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Intelligent Transportation Systems - ITS

Include detailed description ITS, its areas and technologies.

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Intelligent Transportation Systems - ITS

  1. 1. VIJAI KRISHNAN V M. Tech Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Technology Kottayam, Kerala
  2. 2. Issues in Transportation..?  Increased number of vehicles  Congestion – pollution, travel time and cost  Increased accident rates – driver, road, weather, vehicle  Real time and accurate data collection  Lack of co-ordination b/w transportation systems  Emergency assistance
  3. 3. Possible solutions...? 1. Construct new roads  Expensive – 8-9Cr./km for NH  Land  Political issues 2. Reduce traffic  Alternate transports – Railways, Metro, Mono-rail  Expensive 3. Increase existing infrastructure capacity  ITS
  4. 4. Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)  Application of Internet of Things (IoT) ITS Integrated application of advanced technologies using electronics, computers, communication & sensing devices in transportation system in order to improve efficiency & safety.
  5. 5. Benefits of ITS  Secure, safe and comfortable movement of road users  Reduce - Delay and congestion - Travel time - Waiting time at signals - Queue length at signals - Fuel consumption - Air pollution  Increase convenience and road user satisfaction  Parking information, guidance & alerts to drivers
  6. 6. 1. Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) 2. Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) 3. Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) 4. Advanced Public Transport Systems (APTS) 5. Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) 6. Emergency Management Systems (EMS) 7. Electronic Payment (EP)
  7. 7. Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) Strategy Description Requirement Incident Management Early detection & response to unscheduled events • Incident detection / confirmation • Emergency response / motorist assistance • Pre-trip and en-route advisory Corridor Management Balancing level of service among alternate parallel routes within a corridor • Event and travel time monitoring • Pre-trip and en-route advisory Network Management Balancing level of service within the network as a function of current conditions • Event and travel time monitoring • Pre-trip and en-route advisory Travel Demand Management Improving traffic flow by managing travel demand • Congestion pricing • Ramp metering Congestion Management Mitigating the impacts of recurring and non-recurring congestion • Congestion monitoring • Pre-trip and en-route advisory • Lane & Ramp metering
  8. 8.  Objectives of ATMS i. Increase average travel speed ii. Reduce vehicle delays iii. Decrease average travel time iv. Reduce number of collisions v. Improve incident detection system vi. Reduce incident duration vii. Increase field equipment utilization viii. Reduce secondary incidents ix. Improve driver response
  9. 9. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS)  Pre-trip Information  Provides - Real flow condition - Alternate routes - Scheduled road construction & maintenance  Helps to decide - Time of departure - Mode & route to be used  Economical & comfortable planning of the journey
  10. 10.  Route guidance & Navigation:  Instruct upcoming turns & maneuvers  Saves fuel and reduce congestion
  11. 11.  On-trip Driver Information  Information after starting the trip  Variable Message Signs  Car radio  Portable communication devices
  12. 12.  Parking Information
  13. 13.  Public Transport Information
  14. 14. Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS)  Vision Enhancement  Passive & Active Systems  HUD  Range – 300 m  JLR’s “Follow-me Ghost Car”
  15. 15. Night Vision Assist IR Camera NVA IR Projector Headlamps LCD - Pedestrian Detection
  16. 16.  Automated Vehicle Operation  Senses the environment & navigate without human input  Uses Radar, Laser, GPS, Sensors, Computer vision etc
  17. 17.  Benefits:-  Increases safety, mobility & customer satisfaction  Reduce accidents  Enhance mobility for children, the elderly & disabled people  Relieve travelers from driving and navigation  Lower fuel consumption  Reduce labour cost
  18. 18.  Collision Avoidance  Uses radar, laser, camera and GPS 1. Longitudinal  Head-on collision warning  Rear-end collision warning  Adaptive cruise control  Autonomous Emergency Braking
  19. 19. Collision Warning
  20. 20. 2. Lateral  Lane departure warning
  21. 21.  Blind spot situation display
  22. 22. 3. Intersection Collision Avoidance  V2V Communication  V2I Communication
