Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

7 Cs.pptx

Prochain SlideShare
Chapter 2 seven_cs
Chapter 2 seven_cs
Chargement dans…3

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 38 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Similaire à 7 Cs.pptx (20)

Plus récents (20)


7 Cs.pptx

  1. 1. Chapter Seven Cs of Effective Communication
  2. 2. Introduction • The message is said to be effective when the receiver understands the same meaning that the sender was intended to convey. • For effective written/oral communication, certain principles are required. • Principles that provide guidelines for choice of content and style of presentation, adapted according to the purpose of the message and receiver are called “7 Cs” of communication.
  3. 3. 7 Cs 1. Completeness 2. Conciseness 3. Consideration 4. Concreteness 5. Clarity 6. Courtesy 7. Correctness
  4. 4. Completeness • A message is complete when it contains all the information needed to get the desired reaction from the receiver – reader or listener • It satisfies the readers fully and clears their doubts. Completeness demands you yourself should answer those questions which you think can arise the mind of the reader • Assess the message through the eyes of the receiver • Numerous benefits a. Bring desired results b. Build goodwill c. Averts costly lawsuits
  5. 5. Completeness cont’d • Guidelines 1. Provide all necessary information  Answer the 5 Ws: who, what, when, where, why 2. Answer all questions asked  While answering inquiries: stated and implied  Omission casts suspicions
  6. 6. Completeness cont’d 3. Give something extra, when desirable  Use your good judgment in offering additional material and information if the sender’s message was incomplete  Providing extra information or “something extra” would be appreciated by the receiver and help build goodwill with customers
  7. 7. Bad Example Hi everyone, I just wanted to send you all a reminder about the meeting we're having tomorrow! See you then, Chris The message is not complete. What meeting? When is it? Where is it?
  8. 8. Good Example Hi everyone, I just wanted to remind you about tomorrow's meeting on the new telecommuting policies. The meeting will be at 10:00 a.m. in the second-level conference room. Please let me know if you can't attend. See you then, Chris
  9. 9. Conciseness • Saying what you have to say in the fewest possible words without sacrificing the other C qualities • Only provide the relevant information and do not keep repeating the words and sentences. • Complete message without being wordy • Eliminate unnecessary words • Benefits a. Saves time & expense for both sender & receiver b. Show respect for recipients by not cluttering their professional lives with unnecessary information
  10. 10. Conciseness cont’d • Guidelines 1. Eliminate wordy expressions  Use single words instead of phrases, e.g. at this time: Now  Omit unnecessary expressions  Replace wordy conventional statements with concise versions  Avoid overusing empty phrases  Omit “which” and “that” clauses whenever possible  Eliminate unnecessary propositional phrases  Limit use of passive voice
  11. 11. 2. Include only relevant material  Stick to the purpose of message  Delete irrelevant words & rambling sentences  Omit information obvious to the receiver  Avoid long introductions, unnecessary explanations, excessive adjectives and prepositions  Get to the important part tactfully and concisely 3. Avoid unnecessary information  Use shorter name second or third time  Use pronouns or initials rather than repeat long names  Cut out needless repetition  Combine two or more sentences by using subordinate clauses or phrases
  12. 12. Bad Example Hi Matt, I wanted to touch base with you about the email marketing campaign we kind of sketched out last Thursday. I really think that our target market is definitely going to want to see the company's philanthropic efforts. I think that could make a big impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a sales pitch. For instance, if we talk about the company's efforts to become sustainable, as well as the charity work we're doing in local schools, then the people that we want to attract are going to remember our message longer. The impact will just be greater. What do you think? Jessica This email is too long! There's repetition, and there's plenty of "filler" taking up space.
  13. 13. Good Example Hi Matt, I wanted to quickly discuss the email marketing campaign that we analyzed last Thursday. Our target market will want to know about the company's philanthropic efforts, especially our goals to become sustainable and help local schools. This would make a far greater impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a traditional sales pitch. What do you think? Jessica
  14. 14. Consideration • Preparing every message with the receiver in mind • Be considerate • Do not lose temper, accuse or charge without facts • Be aware of their desires, problems, circumstances and possible reactions • “You-attitude” • Empathy, human touch ▫ Focus on You instead of I ▫ Emphasize on positive and pleasant facts
