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 Special Education or Special Needs
Education is the form of education
planned for the students with Special
Needs in a w...
 Special Education is Instruction Based
Programme that is specifically designed to
meet the Special Needs of the children...
 Special education is a form of learning
provided to the students with
Exceptional Needs, such as students
with Learning ...
 Possible Forms of Special Education
◦ Specialized Teaching Techniques
◦ Special Materials
◦ Special Facilities
 The Philosophy of Special Education claims
that each individual with a disability is
entitled to the support necessary t...
 Purpose
 Special Education aims at to ensure that students
with disabilities are provided with the environment
that all...
 To provide appropriate educational program,
related services to each child with a disability
requiring special education...
 To Identify disability among the preschool children
 To provide opportunity to participate in an
approved preschool pro...
 To provide appropriate related services to the
students with disabilities according to their needs.

 To encourage par...
 Special Education services are designed to help the
child learn skills that other children learn during
general educatio...
 It is estimated that 2.49% of the population
is disabled (National Policy for Persons with
Disabilities, 2002).
 Accord...
 WHO (1996) classifies these terms as:
 Impairment: It refers to physical or mental
defect OR
 The loss or reduced func...
 Disability: An impairment which limits
the ability to perform certain tasks.
 Handicap: A problem encountered
during in...
Special People are those who need special
Education and related services.
They include a child who has :
 an Intellectual...
 Victim of the Autism,
 Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are
both general terms for a group of Complex
Disorders...
 Autism is characterized, in varying degrees,
by difficulties in Social interaction, Verbal
and Nonverbal Communication a...
 Autism, (Contd)
 ASD can be associated with
◦ Intellectual Disability,
◦ Difficulties in Motor Coordination and
◦ Atten...
“Special People” also include a child who has
been a victim of the:
 Traumatic Brain Injury,
 Child Traumatic Stress occ...
 Depending on their age, children respond
to Traumatic stress in different ways.
 Many children show signs of Intense
Di...
 IEP: Individualized Education Program.
 IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
 FBA: Functional Behavioral...
 FBA: Functional Behavioural Assessment
 ABA: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
 ADD: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
 ...
 ID: Intellectual Disability
 HI: Hearing Impairment
 VI: Visual Impairment
 ED: Emotional Disturbance
 OHI: Other He...
 OI: Orthopedic Impairment
 MD: Multiple Disabilities
 TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury
 DD: Developmental Delay
 CBM: Cur...
 DD: Developmental Delay
 FBA: Functional Behavior Analysis
 ID: Intellectual Disability
 OI: Orthopedic Impairment
 ...
 Seriously Affected seldom survive at birth
 Mildly Disabled is likely to survive
 Belief in Supernatural led to two di...
 Early Period:
 Away from Supernatural to Natural causes
 Worldly interventions such as:
 Diet
 Exercise
 Natural He...
 Next Stage:
 Need for Military Superiority
 Therefore, needed society free of “Defectives”
 Individual is what s/he i...
 Consequences of the Greek and Roman
Philosophy in perspectives of Disables:
 Punishment: Chaining
 Left on Hills to Di...
Locked Away
Chained
Thrown off cliff
 Rigid caste system
 Those with Disabilities were:
 Used as Servants or Fools
 Some were still put to Death
 Disable ...
 Era of Asylum (Refuge)
 Catholic Church accepts those with
disabilities as wards of the “State”
 They were cared for i...
 The history of Special Education is not very
old in Pakistan.
 At the time of independence only Three
schools were work...
 In 1920 the Second school was opened in
Karachi for deaf children.
 The parents of deaf children have formed a
society ...
 In 1959, for the first time The National
Commission presented the Education of
Special People to the Government agenda.
...
 Pakistan National Policy for the Education
and Rehabilitation of the Disabled was
formulated in 1985 and improved in1988...
There is a shift in understanding
about the state of Disability from
a condition of “Abnormality” to a
case of “Human Dive...
Teaching profession requires knowledge,
communication skill, aptitude and so on.
Special Education is specially designed
i...
2. Specialty of the Teacher
The teacher should be skillful in dealing with
the students of special needs. S/He should
have...
 4. Tactful
 The teacher is required to tackle the
situation on case to case bases.
 5. Flexible and Friendly Personali...
 6. To be able to create Positive Atmosphere
 It is another important factor in rendering
service to the special people....
 8. To have a sense of Humor
Having sense of Humor creates attraction and
charm in the personality of the teacher
 9. To...
 10. To have Dedication and Commitment
The teacher needs to be dedicated and
committed to the cause of his/her profession...
