent to the printer. The printer forms the item by depositing the material in layers—starting from the bottom layer—onto a platform. In some cases light or lasers are used to harden the material. How Does It Work?
1984 - 86 Charles Hull
invents 3D printing and coins the term ―Stereo Lithography‖ 1992 First 3D printer built by 3D Systems 1999 First application of 3D printing in the medical field - creating the human bladder History
2000 Miniature human kidney created
through 3D printing 2006 The Selective Laser Sintering machine – printing multiple materials & fields 2009 First usable prosthetic leg – this opens the door for customized products using 3D printing 2011 3D printers start offering 14k gold as printable material
It is predicted that the
3D printing industry is set to grow 300% in the next 7 years! (Source: http://on3dprinting.com/2012/08/06/infographic-how-3d-printing-works-industry-growth-stocks-and-more/ ) Projected Growth
Concept Modeling Use: Concept modeling
lets small design and engineering firms extend their reach by testing out more ideas and developing only the right projects. For large companies, concept modeling within departments — or even in individual cubicles — is a way to hone ideas before presenting them to superiors. Example: California-based 3D Reprographics makes architectural models for its clients. They found 3D printing to be a great fit for making a strong accurate presentation model.
Use: Functional prototyping helps in
creating amazingly realistic prototypes with the look and feel of a real product. Example: Lamborghini, while developing its new flagship model Aventador in 2011, made extensive use of 3D printing technology to build a functional prototype of the car. Functional Prototyping
Use: Quick, low-volume tooling and
custom fixtures give manufacturers the flexibility to embrace more opportunities. Example: Xerox introduced a low-volume printer to serve a specialized market. 3D printing offered quick solutions with 350 components printed and generated within 1 hour for testing of the new machine. Manufacturing Tools
End Use Parts Use: 3D
printing is capable of building the most durable, stable, and repeatable parts in the industry, whose accuracy can be compared with injection molding. Example: Kelly Manufacturing Company (KMC), the world’s largest manufacturer of general aviation instruments, makes extensive use of 3D printing by producing prototypes of critical components for an aircraft quickly; the process would otherwise take an estimated 3-4 weeks.
Finishing Use: Sealing, polishing and
painting expand the possibilities of what a 3D printer is capable of. Example: Product Development Solutions (PDS) specializes in supplying components to a wide range of industries including medical and aerospace. It makes extensive use of 3D printing technology in finishing and painting the parts for a better look and feel of components.
Fashionable Plaster This 3D-printed cast
to help repair broken bones may be the future of medical orthopedic casts. 3D-printed casts also bring out the positive potential of this emerging technology. Medical
Artificial Arms for Disabled Richard
Van As, a South African carpenter, assembles a Robohand and fits it to Liam Dippenaar. Liam was born without fingers on his right hand. Makerbot provided them with the 3D printing technology that they used to print the parts for the Robohand. Medical
Bionic Ears Scientists, including an
Indian-origin researcher, have created a 3D-printed bionic ear that can "hear" radio frequencies far beyond the range of normal human capability. Using off- the-shelf printing tools, the scientists at Princeton University explored 3D printing of cells and nano particles, creating the bionic ear. Medical
Secrets of the Heart Laura
Olivieri, a pediatric cardiologist at the Children's National Medical Center in Washington DC (which spent $250,000 on the 3D printer) says that these replica hearts are ideal for dry runs of complex operations, allowing the surgeon to see beforehand the exact anatomical landscape they will have to navigate. Medical
Grow Your Own Organs Surgeon
Dr. Anthony Atala demonstrated during TED an early- stage experiment that could someday solve the organ-donor problem: a 3D printer that uses living cells to print out a transplantable kidney. Medical
Just Toying Crayon Creatures is
a service to turn children’s drawings into figurines— nice-looking designer objects to decorate the home and office with a colorful touch of wild creativity. Games & Entertain ment
3D Printing on TV Popular
sitcom The Big Bang Theory shows how a 3D printer can be used for a hobby; in this case creating their own miniature figures. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oi_ sJpd7d4c Pop- Culture
Skyfall’s Aston Martin Skyfall filmmakers
3D-printed this rare Aston Martin so they wouldn't have to damage the original for the film sequence. The effects crew model makers called on a company called Voxeljet, which used a massive 3D printer with a capacity of 283 cubic feet to reproduce three 1:3 scale models of the Aston Martin. Pop- Culture
