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IOT- UNIT-1.pptx

  2. Official Use SYLLABUS UNIT-I INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET OF THINGS 6 Introduction – Definition and characteristics of IoT – Physical design of IoT: Things in IoT – IoT Protocols -Logical Design of IoT: IoT Functional blocks – IoT Communication Models – IoT Communication APIs. UNIT-II IoT DESIGN METHODOLOGY 6 IoT Architecture – IoT Reference Architecture – IOT Design Methodology – Domain Specification- Functional View, Information View, Deployment View and Operational View, Device and Component Integration, Application development. UNIT-III IoT ELEMENTS AND CHALLENGES 6 Building blocks of an IoT Device – Raspberry Pi, Arduino – Sensing devices, Communication Modules: Bluetooth, Zigbee, RFID, Wi-Fi - Power Sources –Data Management, Business Processes in IoT –– Challenges in IoT: Design Challenges, Development Challenges, Security Challenges and Other Challenges. UNIT-IV IoT PHYSICAL SERVERS CLOUD OFFERINGS 6 XaaS, M2M , WAMP- AutoBahn for IoT – Xively Cloud for IoT – Django – Designing a RESTful Web API – Amazon Web Services for IoT. UNIT-V APPLICATIONS 6 Retail, Health care, Transportation, Agriculture and environmental, Smart city, Government and military, Smart home
  3. Official Use List of Experiments 1. Familiarization with Arduino/Raspberry Pi and perform necessary software installation. 2. To interface LED/Buzzer with Arduino/Raspberry Pi and write a program to turn ON LED for 1 sec after every 2 seconds. To interface Push button/Digital sensor (IR/LDR) with Arduino/Raspberry Pi and write a program to turn ON LED when push button is pressed or at sensor detection. 3. To interface DHT11 sensor with Arduino/Raspberry Pi and write a program to print temperature and humidity readings. To interface motor using relay with Arduino/Raspberry Pi and write a program to turn ON motor when push button is pressed. 4. To interface Bluetooth/Wifi with Arduino/Raspberry Pi and write a program to send sensor data to smartphone using Bluetooth/Wifi. 5. Mini Projects(any one for each group) i. Home Automation system with mobile Integration. ii. Weather Monitoring system using Raspberry Pi/Arduino iii. Automatic plant watering/irrigation system using Raspberry Pi/Arduino. iv. Vehicle Tracking System using Raspberry Pi/Arduino. v. Intrusion detection System using Raspberry Pi/Arduino. vi. Smart Parking System using Raspberry Pi/Arduino
  4. Official Use Books to follow: Textbooks(s): 1. Vijay Madisetti, Arshdeep Bahga, “Internet of Things: A Hands-On Approach”, 2014, 2. Perry Lea, “Internet of Things for Architects” , Packt Publishers ,2018. 3. Martin Bauer Mathieu Boussard Nicola Bui Jourik De Loof,” IoT Reference Architecture”, DOI: 10.1007/978-3- 642-40403-0_8 Springer. 4. Jan Holler, Vlasios Tsiatis, Catherine Mulligan, Stefan Avesand, Stamatis Karnouskos, David Boyle, “From Machineto- Machine to the Internet of Things: Introduction to a New Age of Intelligence”, 1st Edition, Academic Press, 2014. Reference Book(s)/Web link(s): 1. Dr.Ovidiu Vermesan, Dr. Peter Friess, “Internet of Things: Converging Technologies for Smart Environments and Integrated Ecosystems”, River Publishers,2013. 2. Peter Waher, “Learning Internet of Things”, Packt Publishing, Birminghan – Mumbai,2015 3. Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Florian Michahelles, “Architecting the Internet of Things”, ISBN 978-3-642-19156, e-ISBN 978-3- 642-19157-2, Springer,2011.
  5. Official Use What is IoT? I- Internet Interconnected network of networks. Internet is a vast network that connects computers all over the world. Share information, communicate from anywhere with a connection. o- of T – Things A thing, is an entity or physical object that has a unique identifier, an embedded system and the ability to transfer data over a network. In addition to dedicated computing devices such as PCs, notebooks, smartphones or tablets, the list of potential things is almost unlimited. These devices gather useful data with the help of various existing technologies and share that data between other devices.
