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Основы "маркетинга один-на-один"

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Основы "маркетинга один-на-один"

  1. 1. Lecturer:  Vasiliy  Staros1n,  PhD,  State  University  of  management   (Moscow,  Russia)  
  2. 2. •  Crowded  market  •  Increase  in  buying  power  •  Emerging  industries  •  Wide  range  of  brands  to  choose  from    •  A  great  amount  of  info  about  products     Vasiliy  Staros?n   2  
  3. 3. OLD  system   NEW  system  •  Mass  produc?on   •  Product  personaliza?on  •  Standardized  products   •  Personalized  products  •  Long  PLC   •  Short  PLC  •  Average  customer   •  Individual  customer  •  one-­‐2-­‐many   •  one-­‐2-­‐one   communica?ons   communica?ons  •  Long  NPD  cycle   •  Long-­‐term  rela?onships   Vasiliy  Staros?n   3  
  4. 4. Mass  offerings     =     Averaged  product     for     Averaged  customer    “In  terms  of  rela1ons  between  company  and  customer,   the  absolute  majority  of  consumers  expect  companies   treat  them  as  an  individual  not  as  a  segment  or   target”  (Brǿndmo,  2004)     Vasiliy  Staros?n   4  
  5. 5. One-­‐2-­‐one  marke?ng.   Preface  
  6. 6. •  Oversegmenta?on  (Kotler,  2005)  •  Customer  variability*  •  Syndrome  of  sophis?cated  customer  *  See  Maslow   Vasiliy  Staros?n   6  
  7. 7. Customer-­‐centric  Customer  focus  Customer  in?macy  Customer-­‐driven  Personal  touch  Individualized  approach     Vasiliy  Staros?n   7  
  8. 8. The  challenge  for  the  companies  is  the  reten?on   of  customers  instead  of  geRng  new  clients.    CLV  concept  (customer  life?me  value)   Vasiliy  Staros?n   8  
  9. 9. One-­‐way  interrup5on  marke5ng  is  yesterday’s  message   (Seth  Godin)  • You  are  watching  your  favorite  TV  show  • You  are  reading  an  interes1ng  ar1cle  • You  are  listening  to  the  radio   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   9  
  10. 10. 1.  Marke5ng  simply  meant  adver5sing  2.  Adver5sing  needed  to  appeal  to  the  masses  3.  Adver5sing  relied  on  interrup5ng  people  to  get   them  to  pay  aDen5on  to  message  4.  Adver5sing  was  one-­‐way:  company-­‐to-­‐ consumer  5.  Adver5sing  was  exclusively  about  selling   products  6.  Adver5sing  and  PR  were  separate  disciplines   run  by  different  people  with  separate  goals,   strategies  and  measurement  criteria   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   10  
  11. 11. 1.  Marke5ng  is  more  than  just  adver5sing  2.  You  are  what  you  publish  3.  People  want  authen5city,  not  spin  4.  People  want  par5cipa5on,  not  propaganda  5.  PR  is  not  about  your  boss  seeing  your   company  on  TV!   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   11  
  12. 12. “The  marketer  with  the  greatest  scope  of   informa?on  about  each  par?cular  customer   with  the  most  extensive  and  in?mate   rela?onship  will  be  the  more  efficient   compe?tor”   (Peppers,  Rogers;  One2one  future)   Vasiliy  Staros?n   12  
  13. 13. Why  will  you  purchase?   2008   2007  Value   80%   81%  Required   51%   56%  Replacement   30%   30%  Child  wanted  it   21%   26%  Trendy/Fashionable   18%   22%  Influenced  by  friends   4%   4%  Source:  NPD   Vasiliy  Staros?n   13  
  14. 14. (adopted  from  Ke-nger,  Hachbarth,  1997)   Defining  the  audience   GeRng  the  info   and  geRng  the  info   Compare   Assessing  opportuni?es   alterna?ves   and  competences   Assess  and   making  a  choice    NPD  and  posi?oning  SELLER   BUYER   Order  and   purchase   Deal  and  delivery   Acquiring  the   product   Support  and  post-­‐sale   service   Authoriza?on   and  payment   Evalua?on  and  further   improvement   Evalua?on  and   feedback   14  
  15. 15. 1.  Shifing  from  mass  communica?on   towards  personalized  contacts  2.  Customers  become  ini?ators  3.  Integrated  approach  4.  Ac?ve  customer  involvement  5.  Massive  usage  of  IT   15  
  16. 16. 16  
  17. 17. Decoding  problems   Feel  the  difference  It’s  all  about  percep?ons  
  18. 18. One-­‐to-­‐one  marke?ng.    Analy?cal  steps  
  19. 19. Personaliza?on  involves  tailoring  any  or  all   aspects  of  the  marke?ng  strategy  for  each   consumer.    These  strategic  decisions  could  involve   promo?onal  ac?vi?es  including  adver?sing   (Nuzum,  2002),  distribu?on  (Lardner,  1999),   pricing  (Cortese,  1998;  Stellin,  2000)  as  well  as   the  product  (Rich,  2001).     Vasiliy  Staros?n   21  
  20. 20. Challenges    Degree  of  customiza?on  Customer  involvement  procedure   Barriers  for  product  personaliza5on  1.  Absence  of  corporate  resources  and  competences  2.  Level  of  customers’  professionalism  3.  Cost  control  and  efficiency  4.  Compe??ve  rivalry   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   22  
  21. 21. • Economic  environment  Macro-­‐level   • Socio-­‐cultural  issues   • Technology    development   •  Compe??ve  environment   •  Customer  professionalism   Meso-­‐level   •  Demand  condi?ons   •  Support  industries   •  Resources  and  competences   •  Research  and  development     Micro-­‐level   •  Product  porkolio   •  Corporate  coordina?on   •  Customer  involvement  Product-­‐level   •  Product  modularity   •  Product  life  cycle   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   23  