Print @ Home Microsoft will
provide support for 3D printers in the next update of its Windows 8 operating system. The firm has struck deals with a number of major 3D printer makers including Makerbot, 3D Systems, Formlabs, Dassault and Stratasys. Under the deal they will develop automatically- loading driver software that will ease 3D printer set-up at home. Do It Yourself
Personalized Robots The use of
3D printing technology has greatly expanded the possibilities for wing design, allowing wing shapes to replicate those of real insects or virtually any other shape. It has also reduced the time of a wing design cycle to a matter of minutes. An insect made up of 3D printed parts with a mass of 3.89g has been constructed using the 3D printing technique and has demonstrated an 85-second passively stable untethered ﬂight. In the future, we can see more robots that will crawl, fly and roll out of printers in homes and labs around the world. Do It Yourself
Pottery Unfold, a design firm
based in Belgium, collaborated with Tim Knapen to create a machine that enables users to sculpt virtually. ―The Electronic Artisan‖ is made of a 3D laser scanner and a RepRap, which is a printer that can create objects in three dimensions. Virtual artisanship is made possible by the use of software that tracks hand movement and printing methods that mimic age-old techniques. Do It Yourself
Components on Demand To prepare
for a future where parts can be built on-demand in space, Made in Space, the space manufacturing company, has partnered with NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center to launch the first 3D printer to space. Made in Space’s customized 3D printer will be the first device to manufacture parts away from planet Earth. The 3D printing in Zero-G Experiment will validate the capability of additive manufacturing (AM) in zero-gravity. Do It Yourself
A Car That Builds Itself
Designers and makers have been busy imagining uses for 3D printers, ranging from casts to houses to duck feet. Vehicle designer Nir Siegel doesn't just want to 3D-print cars, he wants them to assemble themselves. The Genesis car concept is just an idea right now, but it's an intriguing concept. As 3D printers advance, we inch closer to a sci-fi future where you could call up Audi or Toyota, order a car and have it delivered, ready to create itself to match your desires. Do It Yourself
Print Your Home Do It
Yourself WikiHouse is an open source construction set being developed collaboratively by a small, but growing, community of people all around the world. There is no fixed design ―team‖ or ―studio,‖ but a steadily growing community of designers from all disciplines. They all share a common belief that developing freely available design solutions which are affordable, sustainable and adaptive to differing needs is a worthwhile aim.
Eyes on You New technologies
using Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAV) could create a new, cost-effective and reliable monitoring service. Researchers at University of Southampton, UK have created a new 3D printed drone, called 2Seas, that could soon be used by maritime security organizations. The heart of 2Seas – the central wing box, fuel tank and engine mountings – was 3D-printed, the wings and tail are made from carbon fiber. Defense & Space
Drone It Yourself Defense &
Space Home-built drones are very popular among hobbyists with backgrounds in electronics and robotics. Jasper van Loenen, an independent designer working in the field of interaction design and art, wanted to make the design simpler so anyone could make their own robots. Van Loenen created a custom DIY (Drone It Yourself) v1.0 kit that turns any object into an unmanned aerial vehicle, simply by attaching four motors and a control unit – no technical know-how needed. http://vimeo.com/jasperl/diy
―Liberator‖ Defense Distributed successfully test
fired the world's first 3D-printed handgun named Liberator. All 16 parts of the gun are made from a tough, heat-resistant plastic used in products such as musical instruments, kitchen appliances and vehicle bumper bars. Fifteen of those are made with a 3D printer while one is a non-functional metal part which can be picked up by metal detectors, making it legal under U.S. law. The firing pin is also not made of plastic, though it is easily crafted from a metal nail. Defense & Space
3D-printed Lunar Base Building a
base on the moon could theoretically be made much simpler by using a 3D printer to construct it from local materials. The concept was recently endorsed by the European Space Agency (ESA) which is now collaborating with architects to gauge the feasibility of 3D printing using lunar soil. ―3D printing offers a potential means of facilitating lunar settlement with reduced logistics from Earth,‖ said Scott Hovland of ESA’s human spaceflight team. Defense & Space
