SEEDS AND SOWING
METHOD OF PLANTING
YIELD OF GINGER IN INDIA
VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS OF GINGER
Common Name - Ginger
Botanical Name - Zingiber officinale
Family - ZINGIBERACEAE
Kingdom - PLANTAE
Genus - ZINGIBER
Order - ZINGIBERALES
5. Ginger is one of the five most important major spices of India. India is the
largest producer of dry zinger in the world, accounting for more than 60% of
One third of the production of Ginger in the country is exported.
Kerala is the largest producer of ginger accounting for more than 40% of the
total countries production.
The crop occupies largest area in Kerala (19%) followed by Orissa (17%),
Meghalaya (12%), West Bengal (12%) and Arunachal Pradesh (6%).
Kerala and Meghalaya together account for nearly 40% of the country’s
In terms of productivity, Arunachal Pradesh stands first with 7.16 tonnes/ha
followed by Meghalaya (5.14 tonnes/ha), Mizoram (5.14 tonnes/ha) and Kerala
Apart from India, South East Asia is a major ginger producing region.
Ginger production in this region comes mainly from China, Thailand, Taiwan,
Korea and Vietnam, China being the largest producer.
Rhizome: The rhizome (underground stem) is brown, with a
corky( light brown substance) outer layer and pale-yellow
scented(distinctive, pleasant smell) center.
Shoot: The above ground shoot is erect with linear leaves
that are arranged alternately on the stem. The shoots
originate from a multiple bases and wrap around one
Leaves: Narrow green. The leaves can reach 7 cm in length
and 1.9 cm broad.
Flowers: Flowering heads are produced on shorter stems
and the plant produces cone shaped, pale yellow flowers.
Plant Height: The ginger plant can reach 2-4 ft in height.
Part Used: The fresh and dried rhizomes are used and an
essential oil is also extracted.
12. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
1) Land is ploughed 2 times (crosswise) in summer (March -
April) to a depth 15 to 22 cm
2) Exposed clods are crushed with harrow.
3) 3-4 crosswise harrowing are given to make soil loose and
friable(easily broken into small pieces).
4) Temporary ridges are opened to prevent soil erosion on sloppy
5) 15 tons of FYM/ha is applied before last harrowing
Ginger is propagated by using portions of mother rhizomes called
sets. Each healthy set to be used for planting should be 2.5 to 5 cm long,
weighing 20-25 g and having two or three buds each.
13. Rapidmultiplicationof gingerthroughsinglebudrhizome
Production of Ginger Transplants in Protrays
Selecting of healthy ginger rhizome for seed purpose
Treating the selected rhizomes with mancozeb( 0.3%) amd quinalphos( 0.075%)or thirthy minutes and storing well ventilated place
One month before planting the seed rhizomes are cut into single buds with small pieces of rhizome weighing 4-6g
Treating the single bud sprouts mancozeb 0.3% for 30 mins before planting
Filling the protrays 98% well will nursery medium containing partially decomposed coir pith and vermicompost 75:25 enriched with trichoderma with 10g per kg
Planting the ginger bus sprouts in protrays
Maintaining the protray under the shade net house
Adopting need based irrigation with rose cane or by using suitable sprinklers
Plants will be ready within 30-40days for transplanting.
14. SEEDS AND SOWING
Selection of Planting Material:
1) Select healthy rhizomes free from diseases (rhizome rot and leaf spot)
and pests (rhizome fly).
2) Sprouted rhizomes are broken into pieces keeping 2-3 sprouted eye
buds on each rhizome.
3) Each piece should be 2.5-5 cm long and 20-25 g in weight.
Time of Planting:
Ginger can be planted from start of May up to middle of June.
1)1500 kg/ha mother rhizomes
2)Spacing: 30 x 30 cm.
15. METHOD OF PLANTING
A) Flat Bed Method:
1. This method is followed in light – soil.
2. The flat beds of 4 x 4 m size are prepared.
3. The sets are planted 10 cm deep and at 20 to 30 cm apart from each other.
4. Only one set is planted at each hill and covered by soil.
5. Light irrigation is given immediately after planting.
B) Broad Ridge Method:
1) This method is followed in medium to heavy soils.
2) Raised beds 20 to 30 cm high and 75 to 100 cm broad at the tops are
3) The length of beds varies from 6 to 10 m depending upon the slope of the
4) Sets are planted 30 cm apart from each other and 10 cm deep.
5) Only one set is planted at each spot and covered by soil.
6) Light irrigation is given immediately after planting
7) . This method gives about 50% more yield than flat bed method.
