3. History: Beginnings
Volleyball history began in a town called Holyoke, Massachusetts in 1895.
The sport was developed at the YMCA by William G. Morgan as an
alternative for the older men that was less taxing than basketball. Originally
called Mintonette, it took the net from tennis and took cues from
basketball, baseball and handball. The net was only 6'6" high, just above the
average man's head.
Originally, there was no limit to the number of
players on a team or the number of contacts per
side and the game was primarily played from the
4. History: Development
The spike was first developed in the Philippines in 1916 and changed the
way the game was played. Later called volleyball due to the fact that
players "volleyed" the ball back and forth, the sport was embraced by the
US military and was played often in their free time. Soldiers stationed all
over the world played volleyball and taught the locals to play as well,
inadvertently spreading the sport to many nations.
5. History: Beach game emerges
Volleyball was first played indoors, but it was brought out to the beach
sometime in the 1920's. There is some debate about where the first beach
volleyball game was played, but the two most likely theories are Santa
Monica, CA and The Outrigger Canoe Club in Hawaii. Organized beach
tournaments were played as early as 1948, but the Association of Volleyball
Professionals (AVP) did not emerge until 1983.
6. History: Olympic inclusion
Indoor volleyball was
added to the Olympics
in 1964. Beach
volleyball was added as
an exhibition sport in
1996 and immediately
became the hottest
ticket at the games.
8. Field of play: Dimensions
The Volleyball court dimensions for indoor and outdoor volleyball courts are
different. In competitive volleyball, the court measurements, net
requirements and ball particulars are strictly followed and must be the same
for all games and teams.
The game of Indoor Volleyball is played on a
rectangular court that is divided in half by a high
net. The court measurements for regulation play are
18 meters (59 feet) long by 9 meters (29 feet 6
A Beach Volleyball Court measures 16m x 8m.
9. Field of play: The lines and zones
The Centerline divides the volleyball court into two equal halves that measure a perfect square, 9 meters by 9 meters.
The volleyball net is hung at the Centerline.
The Attack Line, or Center Line, is 3 meters from the net on each side of the court. The Attack Line runs parallel to the
net and divides the playing area into the back row (or back court) and front row (or front court).
The rows are further divided into zones, with three zones and positions per row. From left to right, the back row has
Zone 5 - Left Back Position, Zone 6 - Middle Back Position, and Zone 1 - Right Back Position, where the server is
stationed during service. The front row has Zone 4 - Left Front Position, Zone 3 - Middle Front Position, and Zone 2 Right Front Position, also in order from left to right.
10. Field of play: The lines and zones
The Free Zone is the area surrounding the volleyball court. It measures 3 meters wide,
and players are allowed to enter the Free Zone during game play.
The court boundary lines are generally 2 inches wide, and they are part of the actual
court measurements. So the ball remains in play if it lands directly on the line.
11. The net
The volleyball net is hung at the exact center of the volleyball court between the two
sidelines. It is 1 meter wide and the height is different for men and women. For men-s
games, the volleyball net is 2.43 meters from the floor. For women-s games, the volleyball
net hangs 2.24 meters off of the floor.
An antenna is placed on each side of the net, lining up with the sidelines or court
boundaries. The two antennae are a guideline for when the ball is in or out of play. The ball
must pass completely over the net and inside both of these antennae in order to remain in
12. The ball
FIVB regulations state that the ball must be spherical, made of leather or
synthetic leather, have a circumference of 65–67 cm, a weight of 260–280 g
and an inside pressure of 0.30–0.325 kg/cm2. Other governing bodies have
13. The game: Rules and players
Each team is composed of six players.
Maximum of three hits per side.
Player may not hit the ball twice in succession (A block is not considered a hit).
Ball may be played off the net during a volley and on serve.
A ball touching a boundary line is good.
A legal hit is contact with the ball by a player body above and including the waist which
does not allow the ball to visibly come to a rest.
If two or more players contact the ball simultaneously, it is considered one play and the
players involved may not participate in the next play.
A player must not block or attack a serve.
Switching positions will be allowed only between front line players ( after the serve only ).
14. The game: Rotations
• There will be a point scored on every score of the ball.
• Offense will score on a defense miss or out of bounds hit.
• Defense will score on an offensive miss, out of bounds hit, or serve
into the net.
• Game will be played to 25 pts.
• Must win by 2 points.
• Matches are best-of-five sets and the fifth set, if necessary, is usually
played to 15 points.
The game: Fouls
Stepping on or over the line on a serve.
Failure to serve the ball over the net successfully.
Hitting the ball illegally ( Carrying, Palming, Throwing, etc. ).
Touches of the net with any part of the body while the ball is in play. If the ball is
driven into the net with such force that it causes the net to contact an opposing
player, no foul will be called, and the ball shall continue to be in play.
Reaching over the net, except under these conditions a) When executing a followthrough b) When blocking a ball which is in the opponents court but is being
returned ( the blocker must not contact the ball until after the opponent who is
attempting to return the ball makes contact). Except to block the third play.
Reaches under the net ( if it interferes with the ball or opposing player ).
Failure to serve in the correct order.
Blocks or spikes from a position which is clearly not behind the 10-foot line while in a
back row position.
16. The game: Referees
Referees are the officials who are
responsible for ensuring that all rules of
the games are followed. Two official
referees are in any volleyball game. The
first referee, or R1, stands at the referee
stand. The first official gives the signal to
start the game by whistling and has the
authority to overrule any other official’s
decision. The second referee, or R2, is
responsible for keeping track of time,
administrating the substitutes and
communicating with the coaches or
teams effectively as well as assisting the
17. The game: Rotations
Volleyball is a sport in which teams have to rotate when they score a
point while they didn’t serve. This picture shows the positions and the
order of those rotations.
18. The game: Susbtitutions
Each team can make 12 substitutions per set. Teams can substitute the same player
multiple times within a set, as long as the teams do not exceed their 12-substitution
limit. Players can only reenter the game in their original positions within the team's
Each team can designate two Libero players. The Libero player, a defensive specialist,
must remain in the back row throughout the game and cannot serve, attack or block
the ball. Substitutions involving the Libero player do not count toward a team's
substitution count per set. Teams can substitute the Libero in and out of the game an
unlimited number of times. The Libero can only replace a back row player.
19. The game: Susbtitutions
Players entering or leaving the court during a regular substitution must cross the
sideline between the attack line and the scorer's table. The Libero player must enter
and leave the court between the attack line and the court's end line.
A team can request a substitution at the start of a set or during a time-out. You can
substitute more than one player at a time. The referee must authorize all substitutions
and the scorer must record them. A team can make a Libero substitution before the
start of a set, during a time-out or before the service whistle.
20. Technique: The tip
In volleyball, the tip is an
attack that is not harddriven in which the hitter
uses the fingertips to softly
place the ball in the
opponent’s court. It is also
known as “dink”.
22. Technique: The spike
To perform a spike means to
hit the ball with one hand
reasonably hard and aim it
towards the floor on the
other side of the net making
it hard for the opposing
team to receive the ball.
23. Technique: The spike
The spike is an attempt to
stop an opponent’s attack
by putting up two straight
arms in front of him.
24. Technique: The serve
The serving puts
the ball into play
It has to follow those rules
Server must serve from behind
the end line until after contact
Ball may be served underhand
Ball must be clearly visible to
opponents before serve
Served ball may graze the net
and drop to theother side for
First game serve is determined
by a volley, each subsequent
game shall be served by the
previous game loser
Serve must be returned by a
bump only. no setting or
attacking a serve