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Environmental Pollutants

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Desribes the pharmacology of environmrntal pollutants

Publié dans : Santé & Médecine, Technologie
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Environmental Pollutants

  1. 1. Environmental Pollutants Dr.Rathnakar U.P. MD.DIH.PGDHM K.M.C. Mangalore
  2. 2. Polluted environment <ul><li>We live in a chemical environment </li></ul><ul><li>We inhale, ingest, or absorb from the skin many of these chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology is concerned with the deleterious effects of these chemical agents on all living systems. </li></ul><ul><li>?????Humans </li></ul>
  3. 3. Toxicology <ul><li>Occupational Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotoxicology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Occupational Toxicology <ul><li>Chemicals found in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies, defines safety [ threshold limit values (TLVs)] limits and lays down guidelines to minimize absorption </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ecotoxicology <ul><li>Traditional toxicology is concerned with toxic effects on individual organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotoxicology is concerned with the impact on populations of living organisms or on ecosystems </li></ul>
  6. 6. Environmental Toxicology <ul><li>Environmental toxicology deals with the deleterious impact of chemicals, present as pollutants of the environment, on living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>The term environment includes all the surroundings of an individual organism, but particularly the AIR, SOIL, AND WATER. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pollution And pollutants <ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of contaminants </li></ul><ul><li>Into an environment </li></ul><ul><li>[Which] Causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>To the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pollution and pollutants
  9. 9. Pollution And pollutants <ul><li>Pollutants - </li></ul><ul><li>A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of pollution , </li></ul><ul><li>Can be foreign substances </li></ul><ul><li>Or energies, </li></ul><ul><li>Or naturally occurring-when they exceed natural levels </li></ul>
  10. 10. History <ul><li>Undesired spin-off of Human activity </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery fire-Paleolithic era </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of tools- Iron Age </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial revolution-Modern era </li></ul>
  11. 11. Water Pollution <ul><li>Uncontaminated water does not occur in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Less serious-> Natural-N2, Co2, H2S ←Rain fall </li></ul><ul><li>Serious -> Sewage, Industrial waste, Agricultural waste, radioactive sub. ←Urbanization & industrialization </li></ul>
  12. 12. Land pollution <ul><li>Main causes </li></ul><ul><li>Indiscriminate dumping of Industrial, muncipal solid hazardous waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial effluents and domestic sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Mining and mineral processing </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Other Pollutions </li></ul><ul><li>Noise pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Light pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Visual pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Misc. </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides, Natural [Dust, Fungi, Noise, Light] </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco smoke </li></ul>
  14. 14. &quot;The smoke of chimneys is the breath of Soviet Russia&quot;
  15. 15. Sources-Air Pollution <ul><li>Automobiles-Major urban </li></ul><ul><li>HC, CO, Pb, N.oxides, </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate matter </li></ul><ul><li>Strong sun light->HC & N.Oxides ->Oxidizing photochemical pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Disel engines ->Smoke, Fumes </li></ul><ul><li>Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke, So2, N.Oxides, Fly ash, H.Fluoride, HCL, CO, Ozone, H2S, SO2. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic </li></ul><ul><li>Burning-Coal, wood, Oil. ->So2, No2. </li></ul>London Disaster-1952
  16. 16. Great Smog of 1952- London More than 4000 people died
  17. 17. <ul><li>Routes </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric pollutants , Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Transdermal </li></ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants of water and soil </li></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Acute exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Single or multiple for 2-3 days </li></ul><ul><li>Industry, occupational </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational or atmospheric </li></ul>Exposure
  18. 18. <ul><li>BIOACCUMULATION </li></ul><ul><li>Intake of a contaminant by an organism </li></ul><ul><li>Exceeds the latter's ability to metabolize or excrete the substance </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical accumulates within the tissues of the organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Bioaccumulation. </li></ul><ul><li>BIOMAGNIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of a contaminant may be virtually undetectable in water </li></ul><ul><li>Magnified thousands of time as the contaminant passes up the food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Biomagnification </li></ul>
  19. 19. Phytoplankton Zooplankton Rainbow smelt Lake trout Herring Gull Fish Fry Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) undetectable in water Biomagnification In food chain X 1 X 49.2 X 416 X 1932 X 49,600 ?????
  20. 20. Air pollutants [Inhalation] <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>5µ -Deposited upper airway </li></ul><ul><li>1µ-5µ-terminal airway </li></ul><ul><li><1µ deposited in alveoli –absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>Larger surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity to circulation </li></ul><ul><li>High blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>Removal </li></ul><ul><li>Wiping, blowing, sneezing </li></ul><ul><li>Ciliary movement </li></ul><ul><li>From alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbrd </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytosed </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic system </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types & Sources Air pollution Sulfur oxides CO Volatile organic compounds Particulate matter Nitrogen oxides 5 pollutants- 98% of Air Pollution <ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Cadmium </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 S </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone </li></ul><ul><li>Polynuclear </li></ul><ul><li>aromatic </li></ul><ul><li>hydrocarbon </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor air pollution </li></ul>
  22. 23. Toxicology – Carbon Monoxide <ul><li>Colorless, tasteless, odorless, and nonirritating gas </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete combustion </li></ul><ul><li>CO +Hemoglobin= Carboxyhemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot transport oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Interferes with the dissociation of oxygen from the remaining oxyhemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Brain and the heart most affected </li></ul>