ANY ?
THANKS FOR LISTENING
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This slide deal with introduction, nature and history special needs and their education

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1. special education

  1. 1.  Special Education or Special Needs Education is the form of education planned for the students with Special Needs in a way that addresses the students (1) Individual Differences and (2) Needs.
  2. 2.  Special Education is Instruction Based Programme that is specifically designed to meet the Special Needs of the children with disabilities.  Special Education means specially designed instructions that meet the Unusual Needs of the Exceptional students.
  3. 3.  Special education is a form of learning provided to the students with Exceptional Needs, such as students with Learning Disabilities or Mental Abnormalities.
  4. 4.  Possible Forms of Special Education ◦ Specialized Teaching Techniques ◦ Special Materials ◦ Special Facilities
  5. 5.  The Philosophy of Special Education claims that each individual with a disability is entitled to the support necessary to maximize his/her Potential.
  6. 6.  Purpose  Special Education aims at to ensure that students with disabilities are provided with the environment that allows them to be educated effectively.  Disabilities that qualify for Special Education include all type of Physical, Mental and Behavioural Disabilities.
  7. 7.  To provide appropriate educational program, related services to each child with a disability requiring special education, from age Three through Twenty-one years.  To provide activities that foster social development and, adjustment into the regular school and community activities.
  8. 8.  To Identify disability among the preschool children  To provide opportunity to participate in an approved preschool program within a reasonable distance from the child's home, or  To provide a coordinated and comprehensive instructional program from kindergarten through high school.
  9. 9.  To provide appropriate related services to the students with disabilities according to their needs.   To encourage parental involvement and understanding of Special Education programs.   To provide appropriate Vocational Services to the students with disabilities.   To provide Healthy and Friendly Environment in and outside the school for each student with disability.
  10. 10.  Special Education services are designed to help the child learn skills that other children learn during general educational settings.  These services include, Therapy, Counseling, Adaptive equipment, Transportation, Accommodation and or Modifications.  Special Education services are provided in public/private schools and include special instruction in the classroom, at home, in the hospital, in institutions, or in other settings.
  11. 11.  It is estimated that 2.49% of the population is disabled (National Policy for Persons with Disabilities, 2002).  According to the WHO the general prevalence of disability is 10%.  Many parents tend to conceal the fact that they have a disabled child or deny the presence of disability in their children (Khatoon, 2003).
  12. 12.  WHO (1996) classifies these terms as:  Impairment: It refers to physical or mental defect OR  The loss or reduced function of a body part or organ.  Disability: It refers to a person-level limitations in physical and psycho-cognitive activities OR
  13. 13.  Disability: An impairment which limits the ability to perform certain tasks.  Handicap: A problem encountered during interaction with the environment is termed as the Handicap.
  14. 14. Special People are those who need special Education and related services. They include a child who has :  an Intellectual Disability,  a Hearing Impairment (including deafness),  a Speech or language Impairment,  a Visual Impairment (including blindness),  a Serious Emotional Disturbance,  an Orthopedic Impairment,  (Contd)
  15. 15.  Victim of the Autism,  Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are both general terms for a group of Complex Disorders of Brain Development.  Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the First Three Years of life and affects a person’s Ability to Communicate and Interact with others.
  16. 16.  Autism is characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in Social interaction, Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and Repetitive Behaviours.  Presently, all Autism Disorders are merged into one umbrella diagnosis of (ASD) Autism Spectrum Disorder.
  17. 17.  Autism, (Contd)  ASD can be associated with ◦ Intellectual Disability, ◦ Difficulties in Motor Coordination and ◦ Attention and Physical Health issues such as Sleep and Gastrointestinal Disturbances.
  18. 18. “Special People” also include a child who has been a victim of the:  Traumatic Brain Injury,  Child Traumatic Stress occurs when a child is exposed to Traumatic Events or Traumatic Situations, and  When this Exposure Overwhelms the child’s ability to cope with what they have experienced, Traumatic Stress occurs .
  19. 19.  Depending on their age, children respond to Traumatic stress in different ways.  Many children show signs of Intense Distress—Disturbed Sleep, Difficulty in Paying Attention and Concentrating, Anger and Irritability.
