Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I)
• These are two different attitudes to the world
• When you are in the extraverted attitude, you
relate more easily to the world of people and
things outside of you.
• When you are in the introverted attitude, you relate
more easily to the ideas and concepts in your mind
Sensing (S) or Intuition (N)
• These are 2 different ways of gathering
• When you are perceiving with your sensing
process, you are interested in your 5 senses show
you (what exists in the present)
• When you are perceiving with your intuition, you
are using your imagination to see new possibilities
and insights hidden from the eye.
Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)
• These reflect 2 kinds of decision making.
• When you make judgments with your thinking, you
base your decisions on impersonal analysis and
• When you make judgments with your feeling, you
base your decisions on your values.
Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)
• These are 2 ways of living in the world around us.
• When you are living by your judgment, you like to
have things decided; your life is likely to be
planned and orderly.
• When you are living by your perception, you don’t
want to miss anything; your way of life is likely to
be spontaneous and flexible.
• Likes variety and action
• Enjoys talking out loud about ideas
• Demonstrates energy and enthusiasm
• Is stimulated by, and responsive to, people and
actions in the environment
• May be easily distracted
• Expresses thoughts and feelings openly
• Is energized by being with others
• Acts before thinking
• Is friendly and talkative
• May be Impatient with long, slow projects
• Values friends and relationships
• Gregarious - drawn to large number and variety of relationships.
• Enthusiastic - being energetically with the “action” and at the
center of things.
• Initiator - social facilitator, assertively outgoing, build bridges
• Expressive - easy to know, approachable, warm, readily show
• Auditory - learn through listening, active dialogue, and
involvement with others.
• Enjoys individual or one-on-one activities
• Is energized by ideas
• Thinks before acting
• Likes to concentrate on a few select tasks at a time
• Carefully considers an idea before discussing or making a
decision about it
• Usually waits for others to make the first move
• May not communicate thoughts and feelings
• Needs privacy
• Can make him or herself inconspicuous
• Tends to sit back, observe, and reflect
• Dislikes interruptions
• Must understand an idea or project before attempting it
• Pauses before answering and may be uncomfortable with
• Can ignore distractions
• Intimate - most comfortable in small groups and with one-on-one
• Quiet - present themselves modestly, drawn to the calm away
from the center of action.
• Receptor - content to let others initiate social amenities-even to
the point of being overlooked.
• Contained - well controlled, calm exterior, often difficult for others
• Visual - learn through observation, reflection, reading, and more
• Likes precise directions
• Enjoys films and other audiovisual presentations
• Prefers using skills already learned
• Focuses on the present
• Works steadily with a realistic idea of how long the task will take
• Prefers things that are definite and measurable
• Wants material presented step-by-step
• Relies on experience rather than theory
• Is interested in whatever appeals to the senses
• Is likely to recall details well
• May be comfortable with routine exercises that develop skills
• Draws on proven methods to solve current problems
• Enjoys tradition and custom
• Can learn abstract concepts buy may become stressed by the task
• Wants the facts when discussing an issue and mistrusts vague
• Concrete - depend on verifiable, factual information and direct
perceptions. literal, mistrust fuzzy information.
• Realistic - value being practical, cost-effective, and exercising
• Pragmatic - highly values the usefulness or applications of an
idea -more interesting than idea itself.
• Experiential - heavily grounded by first hand, past experience.
Reluctant to generalize beyond direct experience.
• Traditional - trust what is familiar, support established groups and
methods, honor precedents.
• Needs opportunities to be creative and original
• Likes tasks that require imagination
• Enjoys learning new skills more than mastering familiar ones
• Dislikes routine
• Works in bursts of energy with slow periods in between
• Dislikes taking time for precision
• Focuses on the future
• May skip over facts or get them wrong
• Spends so much time designing an original project that the
finished product may not meet expectations
• Needs variety
• Has a seemingly sporadic approach rather than an ordered,
• Is idealistic
• Abstract - comfortable with and inferring meaning from
ambiguous and non-literal information. Perceptive.
• Imaginative - enjoy being ingenious, clever and novel . . . for its
• Intellectual - learning, acquiring knowledge, mental challenges
are valued as an end in itself.
