What is Bandha?
• Bandha from Orissa is a type of ‘Ikat’ which stands apart not
only in it’s unique designs but also the process, it’s expression
but the way it is summed up onto the loom.
• It is acknowledged for distinctively rendered curvilinear
motifs and relief texture due to supplementary warp and
• The tying of threads for elaborate dyeing processes before
weaving, requires precision.
• The distinctive hand-woven textiles of Orissa in unusual
patterns and vibrant colours have supported a thriving
cottage industry employing thousands.
• Orissa is famous for its silk Ikat weaves created by an intricate
process called the "Bandha" in which warp and weft threads
are tie-dyed to produce the pattern on the loom while
• Typical design motifs include rows of birds and animals, fish,
seashells, rudraksh beads and temple spires. While Sambalpur
is famous for its double-ikat textiles, Sonepur is known for its
gold embroidered ones.
Development of Bandha Among the
• In the Eastern region this art developed in Tigiria, Nupatna,
Maniabadha and Badamba in Cuttack district.
• In the Western parts the art is limited to Bhulia and Kostha
communities and they are settled in Balasore and Mayurbanj
• This art has again developed in certain villages like Barpalli,
Remunda, Jhiliminda villages of old Bolangir districts.
• In this method of textile process dyeing plays a very
• The pattern is not formed by weaving together yarns of
different color nor it is printed on the fabric : it is made
by dying the warp and weft threads before weaving.
• Following the precise plan, pieces of another material are
tied hanks of yarn at certain points.
• This material absorbs dye stuff and is removed on
completion of dyeing, leaving the yarn dyed only where it
is exposed to the dye-liquor.
1.A woman preparing indigo dye to be used
2.Worker applying the dye before the weaving
3.Application of dye after the warp has been
1.Application of dye on tied warp
2.Application of the dye
3.Weaving process going on
• Traditionally the Ikat Saris have been produced in Orissa since
• The discovery of Ikat woven cloth found in a Pharaoh’s tomb
pointing to 5,000-year-old trade connections with India.
• The Ikat tradition of Orissa is the intricate process of Tie and
Places and their speciality
• Sambalpur, Berhampur, Mayurbhanj and Nuapatna produce a
striking range in tussar silk with a brilliance, glaze and texture
that is unmatched.
• The rare silk fabric produced at Nuapatna in Cuttack district
embellished with verses from the Gitagovinda is used to dress
the idols at the Jagannath Temple.
• The masters are well versed with the centuries old art of silk
worm cultivation and create silk ties, stoles, furnishings and
dress materials apart from saris.
The technique of single ikat is used predominately in
the saktapar designs which is done in double ikat.
The two main bandha weaving clusters are Sambalpur
in the west including Bargarh, Barpali and Sonepur; and
Nuptana in the east.
The weaversin the Sambalpur – Bargarh region belong
to the Meher community and in Nupatana they belong
to the Patra communtiy.
• Even the motifs such as the temple border, lotus, conch and
wheel, signify the affinity with the reigning deity.
• The traditional Orissa Saris have undergone vast changes as
weavers try to adapt the designs to popular taste.
• The bichitrapar and saktrapar saris are unique examples with
motifs of duck, fish, lotus, creeper, elephant, lion, deer ; the
kumbh, temple or serrated edge, and in fine white otline of
the ikat motif.
• Orissa the Bomkai sari is named after the village where the
craft is practiced.
• Using a time consuming weaving technique the field warp
threads are cut and then retied to different colored warps
to create the unusually large pallu.
• This technique is locally called muhajorhi (or pallu with
• Some Bomkai saris have small fishes woven onto the
border. Fish symbolizes prosperity and good health
• Bomkai saris feature thread work ornament borders and
• These saris are much in demand owing to their traditional
look as well as their understated and elegant color palette.
The specimen of
The pallu of the
motifs of the
wheel, fish, which
Calligraphy Textiles/Phetas of Orissa
• Historical records available
at the Jagannath Temple in
Puri dating back to 1719
indicate that verses (shlokas)
from the Geeta Govinda
were woven into cloth
donated to the temple.
• This unique Orissa tradition
continues to this day with
weavers from the Patra
community in Nuapatna
weaving these textiles.
Sonepur saris are woven in mulberry and
tussar silk with calligraphy and
nagabandi, the coiled serpent motif.
Ceremonial cloth called Gitagobind pheta
with calligraphic forms.
CALLIGRAPHY ON THE SAARIS IN BANDHA
• The tribal saris, scarves, and woven
fabric lengths of the Koraput-Bastar
region are woven in heavy count cotton
ranging from 10 to 20.
• The weaver uses a three-shuttle
interlock patterning, which makes
available innumerable combinations in
scale and volume.
• The characteristic natural dye coloring
used is derived from the deep red aal
or madder dye which is extracted from
the root of the Indian Madder tree.
• The powerful and vibrant deep maroon
that is obtained is often darkened to
brown with the addition of harikari or
sulphate of iron.
• Peculiar to Orissa are the
pictorial saris that are
woven for the rural market.
• Unappealing to their urban
counter parts these saris
are woven with
patterns, religious temple
outlines, landscapes and
often objects that figure
large in the mindscape of
the weaver including aero
• The Pasapalli Saris with its
squares is a replica
of the chessboard.
• The earlier yarns of
coarse cotton have been
replaced with fine cotton,
silks, tussar and a cotton-silk
mix called ‘bapta’.
Gold thread and tissues
are also used to enhance
the patterns. Contemporary cotton yardage of ‘saktapar’
design woven in Sambalpur.
Saktrapar refers to the board game chaupad,
depicted with red and white
squares with black outlines.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, KANGRA