  20. 20.  IEP: Individualized Education Program.  IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.  FBA: Functional Behavioral Analysis (FBA),  (AR) Annual Review  BIP: Behaviour Intervention Plan
  21. 21.  FBA: Functional Behavioural Assessment  ABA: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)  ADD: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)  AUT: Autism   ASD: Autism Spectrum Disorder
  22. 22.  ID: Intellectual Disability  HI: Hearing Impairment  VI: Visual Impairment  ED: Emotional Disturbance  OHI: Other Health Impairment  SLD: Specific Learning Disability
  23. 23.  OI: Orthopedic Impairment  MD: Multiple Disabilities  TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury  DD: Developmental Delay  CBM: Curriculum-Based Measurements  DB: Deaf-Blindness  VI: Visual Impairment
  24. 24.  DD: Developmental Delay  FBA: Functional Behavior Analysis  ID: Intellectual Disability  OI: Orthopedic Impairment  SLD: Specific Learning Disability  TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury
  25. 25.  Seriously Affected seldom survive at birth  Mildly Disabled is likely to survive  Belief in Supernatural led to two different views:  Demons; (Evil Spirit) therefore kill them  Unique; therefore admire and honor them  Those with Disabilities be Isolated
  26. 26.  Early Period:  Away from Supernatural to Natural causes  Worldly interventions such as:  Diet  Exercise  Natural Herbs etc  Mind, Body, Spirit
  27. 27.  Next Stage:  Need for Military Superiority  Therefore, needed society free of “Defectives”  Individual is what s/he is, now and forever
  28. 28.  Consequences of the Greek and Roman Philosophy in perspectives of Disables:  Punishment: Chaining  Left on Hills to Die  Thrown off Cliffs  Locked away  Drowned  Father had right to Terminate child’s life
  29. 29. Locked Away Chained Thrown off cliff
  30. 30.  Rigid caste system  Those with Disabilities were:  Used as Servants or Fools  Some were still put to Death  Disable were used as Jokers
  31. 31.  Era of Asylum (Refuge)  Catholic Church accepts those with disabilities as wards of the “State”  They were cared for in Isolation  No education at first, but Humane treatment  Belief: Once Disabled, always Disabled
  32. 32.  The history of Special Education is not very old in Pakistan.  At the time of independence only Three schools were working with children having Special Needs.  The First School was established in 1906 to cater to the educational needs of children with Visual Impairment.
  33. 33.  In 1920 the Second school was opened in Karachi for deaf children.  The parents of deaf children have formed a society called the Deaf and Dumb Welfare Society which also established a school named Gung Mahal (Palace of Deaf)  (Hameed, 2003).
  34. 34.  In 1959, for the first time The National Commission presented the Education of Special People to the Government agenda.  Progress was seen between 1983-1992 when the UNO declared this time the “Decade of Disabled Persons”.
  35. 35.  Pakistan National Policy for the Education and Rehabilitation of the Disabled was formulated in 1985 and improved in1988.  Instantly, the Directorate General of Special Education runs 56 Institutions focused on the educational and rehabilitation of children with Special Needs.
  36. 36. There is a shift in understanding about the state of Disability from a condition of “Abnormality” to a case of “Human Diversity” with Equal Rights and Privileges
  37. 37. Teaching profession requires knowledge, communication skill, aptitude and so on. Special Education is specially designed instruction programme to meet the Educational, Social, Emotional, and Vocational needs of students with disabilities. The Professional Preparation Standards include: 1. Qualification of the Teacher: Qualification of the teacher should meet the required criteria to promptly satisfy needs of the field (Contd)
  38. 38. 2. Specialty of the Teacher The teacher should be skillful in dealing with the students of special needs. S/He should have the insight to determine differences among the needs of different individuals. 3. Conversant (Knowledgeable) Acquaintance with the latest innovation in the field also includes in the professional preparation of the teacher (Contd)
  39. 39.  4. Tactful  The teacher is required to tackle the situation on case to case bases.  5. Flexible and Friendly Personality  Relaxed and friendly attitude of the teacher is significant particularly in dealing with the students of special needs.  (Contd)
  40. 40.  6. To be able to create Positive Atmosphere  It is another important factor in rendering service to the special people.  7. To be able to Negotiate  Difficult situations and critical positions are settled with the art of negotiation on part of the teacher.  (Contd)
  41. 41.  8. To have a sense of Humor Having sense of Humor creates attraction and charm in the personality of the teacher  9. To be a Facilitator rather than Instructor  Teacher has always been model for the students. This importance is increased many fold when it is associated with the people of special needs.  (Contd)
  42. 42.  10. To have Dedication and Commitment The teacher needs to be dedicated and committed to the cause of his/her profession 11. To have a Child Centered Approach The teacher is required to extend love and affection to the students involved with him/her in the process of interaction (Contd)
  43. 43. ANY ? THANKS FOR LISTENING
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