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Nutrition for exercise and sport

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Nutrition for exercise and sport and exercise
Nutrient consumption

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Nutrition for exercise and sport

  1. 1. Nutrition for Exercise & Sport Developed by: AQ Khan
  2. 2. Overview • Nutrient Consumption: Fit & Non-fit • Dietary Reference Intakes • Calorie and Macronutrient Needs – Pre workout (competition) Meal – Water – Carbohydrate – Fat – Protein • Adding Mass: Gaining Weight
  3. 3. Nutrient Consumption: Fit • Active people do not require additional nutrients beyond those obtained in a nutritionally well balanced diet. • What physically fit actually eat. – Small differences in energy intake (low v high) – Higher dietary fiber & lower cholesterol intakes – Diets more closely approach recommendations • Sound human nutrition represents sound nutrition for athletes.
  4. 4. Dietary Reference Intakes • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is an umbrella term encompassing an array of standards: the RDAs, Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), Adequate Intakes (AIs), and tolerable Upper intake Levels(UL). • DRIs differ from predecessor RDAs by focusing on promoting health maintenance and risk-reduction for nutrient-related disease rather than preventing deficiency- related diseases.
  5. 5. Dietary Reference Intakes • EAR is average level of daily nutrient intake sufficient to meet requirements of ½ healthy people in given age/gender group. • RDA is average daily nutrient to meet requirements of nearly all people in given age/gender group.
  6. 6. Dietary Reference Intakes • Adequate intake (AI) provides a nutritional goal when no RDA exists. • Tolerable upper intake level (UL) is highest average daily nutrient intake likely to pose no risk or adverse health effects to most age/gender group.
  7. 7. My Pyramid Replaces Food Guide • My Pyramid replaces Food Guide Pyramid to provide food intake guidance based on age, sex, and level of daily exercise. • Recommend consuming between 45% and 65% of total calories from CHO. • Recommend consuming between 20% to 35% of total calories from Fat. • Recommend consuming between 10% to 35% of total calories from Protein. • Recommended meal composition includes 60% CHO, 25% protein, 15% Fat (Institute of Medicine).
  8. 8. Exercise and Food Intake • Mean energy intakes peak between ages 16 and 29 years & declines thereafter. • For individuals who exercise regularly food intake balances daily energy expenditure. • Lack of precision in regulating food intake at low end of energy expenditure leads to creeping obesity.
  9. 9. Exercise and Food Intake • Most obvious distinction in nutrient needs between active and inactive is more total calories. • Except for high energy intake at extremes, daily intake does not exceed 4000 kCal for men and 3000 kCal for women.
  10. 10. Exercise and Food Intake • Phelps told ESPN he eats roughly 8,000- 10,000 cal/d, including lots of pizza & pasta. • Breakfast of champions – 3 fried egg sandwiches – 2 cups coffee – 5-egg omelet – 1 bowl grits – 3 slices French toast – 3 chocolate chip pancakes Beijing 4 x 100 freestyle relay, 8-11-08
  11. 11. Exercise and Food Intake • To support 6’4”, approximately 190#, training regimen requires ~1,000 cal/hr while training or racing. • Probably eats closer to 6,000 cal/day.
  12. 12. Exercise and Food Intake Minimum: current wt (lb) X 23 = total calories for males • Current wt (lb) x 20 = total calories for females • Relatively high caloric intakes of physically active men & women usually increase protein, vitamin, and mineral intake above normal. • Percentage of calories from energy nutrients should remain in normal ranges.
  13. 13. Precompetition Meal Pre-workout meal goal: maximize muscle & liver glycogen stores providing glucose for intestinal absorption during exercise & enhance hydration. – Be consumed within 3-4 hours before exercising sufficient time to digest & absorb. – Reasons precompetition meal high in CHO: • Foods high in lipid & protein digest slowly • Low CHO meal can hinder performance – Contain 150 – 300 g CHO in solid or liquid – Benefits of precomp liquid meal: contribute to fluid needs, absorb rapidly leaving no residue
  14. 14. Carbohydrate Needs* • Carbohydrate is the optimal fuel for exercise • Prolonged and intermittent, intense training depletes carbohydrate (glycogen) stores resulting in poor performance and fatigue. • Consume carbohydrate with every meal. • In general, carbohydrates (CHO) should always provide at least 55% of total daily calorie (TDC) intake. Ideally 60-70% of TDC.
  15. 15. Carbohydrate Needs* More intense or prolonged training requires more carbohydrate • 3 grams/lb body weight for 1 hour training • 4.5 grams/lb body weight for 2 hours training. • 5 grams/lb body weight for 3 hours training. • 6 grams/lb body weight for 4+ hours training. How many calories per gram of CHO? Sources: Bread, Tortillas, Bagels, English Muffins, Cereals, Rice, Pasta, Vegetables, Potatoes, *Fruit, Fruit Juices, Sports Drinks, Soda Pop, Crackers, Pita, Pretzels, Popcorn
  16. 16. Carbohydrate Needs A. Before exercise – pre-exercise fructose absorbs more slowly, but GI distress – consuming rapidly absorbed, high glycemic CHO w/i 1 hr before exercising accelerates glycogen depletion by causing insulin overshoot & rebound hypoglycemia. – consuming low glycemic CHO immediately (< 30 min) allows for relatively slow absorption. A. During exercise: 30-60 grams per hour, 5-10 oz of 5-8% CHO electrolyte drink every 15-20 min or 2 gels per hour; drink contributes to temperature regulation B. After exercise – To speed up glycogen replenishment, consume 50-75 g moderate to high glycemic index w/i 15 minutes. – Under optimal CHO intake, takes 20 hrs to replenish glycogen stores at rate of 5% per hour.
