2. Electronic Governance means using Information and
e-Governance is understood as the use of Information
and Communication Technology (ICT) at all the level
of the Government in order to provide services to the
citizens, interaction with business enterprises and
communication and exchange of information between
different agencies of the Government in a speedy,
convenient efficient and transparent manner.
Users can find detailed information about e-
Governance, National Conference on e-Governance,
GATI e-services, awards scheme, etc.
4. E-governance therefore means the application of ICT
to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency
and accountability of exchange of information and
Between Government agencies,
Between Government and Citizens
Between Government and businesses
5. Scope of E-Governance
Governance is all about flow of information between
the Government and Citizens, Government and
Businesses and Government and Government.
E-Governance also covers all these relationships as
A. Government to Citizen (G2C)
B. Citizen to Government (C2G)
C. Government to Government (G2G)
D. Government to Business (G2B)
7. Goals of e-Governance
Better service delivery to citizens
Ushering in transparency and accountability
Empowering people through information
Improved efficiency within Governments
Improve interface with business and industry.
9. Four Stage e-Governance Model
India is moving towards achieving e-Governance
which can usually be attained in four steps:
Information or Cataloguing:- initial efforts of state
governments are focused on establishing an on-line
presence for the government.
Transaction:- e-Government initiatives will focus on
connecting the internal government system to on-line
interfaces and allowing citizens to transact with
10. Vertical Integration:- Vertical integration refers to
local, state and federal governments connected for
different functions or services of government.
Horizontal integration:- Horizontal integration is
defined as integration across different functions and
In defining the stages of e-Government development,
the vertical integration across different levels within
similar functionality is posited to precede the
horizontal integration across different functions.
12. 3 Phases of e-Government :-
To assist policymakers in devising their own plans and
initiatives, Center for Democracy and Technology
(2002) divides the process of e-Government
implementation into three phases.
13. Publish: Publish sites seek to broadcast information
about government and information compiled by
government to as wide an audience as possible. In
doing so, publish sites serve as the leading edge of e-
Interact: Interactive e-Government involves two-way
communications, starting with basic functions like
email contact information for government officials or
feedback forms that allow users to submit comments
on legislative or policy proposals.
14. Transact: Allowing citizens to obtain government
services or transact business with the government
online. A transact website offers a direct link to
government services, available at any time. Transact
sites can enhance productivity in both the public and
private sector by making processes that require
government assistance or approval simpler, faster, and
15. Stages of E-Governance
1. Emerging Presence -
Emerging presence considers online availability of
limited and basic information.
A basic online presence of an e-government involves
an official website and few WebPages.
2. Enhanced presence -
At this stage the Government provides more public
information resources such as policies of the
Government, laws, regulations, reports, newsletters.
This may also be downloadable at this stage.
16. 3. Interactive presence -
Interactive presence considers Governments to
initiate interactivity in their websites.
It involves availability of online services of the
government to enhance convenience of the consumer.
This will include downloadable forms and applications
for payment of bills, taxes and renewal of licenses.
17. 4. Transactional presence-
Transactional presence allows two-way interaction
between the citizens and Government.
It includes options such as paying taxes, applying for
ID cards, birth certificates, passports, license renewals
and other similar C2G interactions by allowing the
citizen to submit forms and applications online 24/7.
18. 5. Networked presence -
‘Networked Presence’ which represents the most
sophisticated level in the online e-government
It can be characterized by an integration of G2G, G2C
and C2G interactions.
The government at this stage encourages citizen
participation, online participatory decision-making
and is willing and able to involve the society in a two-
way open dialogue.
19. Advantages of E-Governance
Following are the advantages of E-Governance-
1. Speed – Technology makes communication speedier.
Internet, Phones, Cell Phones have reduced the time taken
in normal communication.
2. Cost Reduction – Most of the Government expenditure is
appropriated towards the cost of stationary.
Paper-based communication needs lots of stationary,
printers, computers, etc. which calls for continuous heavy
Internet and Phones makes communication cheaper saving
valuable money for the Government.
20. 3. Transparency – Use of ICT makes governing profess
All the information of the Government would be made
available on the internet.
The citizens can see the information whenever they want to
4. Accountability – Once the governing process is made
transparent the Government is automatically made
Accountability is answerability of the Government to the
22. Technical Issues
IT infrastructure is the backbone of E-governance.
Interoperability with existing software and hardware
platforms is a key success factor.
Finally, some legal aspect, like security and privacy,
must be considered, as personal data are processed
and stored, and financial transitions must be executed.
23. Privacy Issues
Citizens’ concern on privacy of their life and
confidentiality of the personal data need to be
Privacy and confidentiality has to be highly valued in
establishing and maintaining websites.
An ideal Cyber policy and strict appliance of it is the
backbone for citizen’s support.
