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Vernacular Architecture
In
Cold and Dry Climatic Zone
Submitted By:
Vartika Sharma
 India is home to an
extraordinary variety
of climatic regions, ranging
from tropical in the south to
temperate and alpin...
Cold and Dry Climate is a
climate that is very cold
and the precipitation is
too low to sustain any
vegetation at all, or ...
Introduction
•Ladakh lies on the rain shadow side of the Himalayan, where dry monsoon
winds reaches Leh after being robbed...
Vernacular Architecture
Factors
influencing
Vernacular
Architecture
are:
Topography
Climate
Materials
and
Resources
Users
Lifestyle
Construction
T...
Topography
Landform plays a
very important role in
deciding the vernacular
architecture of any
place.
As heat gain is
de...
•Very hot and dry in summer & brutally cold winters
•Cold Deserts frequently experience snow
•Mountainous area, has little...
Vernacular Materials used...
•Walling - Earth, soil, wood, timber, lime,
cement, etc.
Size of mud blocks- 300*150*150mm
...
Lifestyle
Culture and
Traditions
Construction Technology
Ladakhi Roof
Flat Wooden – Mud Finish
Flat due to less precipitation
Provides insulation from cold
Used to dry vegetabl...
Construction of Ladakhi Roof
•Next comes a layer of rough soil,
and then the layer of “markalak”
clay
•The final layer of soil on the roof is
applied w...
Construction of Walls
Sun dried mud bricks
Rammed earth panels
Mud mortar used for joining
Retains temperature
Less a...
Trombe Wall
Wall Finish
Creates germ free
atmosphere
Retain temperature
Mud Plastered – Lime washed
Flooring
For plinth and floor stone masonry with mud mortar is used.
Later on timber joists also came in use to make it ...
Planning
Compact and clustered
planning
Houses made of stone
and mud clay
Thankyou
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Vernacular Arch. in Cold and Dry Region in India

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Architecture in Cold and Dry Climate in India, example used of Ladakh

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Vernacular Arch. in Cold and Dry Region in India

  1. 1. Vernacular Architecture In Cold and Dry Climatic Zone Submitted By: Vartika Sharma
  2. 2.  India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The nation's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. Climatic Zones in India
  3. 3. Cold and Dry Climate is a climate that is very cold and the precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub. Found in temperate zones, almost always in the rain shadow of high mountains which restrict precipitation from the westerly winds, or in the case of Central Asia, from the monsoon. What is Cold and Dry Climate?
  4. 4. Introduction •Ladakh lies on the rain shadow side of the Himalayan, where dry monsoon winds reaches Leh after being robbed of its moisture in plains and the Himalayan mountain. The district combines the condition of both arctic and desert climate. •Therefore Ladakh is often called “Cold Desert”.
  5. 5. Vernacular Architecture
  6. 6. Factors influencing Vernacular Architecture are: Topography Climate Materials and Resources Users Lifestyle Construction Technology Culture and Traditions
  7. 7. Topography Landform plays a very important role in deciding the vernacular architecture of any place. As heat gain is desirable so buildings should be placed on the south side of the hill or mountain.
  8. 8. •Very hot and dry in summer & brutally cold winters •Cold Deserts frequently experience snow •Mountainous area, has little vegetation. •Solar radiation is generally intense with a very low percentage of diffuse radiation •Summer •Maximum 17 to 24 degree Celsius •Minimum 4 to 11 degree Celsius •R.H. _ 10-15% •Precipitation- <200mm per annum •Cloud cover- 50% •Winter •Maximum -7 to 8degree Celsius •Minimum -14 to 0 degree Celsius Climate
  9. 9. Vernacular Materials used... •Walling - Earth, soil, wood, timber, lime, cement, etc. Size of mud blocks- 300*150*150mm 20mm of non erodible mud plaster cured for 15days Thick mud plaster is used to create additional insulation layers •Roofing – Mud on wooden ballies, timber, bamboo, thatch, etc waterproof roofing panel of size- 300*300*100mm •Flooring – Earth, soil, wood, timber, etc. The traditional/conventional building materials used for walling, roofing and flooring in the Ladakh region are:
  10. 10. Lifestyle
  11. 11. Culture and Traditions
  12. 12. Construction Technology
  13. 13. Ladakhi Roof Flat Wooden – Mud Finish Flat due to less precipitation Provides insulation from cold Used to dry vegetables and fruits for cold season
  14. 14. Construction of Ladakhi Roof
  15. 15. •Next comes a layer of rough soil, and then the layer of “markalak” clay •The final layer of soil on the roof is applied wet, and its mix can include straw, and even the dung of cows, donkeys or horses to increase its solidness as people often walk on the flat roofs. •Ladakhi roof starts with a ceiling of wooden beams, rafters and willow-stick joists, on which we place woven straw mats to prevent dust from falling through the joists, •Next comes a layer of Ladakhi “yagtses” grass, a traditional stop-gap layer.
  16. 16. Construction of Walls Sun dried mud bricks Rammed earth panels Mud mortar used for joining Retains temperature Less affected by earthquake
  17. 17. Trombe Wall
  18. 18. Wall Finish Creates germ free atmosphere Retain temperature Mud Plastered – Lime washed
  19. 19. Flooring For plinth and floor stone masonry with mud mortar is used. Later on timber joists also came in use to make it more stable and earthquake resistant.
  20. 20. Planning Compact and clustered planning Houses made of stone and mud clay
  21. 21. Thankyou

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