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Training and development of international staff

  1. Training and Development of International Staff -with reference to Japan, China, South Koreaand Singapore Presented By: VIRDA AZMI Subject: Global Human Resource Management M.A. (HRM) Final Semester Dept of Social Work Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
  2. Need for T&D • MNCs increasingly use expatriates on short-term and long-term international job assignments for a variety of purposes, such as: • to acquire and transfer knowledge, • to manage a foreign subsidiary, • to fill a staffing need, • to maintain communication, • coordination and control between subsidiaries and corporate headquarters, • and to develop global leadership competence
  3. • An expatriate’s success in the host country is largely determined by his or her cross-cultural adjustment to the host country • Expatriates who are not prepared to confront the challenges (e.g., to cope with culture shock) find it difficult to adjust and hence, perform poorly. • Thus, improving cross-cultural adjustment has been the focus of many international HR interventions. • Since cross-cultural adjustment can be facilitated if the expatriate has an awareness of the norms and behaviors that are appropriate in the host country, many MNCs offer cross-cultural training (CCT) to teach their expatriates the host country’s appropriate norms and behaviors.
  4. Cross-Cultural Training • Cross-cultural training is defined as any planned intervention designed to increase the knowledge and skills of expatriates to live and work effectively and achieve general life satisfaction in an unfamiliar host culture • CCT has been advocated as a means of facilitating effective cross- cultural interactions and cross-cultural adjustment
  5. • In the early 1980s, only 32% of MNCs offered CCT. Almost 20 years later, the 1998 Global Relocation Trends Survey Report indicates that 70% of the 177 MNCs surveyed provide CCT of at least one day’s duration • Cross-cultural training effectiveness is reflected by the cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes that occur during the CCT event. • In order to improve the effectiveness of CCT programs, or to maximize the change that occurs during training, it is important to follow a systematic approach to designing effective CCT programs.
  6. • The process for designing effective CCT programs consists of five distinct phases: 1. Identify the type of global assignment for which CCT is needed. 2. Determine the specific cross-cultural training needs. 3. Establish the goals and measures for determining training effectiveness. 4. Develop and deliver the CCT program. 5. Evaluate whether the CCT program was effective.
  7. PHASE 1 – IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF GLOBAL ASSIGNMENT • Caligiuri describes a classification of global assignments into four categories: 1. Technical 2. Functional/tactical 3. Developmental/high potential 4. Strategic/executive
  8. PHASE 2 – CONDUCT A CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS • A cross-cultural training needs analysis is conducted across three levels: 1. The organizational level, to determine the organizational context for CCT 2. The individual (or expatriate) level, to determine any special needs that have to be addressed in CCT for a given person; and 3. The assignment level, to determine the cross-cultural knowledge and skills required to effectively complete the given assignment.
  9. PHASE 3 – ESTABLISH CCT GOALS AND MEASURES • Cross-cultural training goals should be stated in detailed and measurable terms. • Detailed and measurable training goals help develop appropriate outcomes for training evaluation. • Short-term CCT goals can bring about cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes
  10. • The long-term goal of many CCT programs is to improve the rate of cross-cultural adjustment. • Improving cross-cultural adjustment is important for all expatriates and would generalize across assignments. • Likewise, improved success on the global assignment may be another generalized long-term goal with the specific dimensions, of course, being job specific.
  11. PHASE 4 – DEVELOP AND DELIVER THE CCT PROGRAM • This phase involves determining the specific instructional content needed in order to achieve the stated goal, the methods to deliver the instructional content, and the sequencing of the training sessions.
  12. PHASE 5 – EVALUATE CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING • The evaluation process involves establishing measures of effectiveness (criteria), and developing research designs to determine what changes (e.g. cognitive, affective, and behavioral) have occurred during the training. • Criteria must be established for both evaluation of short-term, and long-term goals. • The appropriate evaluation criteria should also be assessed prior to the delivery of CCT to provide some type of comparison bases for post-training assessment. In addition evaluation strategies need to be developed during phase 3, that is, the decision on how to evaluate CCT’s short-term and long-term goals needs to be made at the same time as these goals are established.
  13. Country Management Business Teams Communica Women at Style Structures tion Styles workplace Japan •information • The • group- • what one •there flow from the concept of oriented says does remains a bottomto the life-time teams not will not strong top employmen •direct be what he unspoken •senior t is a myth. confrontatio actually discriminati management •Hierarchic n is avoided. means on towards having a ally •group •body women in largely organized members language is the supervisory companies must be seen very workplace. approach •Group to be modest minimal •expected to •The key task orientation and humble. •Emotionles perform for a Japanese and team •The group is s and higly lower grade manager is to working. a life- formal tasks and to provide the •hierarchy defining set behaviour. leave environment is based on of •It is rare for employment in which the consensus relationships. any reaction upon group can and co- or emotion marriage or flourish. operation to be visible. the birth of children.
  14. Country Management Business Teams Communica Women at Style Structures tion Styles workplace China •management •highly • consensus •Saying 'no' •Officially, style tends hierarchical -oriented causes both women have towards the •operational •individual embarrassm the same directive structures, needs and ent and loss rights as men •Manager – chains of desires of face in the Subordinate is command, being •very limited workplace a mutually management sublimated amount of •Women are beneficial style etc. to the visual body found in two-way tend to be greater language reasonably relationship. hierarchical good of the senior roles in whole. large Chinese organizations
  15. Country Management Business Teams Communica Women at Style Structures tion Styles workplace South •leadership is •Centralisatio •Group •vagueness •women Korea hierarchical n and vertical orientation of meaning: work as and hierarchy •'no' = poor secretaries paternalistic •informal •loyal team etiquette or in poorly structures players in •'yes‘ ='I paid •consensus exist within ideal have heard assembly decision- the situations you‘ , not line making in organization always positions certain giving rise to agreeing. •Not treated situations internal •Slouching/ at par with •work and power overly men private are mechanisms expressive not separated body gestures can be disconcertin g.
  16. Country Managemen Business Teams Communicati Women at t Style Structures on Styles workplace Singapore •Managers •Traditional, •Group •English is •women have tend to be family-run oriented widely used have achieved older businesses •Decisions •'no' is a much in the •Managers are common are team difficult word business arena delegate •Hierarchical ones and •Disagreemen •expected to decisions to structure therefore t can affect keep a very their teams •Centralized success or the harmony professional, and expect decision failure is thus 'no' almost distant it to be making also team becomes, relationship respected oriented 'Yes, but it with male •Performanc might be colleagues e culture difficult' •Eye contact •Humor is should be best avoided minimal and •Formal Style proper distances observed