The financial transaction demands for transactional
security. All support for full security is necessarily
needed to maintain.
An ideal Cyber Security Policy will ensure the
existence of a sound and secure e-governance and
critical infrastructure base in India.
25. Social Issues
Acceptance and usability by a large variety of people
make e-governance successful.
The interface must be usable by rich or poor, disabled
or elderly people, understandable by low literacy or
non-native language people, etc.
Social, geographical and economical disparity issues
have to be removed and proper infrastructure is
required to establish e-governance.
The ICT facilities need to be developed and should be
available to one and all citizens.
Internet connection through satellite, phone lines or
through cable or Television should be accessible for all
especially to the people in rural areas.
Any service should be accessible by anybody from
anywhere at anytime.
Even if Internet population is exponentially growing in
India, still there is a significant portion of the people
who may not be able to access services for various
reasons like limited access to ICT technologies and
devices, low literacy, or phobia for Computer etc.
Therefore, universal access is still a mirage.
28. Usability & Acceptance
People especially in rural areas are often not expert
users and need guidance and support for their
Governmental websites must be user friendly, to be
A reconceptualization of government services is
mandatory for successful implementation and to get
29. Political will power & Economic issues
E-governance means less interaction with government
servants, it will be helpful in reducing bribery issues.
Economical issues are mainly concerned with return
of investment and safeguard of the previous ones. Cost
of implementation, operational and evolutionary
maintenance must be low enough to guarantee a good
30. Legal issues
Strong and effective rules related with IT has to be
formulated and strongly implemented.
This presupposes the adoption and use of security
measures more particularly empowering and training
judiciary and law enforcement manpower with the
knowledge and use of cyber forensics and
31. Other issues
Underutilization of existing ICT infrastructure.
Attitude of Government Departments and government
officers need a proper counseling. Many officers perceive
their department as most important and disregard other
Lack of coordination between Govt. Department and
Resistance to re-engineering of departmental processes is
also a challenge, but this approach is changing now.
33. Need of the Hour:-
Database of citizens
It should contain all the personal details i.e. name,
address, citizen Id, etc. and financial information.
Every citizen should have a unique Id number and
The citizens can access their information and
transactions through this but at the same time the
other people won’t be able to access their record
34. Just by going through his/her file the individual will
come to know about their electricity bill, bank
statements, next due LIC premium, phone bill etc. and
can transact with all or any of the department at the
The strong database needed for a successful e-governance
is vulnerable to fraud. There are attempts being made to
come up with “Biometric” techniques, which are more
The password can be replaced as an individual’s mark
of identity, fingerprints or facial characteristics to verify the
identity. Instead of having card readers, there should be
devices like fingerprint readers or eye scanners.
It is one of the important evolving technologies, which will
ensure the security and privacy issues as well. But
underutilization of these techniques is one of the barriers.
36. Smart Cards
One smart card with complete detail of the citizens is
the smartest solution. A smart card with citizens
name, address, financial information, personal
information etc. fully supported and secured by
Biometrics may be the key solution.
A fully secured card with easy operability can be used
for all transactions and information. One such project
was pilot run at IIT Bombay campus few years back.
38. The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) is an
initiative of the Government of India to make all
government services available to the citizens
of India via electronic media.
NeGP was formulated by the Department
of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY)
and Department of Administrative Reforms and Public
NeGP comprises 31 mission mode projects (MMPs),
which are further classified as state, central or
integrated projects. Each state government can also
define five MMPs specific to its individual needs.
40. Vision of NeGP:-
“Make all government services accessible to the
common man in his locality, through common service
delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency &
reliability of such services at affordable costs to realise
the basic needs of the common man”.
41. Strategy to realize vision:-
Centralized Initiative, Decentralized Implementation.
Focus on services & Service levels.
Ownership & Central Role of Line Ministries/ State
Emphasis on Public Private Partnership (PPP)
42. Components of NeGP:-
Web Enabled Delivery of Public Services.
Capacity building , awareness, communication.
Standard, quality & security.
State Wide Area Networks (SWAN)
Secured network for Government work.
Connecting state HQs, District HQs, Blocks HQs
Minimum 2Mbps Broadband connectivity.
State Data Centers (SDC)
State of art Data centers at each of 35States/Uts
Housing all applications and databases.
E-delivery of G2G, G2C & G2B services.
State Portals, State Service Delivery Gateways
45. Common Service Centres (CSC)
More than 100,00 tele-centers in 600,000 villages.
Broad band internet enabled connectivity.
Implementation through PPP.
48. Web Enabled Public Services
Mission Mode Projects
Identified on the basis of high citizen / business
Central 11 (MCA21, e-Passprot...)
State 13 (Land records, e-didtricts...)
Integrated 07 (e-biz, e-courts...)