  15. 15. • Guidelines 1. Focus on “You” instead of “I” or “We”  Focus on how receiver will benefit, what they will receive and what they need We: I am delighted to announce you will receive your package in a week You: You will receive your package in a week  Using “you” does help project a you-attitude but overuse can lead to a negative reaction  The use of “you” in negative situations can be avoided by employing the passive voice, depersonalization Insensitive: You failed to enclose your check in envelope Considerate: The check was not received (passive) Considerate: The envelope we received didn’t have a check in it (depersonalized)
  16. 16. 2. Show audience benefit or interest in the receiver  Readers react positively when benefits are shown to them  Benefits must meet recipients’ needs, address their concerns, etc.  Personalize the reader benefits instead of stating them in a general way  Benefits that are realistic, inherent and tailored to individuals may get positive or desired reactions
  17. 17. 3. Emphasize positive, pleasant facts  Stressing on what can be done rather than on what can’t be done  Focus on words the recipient will consider favorable  Positive words: benefits, cordial, happy, generous, pleasure, thoughtful  Negative words: complaint, failed, fault, negligence, regret, reject, trouble, unfair Negative/Unpleasant “It’s impossible to open an account for you today” Positive/Pleasant “As soon as your signature card reaches us we will gladly open your account.”
  18. 18. Concreteness • Being specific, definite and vivid rather than vague and general • Use denotative words (dictionary based) rather than connotative words (ideas or notions) • Benefits a. Receiver knows exactly what is required and desired b. Increases likelihood of message being interpreted the way you intended
  19. 19. • Guidelines 1. Use specific facts and figures  Use exact precise statement in place of general word  Words that may cause confusion: slightly, small, soon, a few, high, almost, early, very, about, several, etc. 2. Put action in your verbs  Use dynamic sentences  Use active rather than passive verbs  Put actions in your verbs rather than in nouns and infinitives  Active verbs help make sentences: a. Specific b. Personal c. Concise d. Emphatic
  20. 20.  Use Action in verbs – not nouns  Verbs to avoid: be, give, have, hold, make, put, take.  Example: Professor will give consideration to the report Instead Professor will consider the report  Use action in verbs – not in infinitive  Example: The duty of a secretary is to check all incoming mail and to record it instead A secretary checks and records all incoming mail
  21. 21. 3. Choose vivid, image building words  Sensory appeal:  It appeals to one or more of the five senses  Uses descriptive language  Comparisons:  Analogies or comparisons make unclear ideas clear, e.g. Bland: This is a long letter Vivid: The letter is three times as long as you said it would be  Figurative language: Literal: Some women were stopped in promotions Vivid: Many women face “glass-ceiling” in their company
  22. 22. Clarity • Getting the meaning or idea from your head into the head of your reader, accurately – clarity • What is the purpose of your communication? If you’re not clear, the audience will be confused as well • To be clear try to minimize the number of ideas in each sentence • People shouldn’t have to “read between the lines” and make assumptions on your own
  23. 23. • Guidelines 1. Choose precise, concrete & familiar words  Balance between precise language & familiar language  To choose between long & short word, always use the short & familiar word  Use synonyms instead of Latin terms, e.g. Unfamiliar: After perusal of pertinent data, the conclusion is that a lucrative market exists for the subject property Familiar: The data we studied show that your property is profitable and in high demand  While using email abbreviations, make sure they are commonly used and familiar to the receiver as well
  24. 24. 2. Construct effective sentences & paragraphs  Length Average sentence length of between 17 – 20 words Short sentences are preferred  Unity One main idea and any other idea must be closely related to the main idea.  Coherence Words are correctly arranged so that the intended meaning is clearly expressed; e.g. Unclear: His report was about managers, broken down by age & gender Clear: His report focused on age & gender of managers
  25. 25.  Emphasis  Choose correct sentence structure based on what needs emphasis  For complex sentence, place main idea in the main clause  Computer software (MS Word) allow several ways to visually add emphasis to words; e.g. o Headings o Tabulations o Underlines o Italics o Colored letters o Colored italics
  26. 26. Bad Example Hi John, I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel, who's working in your department. He's a great asset, and I'd like to talk to you more about him when you have time. Best, Mark