  6. Official Use Definitions • "The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.“ • The Internet of Things is actually a pretty simple concept, it means taking all the things in the world and connecting them to the internet. • A dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual "things" have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network, often communicate data associated with users and their environments.
  7. Official Use Characteristics: • Dynamic & Self Adapting: IoT devices and systems may have the capability to dynamically adapt with the changing contexts and take actions based on their operating conditions, user’s context or sensed environment. E.g.: the surveillance system is adapting itself based on context and changing conditions. • Self Configuring: allowing a large number of devices to work together to provide certain functionality. These devices have the ability to configure themselves ,setup the networking and fetch latest software upgrades with minimal manual or user intervention. • Inter Operable Communication Protocols: support a number of interoperable communication protocols and can communicate with other devices and with infrastructure. • Unique Identity: Each IoT device has a unique identity and a unique identifier (IP address or a URI). IoT systems may have intelligent interfaces which adapt based on the context , allow communicating with users and the environmental contexts. IoT device interfaces allow users to query the devices ,monitor their status , and control them remotely, in association with the control , configuration and management infrastructure. • Integrated into Information Network: that allow them to communicate and exchange data with other devices and systems. IoT devices can be dynamically discovered in the network , by other devices or user applications . For example, a weather monitoring node can describe its monitoring capabilities to another connected node so that they can communicate and exchange data. Integration into the information network helps in making IoT systems “smarter’ due to the collective intelligence of the individual devices in collaboration with the infrastructure . Thus , the data from a large number of connected weather monitoring IoT nodes can be aggregated and analyzed to predict the weather.
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  10. Official Use Applications of IoT: 1) Home 2) Cities 3) Environment 4) Energy 5) Retail 6) Logistics 7) Agriculture 8) Industry 9) Health & Lifestyle
  11. Official Use IoT devices Brief list of IoT devices that gives you a better idea of the broad use of this technology: • Smart TVs • Smart speakers • Fitness wearables • Smart appliances • Smart meters • IoT blockchain • IoT gateways • Etc.
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  13. Official Use Physical Design of IoT • The physical design of an IoT system is referred to the Things/Devices and protocols that used to build an IoT system. • All these things/Devices are called Node Devices and every device has a unique identity that performs remote sensing, actuating, and monitoring work. and the protocols that used to established communication between the Node devices and server over the internet.
  14. Official Use Physical Design of IoT: Things in IoT • The "Things" in IoT usually refers to IoT devices which have unique identities and can perform remote sensing, actuating and monitoring capabilities. • IoT devices can: • Exchange data with other connected devices and applications (directly or indirectly), or • Collect data from other devices and process the data locally or • Send the data to centralized servers or cloud- based application back-ends for processing the data, or • Perform some tasks locally and other tasks within the IoT infrastructure , based on temporal and space constraints
  15. Official Use Generic block diagram of an IoT Device • An IoT device may consist of several interfaces for connections to other devices, both wired and wireless. • I/O interfaces for sensors • Interfaces for Internet connectivity • Memory and storage interfaces • Audio/video interfaces. • IoT devices can also be varied types, such as wearable sensors, smart watches, LED lights, automobiles and industrial machines. • Almost all IoT devices generate data in some or other which when processed by data analytics systems leads to useful information to guide further actions locally or remotely.
  16. Official Use IoT Protocols(1) • Link Layer : Protocols determine how data is physically sent over the network’s physical layer or medium. Local network connect to which host is attached. Hosts on the same link exchange data packets over the link layer using link layer protocols. Link layer determines how packets are coded and signaled by the h/w device over the medium to which the host is attached.
  17. Official Use IoT Protocols(2) Link Layer Protocols: • 802.3-Ethernet: IEEE802.3 is collection of wired Ethernet standards for the link layer. E.g.: 802.3 uses co-axial cable; 802.3i uses copper twisted pair connection; 802.3j uses fiber optic connection; 802.3ae uses Ethernet over fiber. • 802.11-WiFi: IEEE802.11 is a collection of wireless LAN(WLAN) communication standards including extensive description of link layer. E.g.: 802.11a operates in 5GHz band, 802.11b and 802.11g operates in 2.4GHz band, 802.11n operates in 2.4/5GHz band, 802.11ac operates in 5GHz band, 802.11ad operates in 60Ghzband. • 802.16 - WiMax: IEEE802.16 is a collection of wireless broadband standards including exclusive description of link layer. WiMax provide data rates from 1.5 Mb/s to 1Gb/s. • 802.15.4-LR-WPAN: IEEE802.15.4 is a collection of standards for low-rate wireless personal area network(LR-WPAN). Basis for high level communication protocols such as ZigBee. Provides data rate from 40kb/s to250kb/s. • 2G/3G/4G-Mobile Communication: Data rates from 9.6kb/s(2G) to up to100Mb/s(4G).