  23. 23.  Pre-Crash Restraint Deployment  Hold people in their seat and prevent from being injured during collision  Automatic seat-belts:- pre-tensioners  Airbags:– thin nylon fabric – inflate on impact – 80 ms
  24. 24.  Safety Readiness  Provide information on the vehicle condition  Coolant level  Engine oil and brake fluid levels  Tyre pressure  Malfunction warnings  Seat-belt warning  Door open warnings  Over speed warnings
  25. 25. Advanced Public Transport System (APTS)  Public Transport Management  Provide real time analysis of vehicles and facilities  GPS-based Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL)  Identifies deviation from schedules  Assure transfer connection between vehicles and modes  Computer-aided dispatch (CAD)  Automatic Passenger counting  Real-time & Web-based passenger information  Traffic Signal Priority integration  Next stop automated vehicle annunciation
  26. 26.  Benefits  Enhance operating efficiency  Increase service reliability  Reduce commute time
  27. 27.  Shared Transport Management  Share the vehicle and cost for journey  Hybrid b/w private vehicle and mass transit  Car and van pooling  Shared taxis  Reduce GHG emissions
  28. 28. Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) • Enhance safety and efficiency of goods vehicle • Control or prevent theft of goods • Monitor movement of vehicles • Automatic vehicle clearance at check-post/toll plazas
  29. 29.  CV Pre-clearance  Safety status, vehicle credentials, size and weight  Only illegal vehicles separated for inspection  Automatic Vehicle Identification  RFID  WIM  ANPR Camera  GST  VAAHAN Portal, MoRTH
  30. 30.  CV On-board Safety Monitoring  Monitor speed, acceleration, braking force  Forward Collision Warning system to avoid tailgating  Roll Stability Advisor (RSA) records high lateral forces on curves to avoid rollover  Lane change/departure warning  ABS  Autonomous Emergency Braking  “Intelli-seat” by IIT Madras  Driver drowsiness warning system  CCTV camera to avoid blind spot  Cruise control
  31. 31.  CV On-board Fleet Management  GPS tracking  Mileage and fuel consumption  Driver behavior – training to dangerous & inefficient drivers  Remote Vehicle Disabling System – prevent stealing
  32. 32.  Automated Roadside Safety Inspection  Weigh-in-Motion  Automated thermal imaging system  Under vehicle area scanning  Tyre Anomaly and Classification System
  33. 33. Emergency Management System (EMS)  Emergency Notification and Personal Security  Notify appropriate emergency response personnel regarding the need for assistance in case of emergency  Driver & Personal Security – user initiated  Automated Collision Notification
  34. 34.  Emergency Vehicle Management  Reduce time b/w notification & arrival at incident location  Identify most closest & appropriate response vehicle  Route guidance  Signal priority & pre-emption  Traffitizer
  35. 35. Electronic Payment  Electronic Financial Transactions  Electronic Toll Collection – FastTag  Electronic Road Pricing/Congestion Pricing  Automatic Fare Collection (AFC),
  36. 36. 1. Wireless Communications 2. Computational Technologies 3. Floating Car/Floating Cellular Data 4. Sensing Technologies 5. Inductive Loop Detection 6. Video Vehicle Detection 7. Bluetooth Detection
  37. 37. Wireless Communication  Radio Modem Communication  UHF and VHF  Range: 10-40 miles  Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC)  V2V & V2I communication  Range: 350m  Fast & high reliability  RFID in ETC
  38. 38.  Long Range Communication  Provide continuous communication  WiMAX – 30 miles (50km)  GSM or 3G  Requires extensive and expensive infrastructure  eCall
  39. 39. Computational Technologies  Use model-based process control & AI  Requires real time operating systems, costly micro- processors, memory and hardware – installed in vehicles  Eg:- Advance Driver Assistance Systems
  40. 40. Floating Car Data/Floating Cellular Data  To determine traffic speed  Uses cellular data, to detect :  Direction of travel  Speed  Travel time  Congestion  No additional hardware required on road
  41. 41. Sensing Technologies  Sensors include  Seismic, thermal, IR, acoustic, magnetic etc  Capable to monitor  Temperature, humidity, pressure, vehicle movement, noise, speed, direction etc  Low cost and low power  Enhance safety  Eg:- RFID, micro-chips
  42. 42. Inductive Loop Detection  Change in magnetic flux induce electric current in a wire  Cost-effective technique  Used to  Vehicle count  Speed  Length  Class of vehicle  Detect the presence of vehicles
  43. 43. Video Vehicle Detection  Used for  Traffic-flow Measurement  Automatic Incident Detection  Vehicle Counting  Lane occupancy measurement  Gap & headway  Detecting wrong-way vehicles  Lane-by-lane vehicle speed measurement  Reduces cost for data collection  Eg:- ANPR Camera, CCTVs
