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4. communication ppt.pptx

  1. 1. Health Communication Firanbon T (BSc, MPH/HPHB) Department of Health, Behavior and Society Jimma University Feb, 2022 E-mail: firanbonteshome@gmail.com 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives At the end of this session, you will able to:- • Define health communication • List principles of communication • Understand the models of communication • Discuss forms of communication • Familiar with the communication process • Describe stage of communication • Identify barriers to effective communication 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 2
  3. 3. • What is communication? • Does communication differ from talking? How? • What does health communication mean? • What are the roles of communication in health education and health promotion? 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 3 Brainstorming
  4. 4. Definition  Communication is a process by which two or more people exchange ideas, facts, feelings or impressions in ways that each gains a common understanding of the message.  It helps to increases knowledge, mobilize the community  Influences perceptions, beliefs, attitudes and social norms  Demonstrates health related skills, Advocates for a health issue  Create behavioral change(ultimate goal) 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 4
  5. 5. Principles of communication i) Shared perception: for communication to be effective the perception of the sender should be as close as possible to the perception of the receiver. ii) Sensory involvement: the more senses involved in communication, the more effective it will be. If I hear, I forget. If I see, I remember. If I do, I know. iii) Face to face: when communication takes place in face-to- face it is more effective. iv) Feedback(Two-way): any communication without a two-way process is less effective. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 5
  6. 6. Principles.... v) Clarity: ideas, facts and opinions should be clear to the sender before communication happens. vi) Correct information: the sender should have at hand correct, current and scientific information before communicating it. vii) Completeness: subject matter must be adequate and full which enables the receiver to understand the central theme or idea of a message. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 6
  7. 7. Components of communication A) Source /sender/Encoder: The originator of the messages • The source must encode or create a message. • Encoding: is the process of turning thoughts into communication. It means the creation of messages which you want to communicate with other person. B) Receiver/audience/Decoder: The person or the group who receive the message • Receiver decodes(interpret) the message 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 7
  8. 8. Components of communication….. • Decoding: is the process of turning communication into thoughts. It means interpreting the meaning of the message. • Receivers decode messages based on past experiences, perceptions, thoughts and feelings. C) Message: is a piece of information, ideas, facts, opinion, feeling, attitude or a course of action that passed from the sender to the receiver • It is the subject matter of communication 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 8
  9. 9. Cont..... • Message appeals: The way the content of the message could be organized so that it can persuade or convince people. Why we consider different types of message appeals? • Not everyone responds in the same way. • What might persuade you to do something might be quite different from what might persuade another person. E.g. The type of appeals that could convince people with little or no schooling might be different from those that convince people 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 9
  10. 10. Message.... 1. Fear arousal appeal • The message is conveyed to frighten people into action by emphasizing the serious outcome from not taking action. • Appropriate with people who have no schooling. • Mild fear may be appropriate • Too much fear is not appropriate 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 10
  11. 11. Message.... 2. Humors • The message is conveyed in a funny way such as cartoon. • Humor very good way of attracting interest & attention. • lighten the tension when dealing with serious subjects. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 11
  12. 12. Message.... 3. Logical / factual appeal • The message is conveyed to convince people by giving facts, figures and information. e.g. Facts related to HIV/AIDS such as its prevalence, causes, route of transmission, prevention methods, etc. • Logical appeals are good with a person of high educational level. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 12
  13. 13. Message.... 4. Emotional appeal • The message is conveyed to convince people by arousing emotions, images & feelings rather than giving facts & figures. e.g. by showing smiling babies, wealthy families with latrine etc, and associating with FP education. • More influence a persons with less education. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 13
  14. 14. Message.... 5. One sided message/appeals • Only presents the advantages of taking action & does not mention any possible disadvantages. • One sided message may be effective:- 1) If the audience will not be exposed to different views. 2) If the communication is through mass media -selective perception. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 14
  15. 15. Message.... 6. Two sided message/appeals • Presents both the advantages & disadvantages (pros’ & cons’) of taking action. Appropriate if ; • The audiences are literates. • The audiences are exposed to different views. • We are in face-to-face with individuals or groups. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 15
  16. 16. Message.... 7. Positive appeals • Communications that ask people to do something, e.g. breastfeed your child, use a latrine. 8. Negative appeals • Communications that ask people not to do something, e.g. do not bottle feed your child, do not defecate in the bush 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 16
  17. 17. D) Channel/Medium 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 17 •The channel is the way through which a message is sent out. •It is the physical bridge or the media by which the message travels between source and receiver. •It is also called the medium of communication.
  18. 18. Channel.... 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 18 • The commonest types of channel are audio, visual, printed materials or combined audio visual & printed materials.
  19. 19. Channel.... Criteria: Channel selection  Availability  Cost  Users’ preference and receivers’ access  Adaptability to the communication purpose/objective Adaptability to the message content Type of recipient and their stage in the adoption 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 19
  20. 20. E) Feedback • A communication is said to have feedback when the receiver of the message gives his/her responses to the sender of the message. • The sender must know how well the messages have been received by the receiver, understood, interpreted, and act up on it. • It completes the process of communication. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 20
  21. 21. Feedback.... • Negative feedback: when the message has not been understood. • This kind of feedback, conveys lack of understanding. • Positive feedback: when the receiver has understood the source’s message. • It does not necessarily mean that he or she agrees with the source, just that the message was interpreted accurately. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 21
  22. 22. Diagram: Communication Process 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 22
  23. 23. Communication Models I) Linear (one –way) model • The flow of information from the sender to the receiver is one- way or unidirectional. • The communication is dominated by the “sender’s knowledge”. One-way communication N.B: Unless mechanisms are set to get feedback from the audience many mass media communications are one-way. S M R 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 23
  24. 24. Communication...... Advantages Disadvantages -Faster -Little audience participation -Orderly -Learning is authoritative -No feedback -Does not influence behavior 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 24
  25. 25. Communication..... II) Systems (Two –way) • Information flows from the source to the receiver & back from receiver to the source. • This is reciprocal in which the communicant becomes the communicator & the communicator in turn becomes the communicant. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 25
  26. 26. Communication..... M C F Two-way communication S R Key • S-Source • R-Receiver • M-Message • C- Channel • F- Feedback 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 26
  27. 27. Communication...... Advantages Disadvantages -More audience participation -Slower -Learning is more democratic -Not orderly -Open for feedback -May influence behavior change -More appropriate for problem-solving 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 27
  28. 28. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 28 One way or two way communication?