  18. Official Use IoT Protocols(3) Network/Internet Layer: Responsible for sending IP datagrams from source n/w to destination n/w. Performs the host addressing and packet routing. Datagrams contains source and destination address. Protocols: • IPv4: Internet Protocol version4 is used to identify the devices on a n/w using a hierarchical addressing scheme. 32 bit address. Allows total of 2**32addresses. • IPv6: Internet Protocol version6 uses 128 bit address scheme and allows 2**128 addresses. • 6LoWPAN:(IPv6overLow power Wireless Personal Area Network)operates in 2.4 GHz frequency range and data transfer 250 kb/s.
  19. Official Use IoT Protocols(4) Transport Layer: Provides end-to-end message transfer capability independent of the underlying n/w. Set up on connection with ACK as in TCP and without ACK as in UDP. Provides functions such as error control, segmentation, flow control and congestion control. Protocols: • TCP: Transmission Control Protocol used by web browsers(along with HTTP and HTTPS), email(along with SMTP, FTP). Connection oriented and stateless protocol. IP Protocol deals with sending packets, TCP ensures reliable transmission of protocols in order. Avoids n/w congestion and congestion collapse. • UDP: User Datagram Protocol is connectionless protocol. Useful in time sensitive applications, very small data units to exchange. Transaction oriented and stateless protocol. Does not provide guaranteed delivery.
  20. Official Use IoT Protocols(5) Application Layer: Defines how the applications interface with lower layer protocols to send data over the n/w. Enables process-to-process communication using ports. Protocols: • HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol that forms foundation of WWW. Follow request- response model Stateless protocol. • CoAP: Constrained Application Protocol for machine-to-machine (M2M) applications with constrained devices, constrained environment and constrained n/w. Uses client- server architecture. • WebSocket: allows full duplex communication over a single socket connection. • MQTT: Message Queue Telemetry Transport is light weight messaging protocol based on publish-subscribe model. Uses client server architecture. Well suited for constrained environment. • XMPP: Extensible Message and Presence Protocol for real time communication and streaming XML data between network entities. Support client-server and server-server communication. • DDS: Data Distribution Service is data centric middleware standards for device-to-device or machine-to-machine communication. Uses publish-subscribe model. • AMQP: Advanced Message Queuing Protocol is open application layer protocol for business messaging. Supports both point-to-point and publish-subscribe model.
  21. Official Use Logical Design of IoT
  22. Official Use Logical Design of IoT • Logical design of an IoT system refers to an abstract representation of the entities and processes without going into the low-level specifics of the implementation. • An IoT system comprises of a number of functional blocks that provide the system the capabilities for identification, sensing, actuation, communication, and management. • Refers to an abstract represent of entities and processes without going into the low level specifies of implementation. 1) IoT Functional Blocks 2) IoT Communication Models 3) IoT Communication APIs
  23. Official Use IoT Functional Blocks Provide the system the capabilities for identification, sensing, actuation, communication and management . These functional blocks are described as follows: • Device: An IoT system comprises of devices that provide sensing, actuation, monitoring and control functions. • Communication: handles the communication for IoT system. • Services: for device monitoring, device control services, data publishing services and services for device discovery. • Management: Provides various functions to govern the IoT system. • Security: Secures IoT system and priority functions such as authentication ,authorization, message and context integrity and data security. • Application: IoT application provide an interface that the users can use to control and monitor various aspects of IoT system.
  24. Official Use IoT Communication Models: 1) Request-Response 2) Publish-Subscribe 3)Push-Pull 4) Exclusive Pair
  25. Official Use Request-Response Model: • Request-Response is a communication model in which the client sends requests to the server and the server responds to the requests. • When the server receives a request, it decides how to respond, fetches the data, retrieves resource representations, prepares the response, and then sends the response to the client.