  44. 44. Bluetooth Detection  Short range communication  Accurate & inexpensive  Used for  Travel time measurement  OD Matrix data collection
  45. 45. 1. Video Surveillance System (CCTV) 2. Video Incident Detection System (VDIS) 3. Vehicle Actuated Speed Display 4. Emergency Road Side Telephone System 5. Variable Message Sign 6. Meteorological Data System (MET) 7. Weigh-in-Motion System 8. Automatic Traffic Counter-cum-Classifier (ATCC) 9. Network/Communication Infrastructure 10. Mobile Radio Communication System 11. ATMS Control Centre
  46. 46. Video Surveillance System (CCTV)  Monitor vehicular & road related activity  Colour, shape and vehicle class – 1000m ahead  IR filter & Internal heater  Communication – Wired Ethernet/OFC/WiFi
  47. 47. Video Incident Detection System (VIDS)  Automatic detection of incidents and generation of visual alerts or alarms  Warning to nearby travelers / road-users  Detect incidents like:-  Vehicle in wrong directions  Stalled vehicles  Queuing up of vehicles  Obstructing objects on roads  Poor visibility (smog/dust/fog)
  48. 48. Vehicle Actuated Speed Display  Warn over-speeding  Radar actuated speed display + CCTV camera  Speed range: 1 – 200km/h  Min. monitoring section length: 500m
  49. 49. Emergency Roadside Telephone System  To make emergency calls to report incidents  Hands-free operation – built in speaker & mic  Activate/Call button to initiate call  Dial each number in sequence  Record message, if lines are busy  2km interval
  50. 50. Variable Message Signs (VMS)  Advance information of road conditions ahead  Road incidents  Special events  Construction or maintenance activities on road  Advises to opt alternate route  Not for advertising  1 - 1.5km prior to decision point
  51. 51. Weigh-in-Motion  To log, monitor & enforce load criteria  ANPR Camera  Indicate - vehicle class - breach of length & weight
  52. 52. Meteorological Data System (MET)  Wind sensors – velocity & direction  Visibility sensors – precipitation, fog, dust storm  Atmospheric sensors – ambient temperature & relative humidity  Road condition sensors – road surface temperature
  53. 53. Automatic Traffic Counter-cum- Classifier (ATCC)  Identify, classify & record all types of vehicles  Informs current traffic conditions – VMS & Mob. Apps  To perform statistical analysis  Piezo-electric sensors & inductive loops  Time/date  Speed  Direction  No. of axles  Axle spacing
  54. 54. Mobile Radio Communication System  Wireless communication b/w ATMS Control Centre & Vehicle Mounted Units for Emergency response  Ambulances, Cranes & Patrolling vehicles  Vehicle mounted unit integrated with GPS
  55. 55. Travel Time Estimation System  To estimate travel time b/w two defined locations on a highway segment  Matching RFID read at source(start) with that at destination(end of segment) and calculating the time difference  Toll plazas – 500 m either side
  56. 56. Network Infrastructure for Data Communication  Connectivity b/w ATMS Control Centre and outdoor equipment
  57. 57. ATMS Control Centre  All activities of ATMS are controlled  Safety/Enforcement related alerts & reports  Equipment related alerts / reports  Sub-system related alerts & events  Displayed on Video wall  App for road users, enforcement, route patrol agencies
  58. 58.  Components:  Central Computer Server  Emergency call management equipment & software  Integrated Traffic Management console  ATMS Software  Mobile radio operator & configuration equipment & software  Communication equipment & Network Management System  Uninterrupted power supply
  59. 59. Red Light Violation Detection (RLVD)  Detect and store red light jumping vehicle  Reduce accident at intersection by enforcement  ANPR Camera  Integrated with RTO Database  Offended vehicle’s driver is booked for punishment
  60. 60. Safety features in new vehicles  Hill descent & ascent control  ABS with EBD  TCS  ESP  Airbags  Automatic /AMT Transmission  Emergency Braking  Reverse Park Assist  Auto-dim & dynamic cornering headlights
  61. 61. Contd...  Rain sensing wipers  Speed sensing door locks  Navigation systems  Voice recognition  Speed governors
  62. 62. Issues in Implementing ITS in India  Resistance from professional drivers and unions  Hacking  Terrorism  High equipment and maintenance cost  Lack of interest & user awareness
  63. 63.  Heterogeneous traffic
  64. 64.  No lane discipline
  65. 65. Conclusions  Benefits and need of ITS  Areas of ITS  Technologies used in ITS  ITS implementation in India – systems & challenges

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