  29. 29. Types/Methods of communication There are two main types; Face-to-face (‘interpersonal’) Mass media. A) Interpersonal (face-to-face) • It includes all those forms of communication involving direct interaction between the source & receiver. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 29
  30. 30. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 30 Example of interpersonal(face to face) communication
  31. 31. Interpersonal..... • The powerful advantage of face-to-face communication over mass media is, it gives the opportunity to ask the audience questions and obtain their feedback. • In this case, it is possible to cheek that you have been understood & give further explanations. • However, as the size of the group increases, it is more difficult to have feed back & discussion. • Main effect of this type of communication are changes in attitude and behavior and acquisition of problem solving 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 31
  32. 32. Interpersonal.... Advantages • Dynamic or bi-directional • Feed back • Multisensory (channel) • Useful in all stages of adoption of innovation • Useful when the topic is taboo or sensitive. • Can fit to local needs Disadvantage • Easily distorted( mostly rely on word-of-mouth) • Often needs multi- lingual • Needs personal status/ credibility • Needs professional knowledge & 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 32
  33. 33. B) Mass media communication • Mass communication is a means of transmitting messages, on an electronic or print media to a large segment of a population. • The word media is currently used to refer: Broad cast media (radio & TV) print media (papers, magazines, leaflets, posters , etc.) Folk media such as art, songs, plays, puppet shows & dance. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 33
  34. 34. Mass media..... • The powerful advantage of mass media over face-to-face is rapid spread of facts to a large population at a low cost • Main effect of this type of communication are:  Increased knowledge/awareness Influence behaviors at the early stages. Useful to communicate new ideas to early adopters (opinion leaders). 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 34
  35. 35. Mass media.... Advantages • Reach many people quickly. • Accurate and believable e.g. article on a newspaper, or “voice” of highly respected person. • Provide continuing reminders and reinforcement. Limitations • One sided /no feedback • Selective perception • Does not differentiate the target • Only provides non-specific information(difficult to make the message to fit to the local needs of the community) 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 35
  36. 36. Forms of Communication 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 36
  37. 37. 1. Verbal or Oral Communication 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 37
  38. 38. When to use oral communication? 1. When the receiver is not particularly interested in receiving the message. 2. It is important to get feedback. 3. The receiver is too busy or preoccupied to read. 4. The sender wants to persuade or convince. 5. When discussion is needed. 6.When criticism of the receiver is involved. 7.When the receiver prefers one-to-one contact. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 38
  39. 39. 2. Non-Verbal Communication • Non-verbal communication refer to using a non-spoken symbol to communicate a specific message. • Non-verbal messages can;  Support verbal messages (clarify)  Contradict verbal messages (mixed messages)  Replace verbal messages (secrets) • It is easy to lie with word but much more difficult with non-verbal communication. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 39
  40. 40. Non-Verbal..... 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 40
  41. 41. Non-Verbal..... • In a normal conversation between two persons, less than 35% of the social meanings is actually transmitted by words. • So, at least 65% of it is conveyed through the body (non-verbal channel). Remember; • Make sure your body and your mind speak the same language ! • Culture also matters! 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 41
  42. 42. Non-Verbal.... 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 42
  43. 43. 3. Written communication • It involves the exchange of facts, ideas, and opinions through a written instrument /materials. • Successful written communication requires careful thought and clear planning. • Can be in the form of emails, letters, reports, memos, leaflets, handouts, bulletins, newspaper. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 43
  44. 44. Noise/Barriers of Communication Psychological barriers • refers to forces within a communicator that interfere with the ability to express or understand a message accurately. • For instance: stress, defensiveness.  emotional disturbances  depression  neurosis 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 44
  45. 45. Barriers of.... Physiological barriers • involves biological factors in the receiver or sender that interfere with accurate reception. • For example: illness, fatigue  difficulties in hearing or seeing  difficulties in understanding 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 45
  46. 46. Barriers of...... Environmental/ External noise/ physical barriers • Includes those factors outside the receiver that make it difficult to hear, as well as other kinds of distractions. Examples:- excessive noise, a smoky room, congested areas, invisibility 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 46
  47. 47. Barriers of...... Cultural barriers • Persistent patterns of behavior, habits, beliefs, customs, attitudes, religion, Knowledge, etc. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 47
  48. 48. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 48 Cultural barriers.....
  49. 49. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 49
  50. 50. Effective Communication The Seven Cs of effective Communication are:- 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 50
  51. 51. References • John Hubley 1993. Communicating health. An action guide to health education and health promotion. • Barnlund, D. C. (1970). A transactional model of communication in K.K. Sereno and C.D. Mortenson (Eds.), Foundations of communication theory (pp. 83-92). New York, NY: Harper and Row. • Ellis, R. and McClintock, A. (1990). You take my meaning: Theory into practice in human communication. London: Edward Arnold. • Schramm, W. (1997). The beginnings of communication study in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. • Shannon, C. and Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 51
  52. 52. 12/8/2022 By Firanbon T 52 THANK YOU!!!