3. Traditional grids
◦ Years of development to provide automation of well-established power system
Electromechanical to numerical technology
Centralized and/or distributed architectures
Communication protocols : interoperability
Centralized power generation
One-directional power flow
Generation follows load
Operation based on historical experience
Limited grid accessibility for new producers
◦ Automation systems for a new power system and business model
Decentralized (renewable sources)
FACTS (SVC, TCSC, STATCOM, PST), HVDC
Decentralized and distributed power generation
Intermittent renewable power generation
Consumers become also producers
Multi-directional power flow
Load adapted to production
Operation based more on real-time data
4. Advanced measurement technology to collect
Wide area monitoring systems (WAMS) are essentially
based on the new data acquisition technology of phasor
measurement and allow monitoring transmission system
conditions over large areas in view of detecting and
further counteracting grid instabilities.
The WAMS technologies are comprised of two major
Obtaining the data
Extracting value from it
Getting the data is accomplished with a new generation
a new generation of data recording hardware that
produces high volume recordings.
Data is extracted and analyzed using several signal
analysis tools and algorithms.
5. In order to avoid regional blackouts such as
those occurred in India and North America
and Canada in 2003.
When constant monitoring applications are
available immediate action can be taken if
some failures are detected.
This early warning system contributes to
increase system reliability by avoiding the
spreading of large area disturbances, and
optimizing the use of assets.
6. Phasor Measurement Unit(PMU)
◦ They are devices which use synchronization signal from the global
positioning system(GPS) satellite and provide the phasor voltage
and currents measured at a given substation.
◦ A phasor is a complex number that represents both magnitude
and phase angle of the sine waves found in electricity.
◦ PMU can different Date Rate i.e. 60,30,10 frame per second.
Phasor Data Concentrator(PDC)
◦ It is node in a system where phasor data from a number of PMUs
or PDCs is correlated and fed out as a single stream to other
◦ PDC would performs the Real time monitoring, alarming, event
◦ It perform loacal archiving.
◦ It perform various quality checks on the phasor data.
Current, voltage and frequency measurements are taken by Phasor
Measurement Units (PMUs) at selected locations in the power system and
stored in a data concentrator every 100 milliseconds. The measured
quantities include both magnitudes and phase angles, and are time
synchronised via Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers with an accuracy
of one microsecond. The phasors measured at the same instant provide
snapshots of the status of the monitored nodes. By comparing the
snapshots with each other, not only the steady state, but also the dynamic
state of critical nodes in transmission and sub-transmission networks can
be observed. Thereby, a dynamic monitoring of critical nodes in power
systems is achieved.
9. SCADA can only provide steady, low sampling
density, and non synchronous information of
Controlling centre cannot know the dynamic
operation states of the system.
Instant action cannot be taken in case of failures.
WAMS enables us to observe the power system
synchronously in more elaborate time scale.
WAMS requires data to be sent and captured at
very fast rate.
◦ System Based on ABB’s process control system and
Windows Server technology Server/Client
architecture PMU data acquisition with OPC
◦ High resolution data storage and export
◦ Graphical User Interface
◦ WAMS applications
◦ Connection to SCADA systems
PSGuard Communication Gateway
◦ PMU data exchange in real-time between utilities
11. PSGuard Applications
◦ Phase Angle Monitoring
◦ Voltage Stability Monitoring
◦ Line Thermal Monitoring
◦ Event Driven Data Archiving
◦ Power Oscillation Monitoring
◦ Power Damping Monitoring
◦ SCADA/EMS integration
◦ Communication gateway
12. Fingrid (Finland)
◦ Since 2006
◦ 10 PMUs in Finland
◦ Communication gateway to PMU in Norway
◦ SCADA integration
◦ Main application post-disturbance analysis of system
◦ Collaboration project on power oscillation monitoring
◦ Since 2004
◦ 7 PMUs – ABB RES521
◦ Connection to PDCs & PMUs from major European utilities allow
monitoring of dynamics across Europe
◦ Monitoring and early warning system for the loading of the
northsouth corridor of the Swiss transmission grid
◦ SCADA integration
◦ Monitoring of reconnection of UCTE zones (2004)
13. HEP (Croatia)
◦ Since 2003
◦ 14 PMUs – ABB RES521
◦ Enhance stability of transmission system and optimize utilization of transmission
Basic monitoring, storage and archive
Line thermal monitoring
Voltage stability monitoring
Data exchange with other PDCs
◦ Since 2005
◦ Monitoring of the vital 220 kV double lines between Vienna and Ternitz substations
with phase angle monitoring and line thermal monitoring
◦ 3 PMUs – ABB RES521
◦ Since 2005 (First WAMS in Asia)
◦ 4 PMUs – ABB RES521
◦ Monitor stability of heavily loaded 230 kV transmission lines between southern and
central region of Thailand
◦ Application of Power Oscillation Monitoring to detect power swings
14. ABB(ASEA Brown Boveri) Group( april 24,2012)
EGAT network Thailand ( Aorc-Cigre
Technical Meeting 2013 , september3-
5,2013 in China)