FYM 25-30- 30 tonnes of green leaves as mulch in three
splits: 15 tonnes-immediately after planting, 7.5 tonnes – 60 days
and 120 days after planting, 50: 25 kg of P and K per ha.
At 60 and 90 days after planting, Nitrogen is applied in two
splits @ 37.5 and 37.5 kg per ha along with 25 kg K2O.The plants
are earthed up after each application of fertilizers.
In ginger cultivation, mulching the field is an important operation.
Mulching has several advantages
Source of organic manure
Prevents washing of soil
Conserves soil moisture
Smoothers weed growth.
Improves the physical properties of soil
Protects the setts and sprouts from hot sun
Provides favorable conditions for the sprouting of the setts.
First mulching is to be done at planting with 10-12 tonnes of green leave per ha.
Second mulching is done at 40-60 days after first mulching with 5 tonnes of green
leaves. Farm yard manure is spread over the green leaves. In irrigated crop – raise
cow pea and black gram as live mulches. Remove the mulches 60 days after sowing
during rains. Castor seeds are sown on bunds at 9 m intervals, to serve as wind
18. Rotations and mixed cropping
Continuous Ginger cultivation promotes exhaustion of fertility and favour the
incidence of diseases.
In Irrigated lands, Ginger is rotated with Betelvine,Turmeric,
Onion, Garlic, Chillies, Vegetables, Sugarcane, Maize etc.
Ginger can be grown as intercrop in Coconut, Arecanut, coffee,
Mandarin, Mango, Guava and Grapes
LEAF SPOT IN GINGER
Leaf spot is caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi,Helminthosporium,
Colletotrichum,Pyricularia can be seen on the leaves from July-October
Spray with1%boredaux mixture or copper oxy chloride @0.25%
20. RHIZOME ROT
It is caused by fungi such as Phthiyum aphanidermatum , Pythium vexans
Rhizome treatment with P. fluorescens @ 20 g/kg of rhizome + soil
application @ 2.5 kg/ha immediately after planting and 45 days after planting
followed by pre monsoon drenching with metalaxyl @ 0.1%.
21. SHOOT BORERS
It is caused by Conogethis punctiferalis causes holes in pseudostems by feed
on internal tissue
Spray dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit
Dry Ginger: Preparation of commercial dry zinger involves a series of steps. Fully developed
rhizomes are harvested after 8 months of planting for preparation of Dry Ginger.
1. Soaking in water: The rhizomes are soaked overnight in cement tubs for easy removal
2. Trampling: The rhizomes are trampled under feet in the tub. Avoid damage to
epidermal cells containing flavouring oil.
3. Peeling: The skin is peeled off, with sharp bamboo knives. Do not rupture epidermal
cells. This step hastens drying process.
4. Washing and Drying: The peeled rhizomes are washed and sun dried for 3-4 days on
5. Polishing: After drying, the rhizomes are polished by rubbing with a coarse cloth to
remove all bits of skin or dirt. These are called unbleached ginger. To get bleached Ginger, peeled
rhizomes are soaked in 2% lime water for 6 hours,fumigated with sulphur for 12 hours. Yield of dry
Ginger is 16 to 25% of the fresh Ginger.
Preserved Ginger: Ginger is harvested at 7 months after planted for preparing the Preserved
Ginger. It is preserved in syrup or brine.
24. Variety / Year of
age &plant type
Av. yield t/ha
Salient features Recommended state/ region
High Altitude Res.
less fiber, wide
suitable for both
early and late
Orissa and adjoining areas
11.6 (Pot. Yield
duration 218 days.
Orissa Central and South India
of Rudrapur local
suitable for both
V3S1- 8 Sodium azide
29.0 A mutant line
pests. Having an
of 10.8% essential
Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal,Madhya
Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
25. V1E8- 2 An EMS mutant -do- 32.9
A high yielding mutant
tolerance to diseases
and pests. Contains
Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Madhya
Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
Solan 13.5 (Pot.
Best for green
rhizome rot disease,
suitable for rainfed
IISR, Calicut 22.6
Higher yielder, high
quality bold low
fiber content (3.29%
to 4.50%), essential
All over India
High yielder, plumpy
and bold rhizome,
2.36%, essential oil,
Kerala and Karnataka
High yielder, plumpy
1.72% of essential
oil, 4.5% oleoresin
Kerala and adjoining States.
Ginger is used as a spice.
It is used in the preparation of Ginger oil and oleoresin.
It is used in the preparation of soft drinks, alcoholic beverages.
Green Ginger is used in the culinary preparations.
Preserved Ginger is used for the manufacture of processed food.
It is used as carminative and stimulant.
27. VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS OF GINGER
Ginger Powder: Dried ginger is powdered to a fine mesh-60 (250 microns) to be used in various end products.