• Theoretical - conceptual, automatically search for patterns in
observed facts, comfortable with theories and inventing new ones.
• Original - values initiative and enterprising, inventive, and novel
solutions. Often mistrusts conventional wisdom.
• Values individual achievement over group cooperation
• Needs to know why things are done
• May enjoy talking with teachers more than peers
• Dislikes small talk
• Enjoys library research projects
• Enjoys debates
• Often finds ideas or things more interesting than people
• Needs opportunities to demonstrate competence
• Is concerned with truth and justice based on principles
• Can be devastated by failure
• Prefers information to be presented briefly and concisely
• Spontaneously analyzes the flaws in ideas, things, or people
• Is task oriented
• Needs to know the criteria for grades and evaluations
• Critical - comfortable making distinctions, categorizing, making
win/lose choices, being in adversarial situations.
• Tough Minded - results oriented, ends justify the means, stick on
• Questioning - intellectually independent, resistant to influence,
• Logical - values and trusts detached, objective, and logical
• Reasonable - is clear-thinking, objective, reasoned, and logical in
everyday decision- making.
• Enjoys sharing information in small groups
• Is loyal
• Tries to help others feel secure and comfortable
• Needs praise
• Avoids confrontation and conflict
• Is skilled in understanding other people
• Is sympathetic
• Spontaneously appreciates the good in people and things
• View things from a personal perspective
• Is concerned about relationships and harmony
• Enjoys pleasing people, even in seemingly unimportant
• Enjoys subjects that concern people; needs to know how the
topic affects people
• Has difficulty accepting criticism;; sarcasm and ridicule can
• Accepting - tolerant towards human failings, see positive side of
others, instinctually seeks win/win resolutions of problems.
• Tender Hearted - use gentle persuasion to influence, reluctant to
• Accommodating - seeks consensus, deferential, conflict
avoiding, seeks harmony.
• Affective - trusts emotions and feelings, values human
considerations, in touch with feelings.
• Compassionate - makes decisions on overall impressions,
patterns, and feelings (including emotional likes and dislikes).
• Prefers expectations for assignments to be clearly defined
• Likes to get things settled and finished
• Prefers completing one project before beginning another; too
many unfinished projects can cause stress
• Doesn’t usually appreciate surprises
• Needs structure and predictability; frequent changes can be
• Gets assignments in on time
• Lives by schedules that are not easily altered
• Wants to do things the ‘right’ way and tries to make things
happen the way they are ‘supposed’ to
• Works best when work can be planned and the plan is
• Is orderly, organized, and systematic
• Generally has good study habits
• Early Starter - focused. Structure activities to work on one thing at
a time, allowing adequate time for proper completion.
• Systematic - prefers orderly, structured and programmed
responses. Likes formal contingency planning.
• Scheduled - creates and easily follows standardized and familiar
• Planful - likes to schedule future commitments far in advance,
uses dates and deadlines to organize their energies.
• Methodical - implements projects in a planned, organized, and
step-by-step manner. Self programming.
• Is curious
• May begin working on a task before the directions are
• Acts spontaneously
• Likes freedom to move and finds too much desk work to be
• Is cheerful and brings fun and laughter to the classroom
• Enjoys the activity itself more than the result
• Enjoys tasks presented as games
• Enjoys dramatizations and may like to perform
• Copes well with unplanned and unexpected changes and
enjoys changes in procedures
• May start too many projects and have difficulty finishing
• Lets work accumulate and then accomplishes a lot with a
last-minute flurry of activity
• May turn in assignments late as a result of poor planning or
• Pressure Prompted - prefers variety and multi-tasking. Most
effectively energized when working close to deadlines.
• Casual - comfortable making adjustments as situation requires.
Prefers informal guidelines vs. structured rules. Adaptable.
• Spontaneous - dislikes repeatedly following the same routines.
Seeks variety and change.
• Open-ended - strongly values preserving flexibility and freedom,
dislikes being tied down by long range plans. Makes flexible plans.
• Emergent - ad hoc planner. Moves quickly into action without
detailed plans, plans on the go. Risk taking.