  26. Official Use Publish-Subscribe communication model • Publish-Subscribe is a communication model that involves publishers, brokers and consumers. • Publishers are the source of data. Publishers send the data to the topics which are managed by the broker. Publishers are not aware of the consumers. • Consumers subscribe to the topics which are managed by the broker. • When the broker receives data for a topic from the publisher, it sends the data to all the subscribed consumers.
  27. Official Use Push-Pull communication model • Push-Pull is a communication model in which the data producers push the data to queues and the consumers pull the data from the queues. • Producers do not need to be aware of the consumers. • Queues help in decoupling the messaging between the producers and consumers. • Queues also act as a buffer which helps in situations when there is a mismatch between the rate at which the producers push data and the rate at which the consumers pull data.
  28. Official Use Exclusive Pair communication model • Exclusive Pair is a bidirectional, fully duplex communication model that uses a persistent connection between the client and server. • Once the connection is setup it remains open until the client sends a request to close the connection. • Client and server can send messages to each other after connection setup.
  29. Official Use IoT Communication APIs • The application program (or programming) interface, or API, is arguably what really ties together the connected “things” of the “internet of things.” • IoT APIs are the points of interaction between an IoT device and the internet and/or other elements within the network. • As API management company Axway puts it, “APIs are tightly linked with IoT because they allow you to securely expose connected devices to customers, go- to-market channels and other applications in your IT infrastructure.”
  30. Official Use Why are IoT APIs important? • “APIs are the market enabler, and ‘internet of things’ devices would be useless without them. • By exposing data that enables multiple devices to be connected, APIs provide an interface between the internet and the things to reveal previously unseen possibilities,” said Chris O’Connor, IBM’s GM for IoT, in a blog entry. • “In the year to come, the power and importance of APIs will be at the forefront of the conversation around enabling—and more important—monetizing the ‘internet of things.'”
  31. Official Use Types of APIs Generally, we used Two APIs For IoT Communication. These IoT Communication APIs are: • REST-based Communication APIs • WebSocket-based Communication APIs
  32. Official Use REST-based Communication APIs • Representational State Transfer (REST) is a set of architectural principles by which you can design web services and web APIs that focus on a system’s resources and how resource states are addressed and transferred. • REST APIs follow the request response communication model. • The REST architectural constraints apply to the components, connectors, and data elements, within a distributed hypermedia system. • The REST architectural constraints: Fig. shows communication between client server with REST APIs.
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  34. Official Use Contd.. • Client-Server: The principle behind client-server constraint is the separation of concerns. Separation allows client and server to be independently developed and updated. • Stateless: Each request from client to server must contain all the info. Necessary to understand the request and cannot take advantage of any stored context on the server. • Cache-able: Cache constraint requires that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cache-able or non-cacheable. If a response is cache-able, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests. • Layered System: constraints the behavior of components such that each component cannot see beyond the immediate layer with which they are interacting. • User Interface: constraint requires that the method of communication between a client and a server must be uniform. • Code on Demand: Servers can provide executable code or scripts for clients to execute in their context. This constraint is the only one that is optional.
  35. Official Use Request-Response model used by REST: • RESTful web service is a collection of resources which are represented by URIs. RESTful web API has a base URI(e.g.: • The clients and requests to these URIs using the methods defined by the HTTP protocol(e.g: GET, PUT, POST or DELETE). A RESTful web service can support various internet media types.
  36. Official Use HTTP request methods and actions
  37. Official Use WebSocket based communication API • WebSocket APIs allow bi-directional, full duplex communication between clients and servers. WebSocket APIs follow the exclusive pair communication model. • Unlike request-response model such as REST, the WebSocket APIs allow full duplex communication and do not require new connection to be setup for each message to be sent. • WebSocket communication begins with a connection setup request sent by the client to the server. The request (called WebSocket handshake) is sent over HTTP and the server interprets it is an upgrade request. • If the server supports WebSocket protocol, the server responds to the WebSocket handshake response. After the connection setup client and server can send data/messages to each other in full duplex mode. • WebSocket API reduce the network traffic and latency as there is no overhead for connection setup and termination requests for each message. • WebSocket suitable for IoT applications that have low latency or high throughput requirements. So ,Web socket is most suitable IoT Communication APIs for IoT System.
  38. Official Use Exclusive pair model used by WebSocket APIs
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