  22. 22. Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   24  
  23. 23. Developing  personalized  marke?ng  programs  is  not  limited   only  by  product  customiza?on.  It  implies  adop?ng  all  the   elements  of  marke?ng  mix  to  a  par?cular  customer.   Product   Packaging   Price   Choose  the  most  relevant     elements  for  adapta?on   Process   Promo?on   Personnel   Place   Physical   assets   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   25  
  24. 24. Product  personaliza?on   methods  
  25. 25. Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   27  
  26. 26. One-­‐to-­‐one  marke?ng  advocates  tailoring  of  one  or  more  aspects  of  the  firm’s  marke?ng  mix  to  the  individual  customer       (Peppers  and  Rogers  1997;  Peppers  et  al.  1999;  Shaffer  and   Zhang  2002).  The  tailoring  of  a  firm’s  marke?ng  mix  to  the  individual  customer  is  the  essence  of  one-­‐to-­‐one  marke?ng.     Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   28  
  27. 27. •  Allows  firms  to  increase  demand  by  contac?ng   customers  that  were  not  served  by  serial  standard   products  •  “Allows  firms  to  obtain  the  surplus  from  the   inframarginal  customers,  that  are  willing  to  pay  more   for  products  which  match  their  needs”  (Syam  and   Kumar,  2006)  •  Creates  brand  iden?ty  in  terms  of  product   specializa?on  and  generates  brand’s  added-­‐values  •  Full  range  of  customers’  benefits  it  terms  of  sa?sfying   their  needs  and  matching  their  expecta?ons     Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   29  
  28. 28. is  a  corporate  philosophy  which  treats   customers  as  individuals  rather  than   representa?ves  of  target  audiences.     Features     Product   Customer   Personal  fit   adapta?on   involvement   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   30  
  29. 29. Personalized  product   proposi?ons  Day-­‐to-­‐day     Standard  products   Products     Products     with  individual   products   services   assembled  to  order   developed  to  order   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   31  
  30. 30. Methods     Personalize  services   Customize  product   around  the  product       Customiza?on  implies  physical  transforma?on  of  a  product   while  services  could  be  personalized  by  adap?ng  to  par?cular   customer   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   32  
  31. 31. Dimensions,  materials,  HARD  -­‐ func?onality,    design,  components   iden?ty  etc.     Consultancy,  assistance,  SOFT  -­‐  components     financing,  warranty,   delivery,  afer-­‐sales   service  etc.      Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   33  
  32. 32. Size and shape   Key dimensions   Materials  HARD –   Functionality   Basic and optional components     Programm components   Authentic and style   Design, interior and exterior   Personal attributes   Identity and uniqness   Packaging   Documentary   Consultancy  SOFT –   Accessibility; availability   Organization and purchase servicing   Purchase conditions     Payment and proceeding   Delivery   Post-purchase service   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   34  
  33. 33. IT  Produc?on   Marke?ng   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   35  
  34. 34. Producer  specifies  the  extent    and   components.  Taking  the  responsibility.   Requires  minor  product   Role  of  Market  research.  Number  of  changes.  Design,  packaging,   models     color  and  style  adapta?on.   Creates  visible  effect.   Expert   Cosme?c   Module   Most  popular  way.  Depends   on  product  modularity.   Mixed   Limited  number  of    module‘   variants.  Combining.   Most  popular  way.  Depends   on  product  modularity.   Limited  number  of    module‘   variants.  Combining.   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   36  
  35. 35. Product  set  is  a  complex  proposi5on  which  stands  as  an  object  of  purchase.  Product  set  includes  physical  product  and  product’  surroundings  as:  services,  purchase  condi5ons,  nego5a5ons  and  any  other  intangible  components.  Individual  services:  addi5onal  ac5vi5es  which  complement  the  purchase.  The  may  include  staff  assistance,  delivery,  final  adapta5on,  warrantee  etc.  Individual  services  depend  on  type  of  the  product  and  nature  of  the  market.    Addi5onal  op5ons:    set  of  op5ons  may  adapt  standard  product  to  the  individual  requirements  of  customers.  In  this  case  the  variety  of  op5ons  is  crucial  indicator.    Individual  purchase  condi5ons:    relate  to  procedures  of  the  purchase.  Sedng  the  appropriate  order  of  purchase  phases  for  making  the  process  adapted  to  par5cular  customer.  Instruments:  nego5a5on  process,  pricing  and  payment,  informing  the  customer  etc       Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   37  
  36. 36. Standard  product   Standard  product   Individual  services   Standard  product   Individual  services  Standard  product   Individual  purchase  condi?ons  Individual  services   Standard  product  Addi?onal  op?ons   Individual  services   Individual  purchase  condi?ons   Addi?onal  op?ons   Vasiliy  Staros?n  (c)   38  
  37. 37. References  Peppers,  J.  Rogers  J.Pine  M.  Lindstrom  De  Chernatony  M.  McDonald