Show The World! Malaysian fashion
designer Melinda Looi collaborated with Belgian 3D printing studio Materialise to create Asia’s first entirely 3D printed runway collection. Looi’s design team worked with 3D modelers and engineers to create each look, which took months to design before being printed. Fashion & Retail
Design Your Own Clothes Designed
by Joshua Harris, an industrial engineer, for an Electrolux design competition in 2010, the concept printer would not only print out clothing, but would recycle used clothing as well. The idea is that the fashion designers of the future will sell cartridges for the printer containing colors and materials to use with their digital designs! Joshua envisions this printer in homes by 2050!! Fashion & Retail
Print Your Footwear Fashion designer
Iris van Herpen and shoe designer Rem D Koolhaas have collaborated to create 3D-printed shoes that look like tree roots. The shoes were presented at Paris Fashion Week during Iris van Herpen's couture show. Van Herpen is one of the first fashion designers to experiment with 3D printing. In an interview with a magazine, she says, ―Everybody could have their own body scanned and just order clothes that fit perfectly.‖ Fashion & Retail
That’s Sweet! Los Angeles architects
Kyle and Liz von Hasseln have set up a business that produces 3D-printed sugar sculptures for wedding cakes, table centerpieces and pie toppings. This way 3D printing transforms sugar into a structural and sculptural medium. In future, it can define the form of the food instead of the food defining the structure. Food
Space Food NASA can send
robots to Mars with no worries about the food. However, if it's ever going to put humans on the red planet, then it has to figure out how to feed them over the course of year-long missions. So the space agency has funded research for a 3D printer that creates entrees or desserts at the touch of a button. In this way, NASA seeks inspiration from the concept of the Food Replicator from the movie Star Trek. Food
Fab ―Food‖ at Home The
3D food printer is part of the fab@home series by Cornell university's computational synthesis lab. Headed by Dr. Jeffrey Ian Lipton, the team's fab@home technology, designed as a collection of open- source rapid prototyping systems, allows three-dimensional objects to be ―printed‖ by a syringe, whose movements are determined from computer blueprints and models. Layering lines of material ultimately generate a three-dimensional object in a process they call ―solid freeform fabrication.‖ fab@home machines have already been used to print chocolates, cookies, and even domes of turkey meat. Food
Rep Rap Model: RepRapPr o
Huxley Price: $599 Eventorbot Model: Delta Micro Up Afinia H-Series Price: $1,500 Printrbot Model: Printrbot GO Price: $1,500 Makerbot Model: Replicator 2x Price: $2,800 The Future is 3D Model: Glacier Steel Price: 3000 3D Systems Model: CubeX Price: $3000 Formlabs Model: Form 1 Price: $3,300 Stratasys Model: U print SE Plus Price: $15,000
Amanda’s Wandering Home Amanda is
a 25-year-old enthusiastic architect who works as a freelance consultant. She never wanted to stay in one place and called herself ―the wanderer‖! So, when she decided to build her own home, she thought she wanted something very unique and a home that was a wanderer in itself. After a detailed research she built herself a 3D printer that she could finally call her home! A 3D printer, a home?! The 3D printer was the central component of her caravan styled home. The ―caravan‖ had been 3D printed by the printer around itself. The built-in shredder could shred the components of the home that she wanted to modify or remove. Whenever she wanted to be on the move again, the 3D printer would print out the engine to move the caravan. In stationary state, the 3D printer would print out energy generation systems like solar panels and wind turbines. She woke up with the buzz of the printer that printed out her clothes for the day and she slept off with the hum of the printer shredding off the waste generated during the day, hence getting raw
Remya – 1st 3D Printed
Human Remya is a 1-day-old daughter of the next-gen 3D printer system called ―Behold.‖ Behold got released in the year 2050 and became an instant hit with people who wanted an extended life by printing out worn out organs and tissues. One day, a childless couple decided to ―print‖ much more than just organs. They got source codes and designs of all the organs and tissues required in a human body from an open source Creative Commons platform. They assembled the parts together on a Design Software and named the file ―Remya.‖ Next, they just hit the ―print‖ button! The whole process took 9 days. At last they had a fully grown child that they called Remya. That’s when the real problems started- the printer started showing them the status message,
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