  17. 17. Fluid Intake (Chapter 2)* • Fluid needs = body weight X .67 = ounces you require daily NOT including exercise • What should you drink: – Night before: 16 oz. of water before bed – Morning of practice: 16 oz. of water ASA get up – If practice later in day: 16 oz. of water 2 hrs. b4 practice – Pre-exercise: 6-8 oz. water or sports drink 15 min before practice, try avoid carbonated beverages or caffeine, NO fruit juices before exercise – can cause loose bowels & gas – During exercise: 4-8 oz. every 15 minutes water & sports drink alternate between two – Post exercise: 24 oz. for every pound lost w/i 2 hrs. exercise
  18. 18. Fluid, Glucose, and Electrolyte Intake • Recommendations – Fluid volume within stomach exerts greatest effect on rate of gastric emptying. – To maintain a relatively large fluid volume in stomach & speed gastric emptying, consume 400-600 ml (13.5- 20.3 oz) [immediately]immediately] 2 hrs before and __?_ 15 min before exercise; – With subsequent regular ingestion of [250 ml 8.45 oz] ? every throughout exercise. – To optimize water & CHO absorption use a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (not too dilute or too concentrated). – Adding sodium to rehydration beverage maintains plasma osmolarity, reduces urine output, motivates.
  19. 19. Sodium Potential Benefit* • Sodium benefits ultraendurance athlete at risk for hyponatremia. • Adding sodium to rehydration beverage maintains plasma osmolarity, reduces urine output, motivates drinking. • Theoretically, water absorption across intestinal mucosa may be enhance by concurrent absorption of glucose and Na+ . • Glucose stimulates sodium absorption, sodium is necessary for glucose absorption, and co-transport stimulates water’s passive uptake by osmotic action. Best ways to replace K & Na post-exercise: • Orange juice & salted pretzels, Baked potato with ketchup or salt • Nectarine and some Chex mix, Mix of dried apricots and salted nuts
  20. 20. Carbohydrate Needs in Intense Exercise* • Successive days of intense training gradually deplete glycogen reserves even with typical CHO intakes: staleness. • High CHO diet (80% of caloric intake) for 3 days increased muscle _______ and endurance time.
  21. 21. Carbohydrate Loading Glycogen Loading: procedure increases muscle glycogen levels more than normal (1.7 g/100 g). – Normal amount of glycogen packed in muscle: 5 g glycogen/ 100 g muscle • What is major benefit of carbohydrate loading? – Endurance capacity – Unless athlete begins competing completely depleted, exercise < 60 min requires normal carbohydrate intake • What is major drawback of glycogen loading? – Each gram glycogen stores 2.7 grams H2O, makes “heavy” fuel.
  22. 22. Carbohydrate Loading • Classic Carbohydrate Loading – Stage 1: depletion • Day 1: perform exhaustive exercise to deplete • Days 2, 3, 4: Maintain low CHO food intake – Stage 2: loading • Days 5, 6, 7: maintain high CHO food intake – Stage 3: competition • Modified Loading • Days 1-3: exercise @ 75% VO2 max, 1.5 hrs, 50% CHO • Days 4-6: taper exercise duration, 70% CHO
  23. 23. Fat Needs* • Too much can cause cramps • Not enough can cause fatigue more quickly • Try to limit high fat foods before and during exercise. • Foods to avoid before & during exercise: chips, ice cream, nuts, nut butters, french fries, doughnuts, fried meats, pizza, chocolate, bologna, salami, pepperoni, burgers • In general, limit TDC intake < 30% fat.
  24. 24. Protein Needs* • Body can’t use more than 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight! • Not immediately available as an energy source for exercise. • Important for recovery and to boost immune system. • Sources: chicken, turkey, soy burgers, fish, eggs, dried beans, beef, cheese, nuts and nut butters, pork, milk, veal, shellfish • In general, 15-20% TDC intake.
  25. 25. Periodization of Calorie Needs*
  26. 26. Baseball Guidelines* Off Season 20% 20%60% Protein Fat Carbo Preseason 55% 25% 20% Protein Fat Carbo Baseball In Season 55% 15% 30% Protein Fat Carbo
  27. 27. Basketball Guidelines* Off & Pre Seasons 60% 20% 20% Protein Fat Carbo In Season 55% 20% 25% Protein Fat Carbo
  28. 28. Football Guidelines* Pre & In Seasons 55% 30% 15% Protein Fat Carbo Off Season 60% 20% 20% Protein Fat Carbo
  29. 29. Nutrient Timing Resistance Training • Energy Phase: immediately pre- & during exercise period consume high glycemic CHO & rapidly digested PRO supplement. • Anabolic Phase: consume high glycemic CHO/PRO in liquid form during 45-minute post-exercise. • Growth Phase: from end of anabolic to beginning next workout, high glycemic CHO and high PRO intake.
  30. 30. Goals* Adding Mass • Goals for weight & strength gain = 1 lb/wk • 10-14 additional grams protein/day  1 lb muscle mass/week • Goals to add 500-100 additional calories/day • Increase number of meals, not just size meals • Don’t rely on weight gainers or high protein powders. Fill you up before get in all calories
  31. 31. Illustration References • McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch. 2000. Essentials of Exercise Physiology 2nd ed. Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. • Plowman, Sharon A. and Denise L. Smith. 1998. Digital Image Archive for Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon. • Carmichael, Chris. 2005. The Lance Armstrong Diet, Men’s Journal, Aug. p. 38.