49. Key MMPs
Availability of information.
Issuance of certifies copies of documents
Tracking of applications.
50. Land records
Issue of copy of records of rights
Crop, irrigation & soil details
Filing & tracking of status of mutation cases
Availability & submission of forms electronically.
51. Capacity Building & Awareness
Support to state e-mission teams(SeMTs)
Support to central project e-mission Teams (Cpemts)
Support to state administrative training institutes.
Training/ Orientation of stakeholders
Creating awareness regarding NeGP.
52. Standards, Quality & Security
Nation policy on open standards.
Localization & Language technology standard
Encouragement to open source technology
Quality assurance & conformance
Network & information security.
53. Challenges in implementation of NeGP
Accelerating the implementation of MMPs
Involving the State governmnets proactively in delivery
of G2C services.
Positioning of Professional resources instate & central
government critical for success of NeGP projects.
Operationalzing of national e-governance division
54. Suggestions for meeting the challenges
Need for a chief e-governance advisor to PM
Need for chief e-governance officiers (CeGOs) &
information officers in line ministries.
Rolling out of e-District project on priority or delivery
Posting professional resources for state governments
under capacity building scheme.
55. World Wide Web Consortium:-
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the
main international standards organization for
the World Wide Web.
The W3C mission is to lead the World Wide Web to its
full potential by developing protocols and guidelines
that ensure the long-term growth of the Web.
56. Design Principles
The following design principles guide W3C's work.
1) Web for All
The social value of the Web is that it enables human
communication, commerce, and opportunities to
One of W3C's primary goals is to make these benefits
available to all people, whatever their hardware,
software, network infrastructure, native language,
culture, geographical location, or physical or mental
57. 2)Web on Everything
The number of different kinds of devices that can
access the Web has grown immensely.
Mobile phones, smart phones, personal digital
assistants, interactive television systems, voice
response systems, kiosks and even certain domestic
appliances can all access the Web.
58. 3)Web for Rich Interaction
The Web was invented as a communications tool
intended to allow anyone, anywhere to share
For many years, the Web was a "read-only" tool for
Blogs and wikis brought more authors to the Web, and
social networking emerged from the flourishing
market for content and personalized Web experiences.
W3C standards have supported this evolution thanks
to strong architecture and design principles
59. 4)Web of Data and Services
Some people view the Web as a giant repository of
linked data while others as a giant set of services that
The two views are complementary, and which to use
often depends on the application.
5)Web of Trust
W3C recognizes that trust is a social phenomenon, but
technology design can foster trust and confidence.
85. What is Cyber Security?
Cyber security – defined as the protection of systems,
networks and data in cyberspace – is a critical issue for
Cyber security will only become more important as
more devices, ‘the internet of things’, become
connected to the internet.
86. Introduction to cyber risks:-
Cyber risks can be divided into three distinct areas:
Conducted by individuals working alone, or in
organised groups, intent on extracting money, data or
Cyber crime can take many forms, including the
acquisition of credit/debit card data and intellectual
property, and impairing the operations of a website or
87. Cyber war
A nation state conducting sabotage and espionage
against another nation in order to cause disruption or
to extract data.
An organisation, working independently of a nation
state, conducting terrorist activities through the
medium of cyberspace.
88. Types of malware
Cyber criminals operate remotely, in what is called
‘automation at a distance’, using numerous means of
attack available, which broadly fall under the umbrella
term of malware (malicious software). These include:
Aim: Gain access to, steal, modify and/or corrupt
information and files from a targeted computer
Technique: A small piece of software program that
can replicate itself and s
Aim: By exploiting weaknesses in operating systems,
worms seek to damage networks and often deliver
payloads which allow remote control of the infected
Technique: Worms are self-replicating and do not
require a program to attach themselves to. Worms
continually look for vulnerabilities and report back to
the worm author when weaknesses are discovered.
Aim: To take control of your computer and/or to
collect personal information without your knowledge.
Technique: By opening attachments, clicking links or
downloading infected software, spyware/adware is
installed on your computer.
Aim: To create a ‘backdoor’ on your computer by
which information can be stolen and damage caused.
Technique: A software program appears to perform
one function (for example, virus removal) but actually
acts as something else.
91. Attack vectors
There are also a number of attack vectors available to
cyber criminals which allow them to infect computers
with malware or to harvest stolen data:
An attempt to acquire users’ information by
masquerading as a legitimate entity. Examples include
spoof emails and websites. See ‘social engineering’
An attack to redirect a website’s traffic to a different,
fake website, where the individuals’ information is
then compromised. See ‘social engineering’ below.
Opportunistic attacks against specific weaknesses
within a system.
Exploiting the weakness of the individual by making
them click malicious links, or by physically gaining
access to a computer through deception. Pharming
and phishing are examples of social engineering.