  23. 24. Carbon Monoxide <ul><li>Clinical Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>Headache. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of visual acuity. </li></ul><ul><li>Tachycardia,Tachypnea,Syncope &Coma. </li></ul><ul><li>Convulsions, Shock and Respiratory failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>Administration of Oxygen. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Carbon Monoxide Don’t be cozy in a closed car!!!
  25. 26. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) <ul><li>Colorless, irritant gas </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Moist membranes+ SO 2 -> sulfurous acid, -> severe irritation of the eyes, mucous membranes, skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchoconstriction & P.Edema </li></ul><ul><li>No specific tt </li></ul>
  26. 27. Nitrogen Dioxide <ul><li>Brownish irritant gas </li></ul><ul><li>Fire and fresh silage-Silo filler’s disease in farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Lung irritant -pulmonary edema </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment-Preventive and symptomatic </li></ul>
  27. 28. Ozone <ul><li>Bluish irritant gas - occurs normally in the earth's atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace->Around high-voltage electrical equipment and around ozone-producing devices used for air and water purification. </li></ul><ul><li>Important oxidant found in polluted urban air. </li></ul><ul><li>Important absorbent of ultraviolet light. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Ozone-Clinical Effects & Treatment <ul><li>Irritant of mucous membranes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mild exposure ->Upper respiratory tract irritation. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe -> Deep lung irritation -> pulmonary edema </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone penetration in the lung depends on tidal volume -> exercise increases the amount reaching the distal lung. </li></ul><ul><li>Some effects of O 3 resemble-> radiation effects← formation of reactive free radicals. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Ozone…. <ul><li>Causes shallow, rapid breathing and a decrease in pulmonary compliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced sensitivity of the lung to bronchoconstrictors </li></ul><ul><li>Irritation and dryness of the throat; </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in visual acuity, substernal pain, and dyspnea. </li></ul><ul><li>Airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>NO specific treatment for acute O 3 intoxication </li></ul>
  30. 31. SOLVENTS 1. Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons <ul><li>CCl 4 , </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroform, </li></ul><ul><li>Methyl chloroform. </li></ul><ul><li>Trichloroethylene, </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrachloroethylene, </li></ul><ul><li>Uses -Industrial solvents, degreasing agents, cleaning agents </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational hazard </li></ul>
  31. 32. Solvents-MOA & Clinical Effects <ul><li>CNS depression, </li></ul><ul><li>Liver injury, kidney injury,& cardiotoxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrachloroethylene can -> impaired memory and peripheral neuropathy </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogenic effect-Safety margin is large </li></ul><ul><li>No specific treatment </li></ul>
  32. 33. SOLVENTS 2. Aromatic Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Benzene </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent and in the synthesis of other chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Acute effect </li></ul><ul><li>Depression of CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Euphoria, nausea, locomotor problems, and coma; vertigo, drowsiness, headache, and nausea. </li></ul><ul><li>No specific treatment </li></ul>
  33. 34. Benzene <ul><li>Chronic exposure ->very serious toxic effects, </li></ul><ul><li>Injury to the bone marrow; aplastic anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, or thrombocytopenia </li></ul><ul><li>Increased incidence of leukemia </li></ul><ul><li>TOLUENE (METHYLBENZENE): </li></ul><ul><li>NO myelotoxic properties nor associated with leukemia. </li></ul><ul><li>But a CNS depressant </li></ul>
  34. 35. INSECTICIDES <ul><li>Organophosphorus Insecticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbamate Insecticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Organochlorine Insecticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Botanical Insecticides </li></ul>
  35. 36. Organochlorine Insecticides <ul><li>Eg. DDT , Benzene hexachlorides, cyclodienes, toxaphenes </li></ul><ul><li>They can be absorbed through the skin[Not DDT] as well as by inhalation or oral ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Interfere with inactivation of the sodium channel ->rapid repetitive firing in most neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Effect is CNS stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Tremor and convulsions, </li></ul><ul><li>There is no specific treatment </li></ul>
  36. 37. Organochlorine insecticides… <ul><li>Envn. Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation is slow and bioaccumulation, particularly in aquatic ecosystems, is well documented. </li></ul><ul><li>Once adsorbed in soil, they do not readily desorb. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Botanical Insecticides: <ul><li>Nicotine – Convulsions, respiratory paralysis, hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotenone – Pharyngitis, GI irritation, Conjunctivitis and Dermatitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrethrum – CNS excitation,Convulsions, </li></ul><ul><li>and tetanic paralysis. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Endocrine Disruptors <ul><li>Chemicals mimic, enhance, or inhibit a hormonal action </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen-like or antiandrogenic properties </li></ul><ul><li>Eg.Phytoestrogens ,Mycoestrogens, Persistent organochlorine agents such as DDT. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Lead free toys
  40. 41. The Indian Vultures 'God’s own incinerators’ - Dr. Salim Ali <ul><li>The White backed vulture population </li></ul><ul><li>30 million birds in 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, it is a mere 11,000 birds and falling. </li></ul><ul><li>Diclofenac poisonong </li></ul>
  41. 42. Kerala is called &quot;God's own country.&quot; Its beauty is unsurpassed. Only ENDOSULFAN marred that beauty
  42. 43. Summary <ul><li>Occupational, Envn, Ecotoxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions-Pollution and pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Air, Land, Water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Other pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Sources-Auto, Industry, Domestic </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure-Route and Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Bioaccumulation , Biomagnification </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollutants size and removal </li></ul><ul><li>Imp 5 pollutants-Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, CO, volatile organic chemicals, Particulate matter </li></ul><ul><li>Affect on health </li></ul><ul><li>Individual pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Solvents-Aliphatic and Aromatic </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides-Carbamates Organophos, OrganoCl, Botanical </li></ul>
  43. 44. Please Keep the World Clean Thank You W Future of our planet lies in our hands

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