Climate responsive architecture and PEDA literature study
1. CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE
Climate responsive design considers the impact of building design
• The local micro climate
• The effects of wind and rain
• Sunlight and shadowing, and reflection and glare
THE ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE
• Temperature: data
•Solar radiation: data
•Wind : data
THE DAYLIGHT FACTOR
•Due to variability of outdoor lighting levels it is difficult to calculate
interior lighting in illumination terms.
DEVIATIONS WITHIN THE ZONE
Knowledge of the climatic zone to which a town or settlement
Belongs and possession of published regional climatic data does not
eliminate the need for careful investigation of site climatic conditions.
•The term ‘site climate’ has been chosen deliberately rather than the
synonymously used term ’micro climate’.
Factors which may cause local deviation.
• Topography: i.e slope ,orientation , exposure, elevation, hills or
valleys at or near the site.
Heat exchange at surfaces varies between night and day with the
season, latitude and the time of year, always influenced by the
amount of cold cover
• This phenomenon is referred to as temperature
inversion, as the day time situation of decreasing
temperature with increase of height is taken as
• Cold air tends to settle in the deepest
depressions and behaves as a liquid.
THE SUN’S POSITION
The sun’s position on the sky hemisphere can be
specified by two angles;
• The altitude angle (also known as
the "solar elevation angle") describes the angle
measured between a line from the observer‘s
position to the sun and the horizon.
• The solar azimuth angle is the angular distance
between due South and
the projection of the line of sight to the sun.
It has three distinctly different functions
• Supply of fresh air
• Convective cooling
• Physiological cooling
2. CLIMATES OF INDIA
• HOT AND DRY
• WARM AND HUMID
• COLD AND SUNNY
• COLD AND CLOUDY
HOT AND DRY
• Flat roof - is used because of sandstorms – not obstruct the
• wind flow
• Pitch roof - should be built as double layers
• Small windows - to prevent sand and dust from entering the
• Thick wall – the entering of heat into the house during
daytime become slower and at night the cold air push the
warm air to flow outside and the building is maintained cold
• Concrete houses are built
• Colors of the buildings - light / bright
• Materials - crack and break up cause by high daytime
temperature and rapid cooling at night
WARM AND HUMID
• Wall - is still warm at night because of the high solar
radiation during the day
• Pitch roof - is used act as a buffer to reduce the entering of
heat into the house
• Gutters are built
• Plastered single layer wall – to prevent heat captured in
• Window hoods and balcony - to reduce the entering of
solar radiation and daylight into the house
• More windows and the opening are wide
• Aprons - to prevent dirt on the wall
• Wide doors – wind shaft is built to enable heated air go
• Ceiling (high ceiling) – to prevent direct heat into the house
Courtyard type buildings are very suitable
A moderate dense, low rise development
• Large projecting eaves and wide verandas are needed in
the warm-humid season as out door living areas - to
reduce sky glare, keep out the rain and provide shade
• Shading devices should preferably be of low thermal
• Roof and external walls - constructed of solid masonry
• Resistance insulation - placed at the outside surfaces of
external walls or roofs.
• Large openings in opposite walls - preferably with solid
COLD AND SUNNY
• Providing roof insulation and east and west wall insulation.
• Increase shading on east and west walls by overhangs, fins and
• Increase surface reflectivity by using light-coloured textures.
• Encourage ventilation by locating windows properly.
• Increase air exchange rate with the help of courtyardS and
Arrangement of openings.
COLD AND CLOUDY
• Exposed surface areas are reduced by careful
orientation and shape of building.
• Wall and roof insulation and double glazing
• Thicker walls.
• Providing air locks and lobbies, darker colours inside as
well as outside.
• Reduce shading on walls and glazed portions.
• Natural lighting is extensively used in the north-east and north-west by
hollowing out courtyards.
• Roof insulation was provided by using a roof system of precast hollow
terracotta curved panels with nominal G I reinforcement.
• The hollow terracotta layer works as heat-resisting layer. A thick ‘wall’ on the
southern/south-western side, which comprised largely masonry surface within
which were located the services such as toilets, pantry, kitchen work space.
• The depth of the south-west wall was used to shield the heat and provide
pockets for openings located on this ‘wall’ to pull in south-west breeze.
3. PUNJAB ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AGENCY
ARCHITECT :- Dr. Arvind Krishan
Located at Chandigarh, on a flat practically
square site with no major topographical
Building configuration has been generated
in response to solar geometry, a unique
built form thus generated in response to
summer and winter requirements.
Three dimensional configuration of the
building evolved in response to solar
Elements of building i.e. building envelope,
plan form etc. evolved in response to solar
Renewable energy systems i.e PV
integrated in the roof as an element of
& PERCEIVED SUN-PATH
THERMAL INNER SKIN
• AIR TEMP.
STRUCTURAL OUTER SKIN INTERACTS WITH
• AIR TEMP.
• HEAT BARRIER THROUGH INSULATION / DEAD AIR CAVITY
• MOISTURE BARRIER
• T.A.P. (THERMOSYPHON AIR PANEL)
• THROUGH SOLAR / MECHANICAL ACTIVATION
WATERBODIES AND LIGHT VAULTS
The water bodies
placed in the
central atrium of
the complex for
cooling of whole
the complex in
the hot and dry
The vertical cut-
outs in the floating
slabs are integrated
with light vaults
and solar activated
structures in the
to admit day light
without glare and
INSULATION OF ROOF AND WALL
All the roofs have been insulated with double
insulation system to avoid penetration of heat
from the roof.
The complex is a single envelope made up of its
outer walls as double skin walls having 2" cavity in
between. The cavity walls facing south and west
are filled with further insulation material for
efficient thermal effect.
•Evaporative cooling towers work best with open floor plans that permit the air
to circulate through out the building without any obstacles.
•Good thermal mass of the building helps the building to perform in extreme
conditions. Appropriate building design and orientation having properly placed
building elements reduced or minimize the solar gain in summer.
•Elements like light Vault, Solar chimney, Hyperbolic parabolised atrium roof
help to minimize the solar gain.
•From the TAS result it can be concluded that the atrium space is working
properly with application of PDEC system by getting 10-12°C lower than
ambient temperature, which also helps to cool the neighboring south office
space to maintain a comfortable space to work.
• From all evidences Punjab Energy Development Agency (PEDA) office
building can be called as a passive solar complex. Overall the building
performs well whole of the year. Evaporative cooling is required in May &
Most Efficient Building in the country , it has 5 STAR RATING in 2010 BASED ON
ACTUAL PERFORMANCE14 kwh /sq.m/per year given by BUREAU OF ENERGY
EFFICIENCY GOVT. OF INDIA
The space around the building inside and outside of boundary wall and a big
lawn in the south has been designed with trees, shrubs and grass.
The big trees along the boundary wall acts as a curtain to
• Minimize air pollution
• Sound pollution
• Filter/cool the entry of air.
SITE MICRO CLIMATIC ANALYSIS
• The climatic periods : two months of
hot-dry, hot-humid (two months) and
cold period (two months)
• Cooling remains as the predominant
requirement since the total over-
heated period extends from mid-
April to mid-August.
• The comfort temperature varies
during whole year, but the maximum
comfort temperature in summer
varies from 29 c to 31 c when
external temperature varies from 40
c to 45c.