Salted ginger: Fresh ginger (with relatively low fibre) harvested at 170 -180 days after planting can be used for
preparing salted ginger. Tender rhizomes with portion of the pseudo stem is washed thoroughly and soaked in 30 % salt
solution containing 1 % citric acid. After 14 days it is ready for use and can be stored under refrigeration.
Crude fibre: In fully matured ginger crude fibre varies from 3-8 per cent. It is estimated by acid and alkali digestion of
ginger powder and whatever remains is considered as fibre.
Ginger oil: Dry ginger on distillation yield 1.5 to 2.5 per cent volatile oil. The main constituent in the oil is zingiberene
and contributes to the aroma of the oil.
Ginger oleoresin: Dry ginger powder on treating with organic solvents like acetone, alcohol, ethyl acetate etc. yield a
viscous mass that attribute the total taste and smell of the spice. The major non volatile principle in oleoresin is gingerol.
The oleoresin content varies from 4 -10 per cent.
Others: Sweet and salty products can be prepared from fresh ginger like ginger candy, ginger paste, salted ginger,
crystallized ginger etc.
29. MAJOR SPICE
Ginger is one of the five most important major spices of India.
India is the largest producer of dry zinger in the world.
Kerala is the largest producer of ginger accounting for more than 40%
of the total countries production.
30. Crop occupies largest area in,
In terms of productivity, Arunachal pradesh stands first.
Ginger producing regions,
China being the largest producer
Ginger is an herbaceous perennial
Grown as an annual crop
Height of plant varies from 30-90cm
The underground stem grows Horizontally, thick,
Covered with Small scale leaves And fibrous roots.
35. Exotic varieties
China: Introduced from China. This variety has got 3.43% fiber. It has too
much moisture. The yield of dry Ginger from green ginger is 13- 15%.
Rio-de-janeiro: This variety was introduced one.
Brazil: It has 5.19 % fiber. It consists of more moisture. The yield of dry to
green ginger is 16-18%. It became more popular where Ginger is used in green
After drying, the rhizomes are polished by
rubbing with a coarse cloth to remove all bits of skin or dirt
.these are called unbleached ginger .to get bleached ginger
,peeled rhizomes are soaked in 2% lime water for 6
hours,fumigated with sulphur for 12 hours .yield of dry
ginger is 16 to 25% of the fresh ginger
51. VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS
Dried ginger is powdered to a fine
mesh-60(250 microns) to be used in various end
52. SALTED GINGER
Fresh ginger (with relatively low fibre)
harvested at 170-180 days after planting can be used for
preparing salted ginger . Tender rhizomes with portion
of the pseudo stem is washed thoroughly and soaked in
30% salt solution containing 1% citric acid .after 14 days
it is ready for use and can be stored under refrigeration.
53. CRUDE FIBRE
In fully matured ginger crude fibre varies
from 3-8 percent .it is estimated by acid and alkali
digestion of ginger powder and whatever remains is
consider as fibre.
54. GINGER OIL
Dry ginger on distillation yield 1.5 to 2.5
percent volatile oil . The main constituent in the oil is
zingiberene and contributes to the aroma of the oil.
55. GINGER OLEORESIN
Dry ginger powder on treating with
organic solvents like acetone,alcohol,ethyl acetate etc…
yield a viscous mass that attribute the total taste and
smell of the spice.
The major non volatile principle in
oleoresin is gingerol. The oleoresin content varies from 4-
10 percent .
Sweet and salty products can be prepared from
fresh ginger like ginger candy, ginger paste, salted
ginger, crystallized ginger etc….
Once ginger is dry,it is sorted and graded based on size of
rhizome ,its colour,shape, extraneous matter, presence of
light pieces and extent of residual lime (in bleached
Major grades are Garbled Non Bleached Calicut
(NGK),Ungarbled Non Bleached Calicut (NUGK),Garbled
Non Bleached Cochin (NGC),Garbled Bleached Cochin
(BGC),Ungarbled Bleached Calicut (BUGK). In
international trade,Jamaican ginger is the first grade
,followed by Cochin ginger..
Ginger is one of the five most important major spices of India. India is
the largest producer of dry zinger in the world, accounting for more
than 60% of world production. One third of the production of Ginger
in the country is exported. Kerala is the largest producer of ginger
accounting for more than 40% of the total countries production.
61. WORK BY
CHARUDAT R S
DHIYA DHARSHINI M
DINESH V S
Notes de l'éditeur
Botanical name: Zingiber officinale : South East Asia
The varieties differ in size, fibre, moisture content of the rhizomes & yield.