  27. 27. Good Example Hi John, I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel Kadar, who's working in your department. In recent weeks, he's helped the IT department through several pressing deadlines on his own time. We've got a tough upgrade project due to run over the next three months, and his knowledge and skills would prove invaluable. Could we please have him help with this work? I'd appreciate speaking with you about this. When is it best to call you to discuss this further? Best wishes, Mark This second message is much clearer, because the reader has the information he needs to take action.
  28. 28. Courtesy • Courteous communication is friendly, open, honest, by being empathetic towards the viewpoint & feelings of the receiver • Stems from sincere ‘you-attitude’ • It involves being aware not only of perspective of others but also their feelings. • If you don’t agree to a point, discuss it in a positive way • Guidelines 1. Be tactful, thoughtful & appreciative  Tact o Don’t be intentionally blunt or abrupt, in the name of conciseness o Sometimes due to negative experience or from not knowing the culture of a country or even a group of people
  29. 29.  Thoughtfulness & appreciation o Sending cordial, courteous congratulatory and appreciative messages (inside & outside) organization help build goodwill o Be specifically thoughtful & courteous while communicating with Asian cultures 2. Use expressions that show respect  Omit irritating expressions  Omit questionable humor o Each person has a different sense of humor o When in doubt, be more formal
  30. 30. 3. Choose nondiscriminatory expressions  Sexist terms: “Man” words Examples: o Freshman: first-year student o Manpower: workers, employees o Man-made: manufactured  Singular pronouns Emphasis on gender neutrality is more common in US than other countries  Names When using names, treat each gender with respect Undesirable: Ted Aprill & Ruth Desirable: Ted & Ruth Aprill
  31. 31. Bad Example Jeff, I wanted to let you know that I don't appreciate how your team always monopolizes the discussion at our weekly meetings. I have a lot of projects, and I really need time to get my team's progress discussed as well. So far, thanks to your department, I haven't been able to do that. Can you make sure they make time for me and my team next week? Thanks, Phil Well, that's hardly courteous! Messages like this can potentially start office-wide fights. And this email does nothing but create bad feelings, and lower productivity and morale. A little bit of courtesy, even in difficult situations, can go a long way.
  32. 32. Good Example Hi Jeff, I wanted to write you a quick note to ask a favor. During our weekly meetings, your team does an excellent job of highlighting their progress. But this uses some of the time available for my team to highlight theirs. I'd really appreciate it if you could give my team a little extra time each week to fully cover their progress reports. Thanks so much, and please let me know if there's anything I can do for you! Best, Phil What a difference! This email is courteous and friendly, and it has little chance of spreading bad feelings around the office.
  33. 33. Correctness • Proper grammar, punctuation and spelling ▫ Follow the language rules ▫ Accuracy of facts and figures ▫ Vocabulary • Guidelines 1. Use right level of language  Formal: o Scholarly writing, dissertations, articles, legal documents, agreements, etc. o Uncoversational, impersonal, contain long & involved sentences  Informal o Business writing
  34. 34.  Substandard language Incorrect words, grammar, faulty pronunciation; e.g. ain’t (isn’t, aren’t), can’t hardly (can hardly), irregardless (regardless), should of (should have), etc. 2. Check accuracy of figures, facts & words  Verify statistical data  Double check your totals  Avoid guessing at laws that have impact on message receiver  Check if the “fact” has changed over time  Be careful while using words that confuse; e.g. o accept, except o Between, among o Effect, affect o Principal, principle
  35. 35. 3. Maintain acceptable writing mechanism  Various packages available for computers o Grammar-checks o Spell-checks Bad Example Hi Daniel, Thanks so much for meeting me at lunch today! I enjoyed our conservation, and I'm looking forward to moving ahead on our project. I'm sure that the two-weak deadline won't be an issue. Thanks again, and I'll speak to you soon! Best, Jack Miller
  36. 36. Creativity • How you impress your listener is directly proportional to how creative you are • Pick and include such elements in your presentation that stir the audience; e.g. poem, phrase, anecdote, short story, etc. • “Wise men speak because they have something to say; fools speak because they have to say something.” Plato
  37. 37. Common Sense • You must understand What to speak When to speak Where to speak Whom to speak Why to speak How to speak
  38. 38. Complication free language • Complication factor refers to the usage of complicated, uncommon, and tough words in conversation and public speaking. • You don’t become great by using rare dictionary words in front of the common people, your efforts will be wasted because they won’t understand you.