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Training Methods Technique and Aids

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Helping employees to become effective in their jobs is one of the fundamentally HR management that any organization has to undertake. This slide explains the Training Methods Technique and Aids, bought to you by Welingkar’s Distance learning Division.

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Training Methods Technique and Aids

  1. 1. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division CHAPTER-04 Training Methods Technique and Aids We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  2. 2. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Introduction Helping employees to become effective in their jobs is one of the fundamentally HR management that any organization has to undertake. Employers depend on the quality of their employees performance to achieve organizational aims and objectives, employees have motivational needs for development, recognition, status, achievement etc can and should be met through job-satisfaction. The initiative for providing this help must come mainly from the employers. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  3. 3. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The vocabulary to provide this kind of help in the context of work include terms like training, development, education and more recently human resource development. The main of training i.e.. Effective performance logically leads to following important conclusions that determine the design and provision of training in practice, such as: • Training is always a means to an end and not the end itself. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  4. 4. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Effective performance in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes by means of job analysis is of fundamental importance. • It should be considered as an integral and vital part of the whole work system. • Managers are responsible for effective performance of work to gain organizational aims and objectives, they should see that the employees are effectively trained. • While management has the main responsibility, all staff in the organization are involved in training managerial, personnel and training staff. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  5. 5. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • The purpose of training may be achieved by a variety of means. The sole criteria for choice of method is whatever will cost-effectively achieve specific objectives. • The development of an organization’s human resources applies to all its employees from the most senior to the most junior. • All those responsible for training in any shape or form need themselves to be trained for the task. • To integrate training with work, training has to be based on Systems Approach to Training (SAT). We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  6. 6. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Focus (SAT) Training permeates the whole organization and is related directly to all its main functions, the central direction of the SAT must involve the collaboration of senior representatives of the organization’s central staff i.e. operations, finance, personnel, training etc. The general responsibilities for the staff concerned with the Central direction of the SAT, is defined as follows: 1. To formulate and publish policy, plans for training. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  7. 7. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 2. To provide the human and material resources needed. 3. Formal apparatus needed to make the SAT work effectively i.e. formal systems for a. Identifying work-related training needs. b. Designing work-related training to meet identified needs. c. Assessing the effectiveness of training in terms of training objectives and actual work-performance. 4. To define the responsibilities of all staff responsibilities for implementing these systems. 5. To prescribe all the formal communicational methods needed for the effective functioning of these systems in practice. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  8. 8. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 6. To co-ordinate the training work of the various sub-units of the organization. 7. To act as a focal point for the exchange and dissemination of ideas into the organization to improve cost-effectiveness. 8. To act as a line with the external world of training and to bring new ideas into the organization to improve cost-effectiveness. 9. To monitor the effective functioning of the SAT and the cost-effectiveness of training in the organization. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  9. 9. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training Methods Once the trainer has decided upon the training method that he wants to use for transferring the knowledge and skills to his trainees, he can draw from various training methods, one that will be most suitable for the particular topic, approach and the group of trainees. Training methods are grouped into: 1. On-the-job training 2. Of-the-job training Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  10. 10. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division On-the-Job Training Advantages • Requires no extra space and attention • Its very special • Most common way that employees receive instruction in industry • Allows to practice what he is expected to do after training. Disadvantages • Expensive equipment and work space is tied up. • High Wastage • Trainee will be under pressure Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  11. 11. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Types of on-the-job training • Induction • Orientation Training • Job-instruction Training • Apprentice Training • Internship and assistance ship • Job Rotation • Coaching • Management Trainee • Junior board Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  12. 12. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Orientation Training For new employees or transferred or promoted • Introduce to specific job environment. • Introduce to Company policies and objectives • Supervise during early introduction period • Introduce to the people with whom he works. Job Instruction Training For white and blue colour employees • Specialized training • Supervised practice • Step by Step demonstration of Job operation • Trained until satisfactory level Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  13. 13. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Apprentice Training Lathe, Drill press, milling machine operators • Employee is placed under supervisor for specified number of years • Program is not systematically planned • Length of training is too long • Tested after training Internship and assistance ship • Trainee is assigned a temporary job. • Supervisor reviews his short comings. • Supervises in improving the performance. • Trainee is evaluated. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  14. 14. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Job Rotation • Successive change of jobs for advanced learning. • Immediate supervisor supervises the employee • Valuable knowledge of interrelationship • No socio-emotional relationship with any employees Coaching • A coach is assigned to every trainee • Coach takes the risk of training the employee. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  15. 15. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Ineffectiveness of Coaching • Rivalry between coach and trainee. • Ambiguous relationship • Coach is intolerance of mistakes Off-the-job-training Advantages • Organized training • Executives get away from the pressure of work • Provides resource such as faculty, books etc. • Motivates to develop himself • Courses course’s and programme that company cant. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  16. 16. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Off-the-Job Training Disadvantages • Fail to incorporate material that facilitate transfer of training • Organizational climate is lost • Trainees may experience frustration • Unless organizational climate Training are not likely to be realized. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  17. 17. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Types of off-the-job Training • Vestibule training • Lecture • Special study • Films • Television • Conference • Case study • Role play Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  18. 18. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Simulation • In-basket simulation • Business games • Computer based training • Projects • Programmed instruction • Internet aided instruction • Organizational development Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  19. 19. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Vestibule Training • Artificial working environment is created • Equipment and materials similar in production are used • Increases Learners active participation • Ideal learning conditions Lecture • Economic means of training • One way communication • Listeners are passive Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  20. 20. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Attitude and interest among the trainees varies • Skillful lecturer is needed. Special study • Special reading material is provided • Consult other books as he progresses • Distribution of Journals • Learning depends on individual capabilities • Helps in keeping updated Television • No interaction between trainee and trainer • Most skillful instructor is needed Experiments show class room interaction is better Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  21. 21. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Films • Skillful editing leads to good learning principles • Its repeatedly available for reference • Cause effect relationship can be easily demonstrated • Takes less time to master operations • Powerful if planned from trainees point of view. Conference/ Discussion • A carefully planned meeting • Suitable for acquiring conceptual data • Helps in clarification • Increases trainees motivation • Increases learning, retention, promotes new behaviour Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  22. 22. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Case Study • Based on belief that managerial understanding can be attained through study • Trainee is presented with a case with concrete problem • Designed to discover trainees underlying principles • No exact solutions • Trainee is encouraged to develop flexibility in approach Role Play • Effective participant involvement • Acting out significant events • Provides practical interpersonal skills • Room for testing ideas • Helps in execution of action or solution • Promotes real attitude change Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  23. 23. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Simulation • Same as vestibule training • Real life organization situation • Trainees are asked to solve problems by playing relevant roles • Involves compression of time • Followed by a critique of what went wrong. Business Games • Time varies from 2 days to even months • It includes several industries competing in a common market • Game play is divided into decision periods Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  24. 24. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Participants are expected to take decision • Players may be individual or in a group In-Basket simulation • Least complex form of simulation • Trainee is given background details of situations • Time is limited • Trainee has to solve the series of problem • Easy to administer any size of group • A compromise between role play and case studies. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  25. 25. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Computer based Training • Appropriate for selecting, developing or revising training • Training can be either off-the-job/on-the-job • Cost effective • Management has a control over training activity • Immediate feedback about effectiveness • Reduces the required resources. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  26. 26. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training Methods • Demonstration Advantage is that it adds showing to merely telling • Guided teaching Ask a series of questions to tap knowledge of the group. Advantage is that it allows the trainer to understand what participants know • Read and Discuss Participants are given handout covering lecture material and to discuss in small groups. • Information Research It is like an open book test, they are given questions and asked to look for answers. Creates friendly competition. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  27. 27. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Mental Imagery Is the ability to visualize an object, person, place not actually present. There are six kinds of imagery experience 1. Visual Imagery 2. Tactile Imagery 3. Olfactory Imagery 4. Kinesthetic imagery 5. Taste Imagery 6. Auditory Imagery. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  28. 28. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Drama based training Why is it needed? Because people find it embracing to be put on the spot in front of the colleagues. • Drama based training requires involves professional role players. • Brings behavioral realism • To test new ideas in a safe environment Personalized Drama based training • Designed and produced for a particular client • Issues include chain management, team work etc. • Delegates make suggestions on what the characters should do We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  29. 29. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division TRAINING METHODOLOGY Introduction Under this, first it gives an overview of the Current trends in the use of Teaching and Training methods. It surveys the main methods of training and explains the special features Secondly, it provides for new concepts: Techniques and Tools in training. It provides for the framework of innovations in training and concentrates on concept of innovations. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  30. 30. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Current Trends in the use of teaching and Training Methods Until recently the armory of teaching and training methods suitable for management education was quite modest. For years the case study was the only real participative method being used in addition to more academic classical method. We have come to realize that both the education of potential manager and the further development of practicing managers are extremely complex processes, in which formal education, practical experience and training opportunities play their respective roles and hence require co-ordination Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  31. 31. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Management education and training is trying to see the managers job in its entirety in the contemporary world. This has emphasized the need for continuous improvement not only in the content but also in the over-all organization and methodology of management education and training programme. In the last 25 years many new methods have been developed, tested, combined and adapted to different learning situations. Some of the new methods have become irreplaceable tools in the teachers and trainers hand. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  32. 32. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Some are very new, some are simple and can be used by any teacher without special preparation and some are very sophisticated and need extensive preparation by both teachers and course participants. The recipients of training have also become more demanding on methodology. The majority of those engaged in training are concerned about finding and using the most effective methods possible. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  33. 33. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Although the long term trend towards professionalism in management is obvious and the standards of management education and training are constantly improving , we have not yet reached unanimous agreement on the best method to use in attaining the various objectives of management education and training. The attitude towards classical academic teaching methods is now based on a generally reorganized assessment of their benefits and shortcomings. Their use is decreasing in the training of practicing managers but also in university management education. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  34. 34. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The case study method was used to introduce an empirical approach to management education and training. While today it is an exception to meet a trainer who considers the case study as the panacea for management education and training. In the last fifteen years the greatest progress has been made in simulation methods games, exercise, etc. which today are the center of the management teachers interest. This is inter related to the use of computer in management education and with the developments in operational research techniques for solving complex business and management problems. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  35. 35. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division There are now 2 fundamentally different schools of thought on the effectiveness of simulation in management education. The first one emphasizes on high motivation and transfer capabilities of teaching by simulation. The second one rejects simulation since to improve his performance the manager should know his own style and understand his own response pattern in actual, unstructured situations. Inspite of the valid argument put forward by the second school, simulation method will continue to evolve and to be used in more educational and training programme. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  36. 36. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division In order to enhance the practical usefulness of training and to make sure that the trainee will learn from solving practical management problems, some educational and training programmes give priority method and to consultancy assignments used a training tool.A practical application project used as a training device will meet professional standards and fulfill its task only if prepared and supported by imparting the necessary knowledge. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  37. 37. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Some of the methods and Techniques practiced in In- House Training are: • Management Games • Case Study Method • Role Play method • In-Basket Exercises • Laboratory training • Experiential Learning Techniques • E-Learning • Outward Bound Learning • The Fish Bowl Exercise We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  38. 38. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Management Games A management is a training method that deals with specific aspects of business or administration. It is a simulated representing the constraints and pressures of the day-to-day work environment of the participants. The participants are provided with information about operations of an organization—marketing, financial, management of human resource etc. They are grouped in functional teams to consider the sequence of events and problems and manage the operations. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  39. 39. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The task includes finding solutions to problems and dealing with people. Each team takes a decision considering the data and information available. The consequences of this decision are fed back to the team by the trainer. The team analysis the outcomes of this decision in the light of their effect on the situation and other events in the operation. Thus, a business game attempts to bring together various elements of practical decision-making. The most crucial aspect is the effort to create an environment representing the social, psychological and economic dynamics of organizational behaviour in an artificial setting. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  40. 40. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Major Objectives Business games can be incorporated in training programme in many ways. They can be used for orienting the participants and familiarizing then with the functional dynamics of an organization or for reinforcing the learning. A management game also helps the participants relate the management principles, concepts and methods of working to the real life environment. It emphasizes a functional linkage between theory and practice though through a stimulated environment. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  41. 41. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Business games aim to enhance the participants understanding of: • Specific organizational problem • Inter-relatedness of the functions and parts of an organization and its relation to the environment. • The problems of organization policy and decision-making • The problems of working in a team. The participants get a chance to sit in the hot seat and feel the direct impact of decision-making. The exercise offers opportunities for collaborative learning on self-directed lines i.e. learning as much from ones mistakes as from one’s success. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  42. 42. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Design and Methodology Of Organizing the Games • The first decision the trainer takes is regarding the nature of the game. • The trainer should also decide what the sequence and flow of the course of action would be. • The trainer should know the various components of the game and how it works. • Games can be simple or complex, it can be for few hours or for days. The number of participants depend on the design of the game. • The terms and language used in the exercise should remain unchanged in training programme. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  43. 43. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Depending on the structure the trainer wishes to provide, the internal organization of the group may be set out as part of the exercise • The core around which a business game is constructed is a model of a business environment. • The time available to the teams for making decisions is normally related to the complexity of the game and the nature of the problem to be dealt with. • After becoming familiar with the game the trainer should set up a time schedule. • Materials must be collected or prepared. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  44. 44. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Operating the Game Introduction and Briefing 1. This part should not be hurried as lot depends as to how well the participants assimilate the game and its dynamics. They must know what is expected of them before the game starts otherwise confusion will arise. They should be introduced to the game carefully. The rationale of the method should be explained. The participants must understand that their experiences in the game are generalizations of what they encounter in real life, they would not be the same in the next situation. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  45. 45. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 2. The participants job is to learn the rules and procedures of the game just as they would learn to operate within any social or organizational structure. During this process they should learn to be explicit, conduct analysis, discuss and plan strategies etc. 3. The introduction to the game should give a brief explanation of why this particular game was selected, the objectives of the game, and how it is related to their theories, models presented in the overall training design. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  46. 46. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 4. It can be helpful to explain that it is natural to feel somewhat intimidated or over-whelmed by the rules and processes at the beginning of the game, but as the participants get into the actual pay some things will become obvious. The participants can go through their handouts, posters and can ask questions as things come up. They need to be assured that the trainers have gone through the game themselves and that is do-able. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  47. 47. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Conducting the Game • The business game is a training method and must be used seriously for transmitting knowledge and skill. The trainer has to work very hard in a game. • The game generates the greatest involvement and enjoyment amongst the participants. The trainer can find himself in charge of a tremendously energized, interested and deeply involved group. However amidst all the excitement, the objective of the game should not be lost. • The participants must understand the game properly before it starts. Therefore a game plan must be set up. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  48. 48. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • The game must be understood fully with its various aspects, situations and constraints. This will help to deal with any query that a participant can ask. The unexpected should be expected. • Participants are often confused and apprehensive, they may not understand the game, instruction at first and may get irritated. However they can get simulated and involved in the exercise. • When the participants are playing a trainers role can be one of referee or arbiter. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  49. 49. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Each team may be called to make 6 or 10 decisions. This helps to provide consensus. Each team should record its decision, action taken, results on a worksheet. Then the tem analyzes, feedback and planning. Then it goes to enactment and takes new decisions. • Each enactment ten provides an opportunity for the participants to experiment with new techniques, utilize and apply new information. • In some games, strategies and consequences provide the basis for learning. • One must maintain momentum and do appraisals quickly. The participants must be kept busy throughout. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  50. 50. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Case Study Method Case study method is an excellent medium for developing analytical skill. It is a narrative account of a series of events or situations around a specific problem. There are wide variety of problems that could be part of a case study- relationship difficulties between people, loss or lack of funds, unclear roles between people who work together etc. It is a problem identification and problem solving activity. It does not demand a resolution at the end of the exercise. It helps the learners o develop analytical and problem solving skills. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  51. 51. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Case Study Construction It starts with the identification of what the trainers want the participants to learn. There are some guidelines for developing a case study: • It is a description of a specific situation near to reality. • The focus is on experience. • It emphasizes on the particular and not the general. • The participants should feel interested to get into the case study. • If this method is used well the participant gets into the habit to make decisions. • For good decisions all factual material should be used. • Case studies are best when they are close to reality. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  52. 52. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Case Study Writing Once the situation for the case study is constructed, the thoughts have to be properly written in the form of case. What should be or not be included in the written case would depend on the objectives and the practical utility of the case in training situations. A case study should have a beginning, a middle and an end. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  53. 53. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Applying the case study The case study provides a learning situation which depends on involvement and participation in group discussion for its success. Discussion should be focused but informal. The trainer must stimulate discussion. Some of the questions useful in case study analysis are: • What is going on, is there a problem at all? • What is the problem and what caused it? • Are we looking at causes and what are the main issues? • Whose problem is it? • How realistic are the solutions proposed? Etc. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  54. 54. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Processing Plan for Case Study The case study can be analyzed by participants in 2 ways- either individually or in small groups where individuals discuss and analyze as a team. The main purpose of the case study is to stimulate discussion and bring out key issues. 1. Trainer would begin by asking a question directed towards the analytical task that has been given. 2. Trainer would then invite comment from others on the ideas presented-agreement, disagreement. 3. Trainer would then move to another group to hear their response to the analysis of the task. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  55. 55. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 4. Trainer would again invite Reponses to the ideas presented. 5. Trainer should have in mind the intent or goals of the case study and be prepared to ask questions that will the discussion on the important issues that the trainer feels are significant. 6. Trainer should continue until all the groups have reported their findings or conclusions and others have responded. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  56. 56. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Characteristics of Case Study C Clearly written Clear situation Characters are real to participants A Analysis of a situation Application stage is important Avoid abstractions and details S Solution should not be obvious Solution should be solvable Solution relevant E Encourages empathy Exciting Exercises-questions follow case study We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  57. 57. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Advantages of Case Study 1. It enables the pooling of the experience of a group of participants. 2. It distributes knowledge and facts. 3. It promotes the process of synthesis of several concepts and principles into one multi-faceted plan of action. 4. It improves participants skills in problem analysis and communication. 5. The case study method helps in group co-operation and improves interpersonal skills. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  58. 58. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Limitations of Case Study Method It is very time consuming. It requires the participants to engage in deep-processing of the general principles involved through a process of reflection. Guidelines –Delivery Plan for Case Study 1.Climate 2.Goal clarification 3.Experience 4.Processing 5.Generalizing 6.Application 7.Closure. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  59. 59. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Role Play Method In the role play technique the core of Experience that highlights instructional alternatives, contrived experience are categorized as the closest to Direct Purposeful Experience. Thus in the absence of real situations certain artificial situations may have to be created to suit the instructional needs so that the trainees would be feeling that they are experiencing life-like situations. This contrived artificial situation in education parlance is called “Simulation”. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  60. 60. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Being very near to reality and having high a high degree of participation simulation calls for an active role on the part of the learner. One of the methods of simulation is role Play technique. Role Play is a technique in which some problem involving human, small or imaginary, is presented then acted out spontaneously. This “acting out” is followed by discussion and analysis to determine what happened and why and how the problem could be handled better in future. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  61. 61. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Design Considerations Within the situations itself and the descriptions of the roles of individual players, there is a broad range of human problems. Unless role play is intended to demonstrate effective behaviour, participants should be given an opportunity to behave effectively. In the role play situation it is ideal to have conflict and variety. It is desirable to avoid getting close to actual current organizational situations. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  62. 62. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Using actual problem situations as the content of role play activities can have a number of negative consequences: 1. Defense behaviour on the part of participants may be evoked. 2. Participants may concentrate on solutions rather than focus on aspects of the problem. 3. Basic disagreements on issues may be generated leading to polarization within the participant group. 4. In setting up role play situations it is therefore best to use simulated problems before attempting to use real organizational problems. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  63. 63. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Planning for Role Play Role play must be planned carefully to ensure that the activity is relevant to the goals of the session and serves as an effective learning instrument. There are certain guidelines while planning a role play: 1. Pick a situation which is realistic and consistent with learning objectives. 2. Define the problem or situation that the players will have to deal with. 3. Determine the number of role players needed. 4. Develop specific roles for each person by setting up questions. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  64. 64. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Writing up Role Plays The role play material should be clear, concise and highly focused. It should be readable, not too lengthy or too complicated for the participants to remember. The role descriptions should be written in a simple language and should include some hints on how to play the role. Observers should be provided with paper and pencil to focus their reactions otherwise there maybe a tendency to over personalize the observation and fail to focus on the specific learning's intended. Participants can create their own roles but the outcome becomes less predictable and may not be consistent with the expressed learning goals. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  65. 65. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Setting up Role Plays The role play session starts with the facilitator briefing all the participants. The facilitator outlines the situation of the role play and gives a concise description of the characters involved in the situation, making up the lines as they go on. At the end of the scene the actors and audience discuss what has taken place during the scene, the actors and the audience discuss what has taken place during the scene, the motivation of the people involved and why the scene developed as it did. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  66. 66. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division If the role play is set up effectively both the actors and the audience become involved. This involvement often carries over to the post role play discussion thereby enriching and enlightening it. There are certain steps to be followed in role play: 1. Describe the purpose of the role play. 2. Describe the situation briefly and clearly even if prepared written roles are used. 3. Select the role players and assign the roles. Exercise caution in both. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  67. 67. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 4. Brief the role players. The facilitator should not make the mistake of assuming that people know how to get into their roles. 5. Assign task to audience. In briefing observers it is important to clarify their tasks. 6. Set the scene—label the chairs, make physical contact and checking for readiness. Most of the common problems in managing role plays can be avoided by a carefully prepared and delivered introduction. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  68. 68. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Implementing Role Play Once the stage is set and everyone knows their role , the role play is ready to get started. There are certain steps to implement role play: 1. Start the action 2. Stay out of the vision of the role players. Observe quietly. 3. Coach only if necessary. 4. Normally the role play will arrive at a natural end point. 5. Thank the role players using their real names. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  69. 69. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Processing Role Plays Processing after a simulation is a very vital part of the exercise. In this phase the participants analyze and reflect on what happened during the role play. The processing phase helps in analyzing what worked and what did not and reflects on what skills or strategies are needed to successfully handle the situation. Normally participants share their opinions. The facilitator needs to handle this phase carefully, orienting the discussion towards the desired learning’s. Poorly conducted processing phase leads to confusion and results in ineffective input for the generalization and application phases Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  70. 70. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The following processing plan should be in use in conducting this phase effectively: 1. The facilitator asks a one or two participants, how was the strategy and how was it working?. 2. Two or three opinions are good enough. 3. The facilitator then repeats the question to the second participant. 4. Then the role players discuss their strategies and how it worked. 5. Then the discussion is on what strategies have been used and what difficulties were encountered. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  71. 71. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Problem Areas in Conducting Role Play Trainee-Based Problems • The trainer might be unclear about the objective of the training and hence may fail to set clear cut target. • Failure to establish supportive climate while moving into post-enactment discussion focusing on the attitude and behaviour of role players. • Trainer should be careful in selecting role playing case. Trainee-Based Problems • Trainees may sometimes take up facts that are not needed in role play. • Despite instruction the player might step out of the role. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  72. 72. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Advantages of Role Play Technique 1. It creates a non-threatening atmosphere where individuals can demonstrate problem situations. 2. It increases the participants awareness about the effect of feelings on social behaviour 3. Role play when conducted skillfully reduces the resistance of the participants to learning relevant skills and theory. 4. It helps in learning by practice of desired skill, through analysis and conceptualization. Etc. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  73. 73. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 5. The technique is highly flexible. The facilitator can change the role play as it is being conducted and the materials can be edited. 6. Role playing helps to respond to attitude objectives. Participants get a chance to explore their personal feelings and reactions. 7. It uses the experience of participants in ways that increase their ownership of learning. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  74. 74. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Disadvantages 1. The artificiality of situations depicted in role play situations may sometimes allow the participants to discount the value of their learning. 2. Sometimes participants loose themselves in a role. 3. Roles sometimes reinforce stereotypes and caricature people behaviour. 4. Role Playing can at times deteriorate into play. 5. Role playing situations can sometimes over personalize problem. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  75. 75. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Areas of Learning Suitable for Role Play Exercises Role play emphasizes both cognitive and affective development on the part of the learners. There are many types of problems that can be suggested for creating role- play situations. 1. Role Plays a very handy in the areas of teaching, technology, diffusion and adoption. 2. Role play lends itself well to the areas of communication skills and interpersonal communication. 3. Problems indigenous to leadership situations can easily be set up for role playing Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  76. 76. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 4. It is easy to establish role play situations that stimulate various aspects of staff meetings, such as the influence of hidden agendas on the conduct of the meeting. 5. Peer relationships between colleagues can also be role played. 6. Role play is a good tool in areas of team development. 7. Role play is useful in developing the skills and concepts needed for standing up for rights in the face of potential conflict. 8. Sexual values, information sharing and cooperation also develop because of role play. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  77. 77. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division In-Basket Exercises This is a form of training which attempts to simulate the working situation by setting the trainee realistic tasks. The trainees are presented with papers such as letters and memos, placed in the “in” basket to which they respond individually. The results of the exercise are then analyzed discussed and assessed on the basis of the decisions made. Main uses of this system is problem solving, development of analytical skills, for gaining confidence in decision making and transfer of theory learned to practical applications. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  78. 78. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The advantages of this system is that it provides concrete subjects for practical work and discussion opportunities for active participation. The disadvantage is that it is time consuming to produce, sometimes difficult to achieve real life situations and if handed insensitively it may undermine the confidence of some learners. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  79. 79. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Laboratory Training The laboratory method provides the participants with an intensive experience of sharing, participation and change through carefully designed exercises and training events, important to the participants and relevant to the programme. This method is now being used extensively as an important constituent of a number of training programme. The number of participants should be kept to 12-15. This sis a real experience in which the basic ingredients are the participants own experiences and behaviour. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  80. 80. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The method seeks to establish a linkage between values, behaviour and actions of an individual. Changes that take place are more integrative and adoptive individual. Laboratory training also creates a special environment for learning about oneself, interpersonal relations and group of organizational dynamics. It is designed to improve the way an individual understands her social environment and develop alternative behaviors for relating to that environment. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  81. 81. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Experiential Learning Techniques This learning is an action-oriented behavioral situation. The purpose of the action situation is to have participants generate their own data about each of the key concepts. To get the best from the experiential methods the trainer must be a good observer of behaviour. His responsibilities in focusing learning and making it clearer for each participant is extremely important. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  82. 82. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The task of the trainer are: 1. Drawing out data from participants in terms of what has actually happened together with their feelings about it. 2. Helping participants to see the cause and effect of the actions of people. 3. Relating the classroom experience to what happens in on-the-job-in-the–organization situations. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  83. 83. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Sensitivity Training This is also an experiential approach to training . It provides participants an opportunity to actually experience some concepts of management just as a manager would experience then in his organizational situation. This is a group training method that uses intensive participation and immediate feedback for self analysis and change. Two benefits of this training are: • Participants remain involved and enthusiastic. • The participant has the responsibility to make positive efforts to derive as much as possible from the exercise. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  84. 84. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Sensitivity training attempts to develop the diagnostic ability of participants –the ability to perceive reality. It increases sensitivity and awareness towards others and their styles. This training aims to developing sensitivity within people towards thought , feelings and behaviour of other persons. One basic premise of sensitivity training is that participation is voluntary. However one predominant problem is the transfer problem i.e. the inability of the participant to apply concepts and awareness gained in laboratory or group to his job. This can be overcome through conflict resolution and dialogues between hierarchies. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  85. 85. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Role of the instructor The instructor is responsible for creating an environment with time and space barriers, where the learning can take place. He should focus the discussion for constructive purposes. He helps participants see cause He allows the participants to form their own conclusions. His role is to draw out from participants behavioral data and feelings accompanying them He must guard against being too directive, clinical or emotionally involved. The trainer is the hypothesis maker and encouraging the participants to examine these hypothesis. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  86. 86. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division T-Groups T-Groups lead to understanding of the self and contribute towards organizational change and development through training in attitudinal changes in the participants and creating better team work. They can often become venues for catharsis of pent up emotions and maintaining a sense of temporary well being. If this is the specific objective of a T-Groups it is productive. They are classified into Stranger groups, Family groups and cousin groups. The group may consist of 8 to 15 persons. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  87. 87. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division T-Group processes concentrate on the present to the total exclusion of the past and the participants are in the act of observing while participating. While imparting feedback in T-Group sessions the following points must be kept in mind. • It should be honest. • State it in behavioral terms. It should be descriptive, not evaluative. • Keep it timely. • It should based on behaviour exhibited within the group, not on assumptions. • It should be constructive. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  88. 88. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Delivery Skills And Programme Management The organization should see that the information about the training venue is communicated to the participants properly. The participants must arrive at the venue the previous night and should clearly know why they have been called there. The trainees should be briefed on the agenda and make them acquainted with the program schedule. If the trainer is from outside the trainees must be introduced. HR plays an important role here. The trainer should see that all materials are in place, i.e. the reading material, the slides, lighting and sitting arrangements, stage appearance etc. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  89. 89. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division E-Training This method of training helps the trainer to reach many people at the same time and is widely used to impart “knowledge based training programme”. E- Learning has helped the organization to reduce cost, reach many people and reduce wastage of traveling time. Mostly the training done through this medium is knowledge based. Training that was previously imparted by classroom lecturing methodology has now become e-training. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  90. 90. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division With the ongoing expansion of the internet and the advances being made in communications technology, distance training (e-training_ is fast becoming a feasible possibility for both learning establishment and the business world. E-training is rapidly becoming a great interest not only to higher education establishments whose students may travel long distances to attend teaching but also to businesses who stand to save huge amounts of money. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  91. 91. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division However the quality and the overall effectiveness of distance learning and training will rely heavily on the method and efficiency of actual delivery. Currently the E- training market is small but it is growing rapidly and the first instances of “off-the-shelf” training schemes are beginning to crop up. E-Training might not be based upon the use of a particular software, it may develop a genre of packages which will become the norm. The term “E-learning” often used as buzzword when talking about distance training and learning implies the use of online technologies for academic and educational purposes as does the term “Distance Learning”. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  92. 92. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Defining success in E-Training In the case of E-training and indeed any form of training it appears at first that success can be defined by examination results, being an easily measurable output which applies to every learner. The possible benefits and therefore success of E-training in business are numerous. E-Training has financial benefit and Return On Investment is often a key factor in the implementation of new technology .Technology has resulted in business cutting costs due to higher efficiency brought about by computers. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  93. 93. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division E-Training allows traditional training from the desktop without the need to take employees out of the workplace on the expensive residential courses. E-Training schemes can ensure that the information being delivered to learners is up-to-date and is delivered quickly so that the information can be implemented in the businesses faster than would be possible in traditional training schemes. Factors such as cost benefits, speed of delivery, productivity and performance gains at an employee level and the fulfillment of the original business objectives all seem to play a part in the evaluation of the success of E-Training. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  94. 94. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Benefits of E-Training The beauty of E-training is the flexibility that it offers. This method allows the employees to learn on their own time and at their own space. It allows employees to learn whenever they are free and over a longer period of time. An employee can postpone training if he needs to concentrate on other tasks at hand and return later to pick up from where he left off. E-Training also boasts quick updates on materials and modules. This helps them to stay abreast of the rapid changes in corporate world. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  95. 95. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division This goes well for companies who need to train and re-train their employees. This increases productivity as they move up in the corporate ladder. Thus the benefits of E-Training are: • Reduced overall Training Costs • Gains in Performance and Productivity • Faster Speed-to-market • Better Recruitment and Retention of staff • Transformation of a Cost Center into a Profit Center. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  96. 96. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Outward Bound Learning This is the most sought after method of training these days. Under this method the trainees are taken to a place away from the usual working environment, places where the trainees are made to play games. This helps a person to internalize the whole training program as he experiences most of the learning, he learns from seeing other people, learns from feedback and since he has a chance to apply that learning there itself he internalizes. A facilitator watches then play and observes a trainees behaviour in group or individually. The trainer gives feedback to each and helps them to connect the learning to corporate world. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  97. 97. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Sensitivity Training Many organizations that try to measure or strengthen the interpersonal relationship at the work place go in for Sensitivity training. This training is concerned with “Here” and “Now” data. This is a complex method of training. Managers and employees always have some problem among themselves and because of this their interpersonal relationships are not in tune , it affects the working of the organization. Sensitivity training helps to overcome this. HR nominates the participants, they are taken to a place for 4-5 days where they are asked to discuss the problem and facilitator helps to resolve the issues We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  98. 98. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The Fish bowl Exercise This method is used in providing skills in understanding human behaviour. The objectives are: • To inculcate in the participants the discipline of observing others and provide constructive and objective feedback. • To learn about oneself and overcome the weaknesses and improve upon strengths. This can be put to effective use in individual and group behaviour, content of communication, inter group conflicts, level of participation, inter-personal relations. zContd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  99. 99. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Method of conducting the Exercise This exercise can involve up to 25 participants seated in concentric circles, one inner and other outer. The inner circle is the target group, members of this group discuss a pre-selected topic. After the discussion by members of the inner group, the outer group is asked to comment on the content, dynamics and group process of the inner group. The trainer must set the pace for uninhibited participation from the inner group members while they are being closely observed by members of the outer group. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  100. 100. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The role of the Trainer The role of the trainer is that of a facilitator and guide the participants and the processes towards constructive results. Feed back is provided by using 2 basic techniques: • Each member of the outer group observes one member of the inner group on all aspects of group dynamics. • Each member of the outer group observes all members of the inner group on a specific dimension of group process. Feedback should be with clarity and precise. It should not be judgmental, should be descriptive, not critical We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  101. 101. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training Techniques and Aids Principles for selection of Teaching and Training methods Factors to consider in the selection of methods 1. Human Factors Teacher The teachers knowledge, managerial and teaching experience and personality are of primary importance. The teachers personality has to be acceptable to the students. The teacher has to assume personal responsibility for choosing the best methods for his particular teaching assignment. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  102. 102. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 2. Objectives of Teaching and Training They are defined in terms of changes to be effected in knowledge, attitudes and skills which should afterwards lead to improved managerial action. A preliminary analysis of needs will help to identify what objectives a particular programme ought to have. Methods will be selected with regard to their ability to impart new knowledge, influence attitudes and to develop practical skills. Skills, attitudes are inter-related and must not be overlooked when setting the objective of training and choosing training methods. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  103. 103. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 3. Subject Area Various subject areas such as finance, personal, operations research, general management etc have their own specific features. The main thing from the management point of view is not to know the techniques itself but to know when and how to use it. In programme concentrating on the behavioral aspects of management communication, leadership and motivation, training methods maybe selected. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  104. 104. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division In management education and training the principle problem is not how to deal with specific subject areas and functions. It is much more important to: 1. Explain the relationship between various sides and functions of the enterprise. 2. Help the participants to avoid a one sided aver simplified approach to multi-dimensional situations. 3. Promote general management skills and to combine and coordinate the various functions of Management We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  105. 105. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 4. Time and Material Factors Preparation time: varies with different teaching method. The Length of the course: predetermines the kinds of methods which can be used. The time of day: this is very important such as post- lunch period it is more desirable have enjoyable and attractive sessions which require active involvement. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  106. 106. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training Objectives and Techniques Various training situations will be concerned with various types and levels of knowledge, attitudes and skills. A preliminary analysis of needs will help to identify what objectives a particular program ought to have. Suitable techniques will be then selected with regard to their ability to impart new knowledge, influence attitudes and develop practical skills. Each method in a particular model can serve various purposes, however a technique reaches its peak of effectiveness only in connection with a specific purpose. Example Case Method. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  107. 107. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training Techniques and Target Group A trainer must understand the perceptions of the learners and then relate the selection of training technique to their understanding. Learning will be of no avail if the instructor does not use appropriate technique to cover his subject in relation to the students background and experience. Learning through meaningful technique leads to the fulfillment of needs and aspirations. Experience officers have the capacity to learn directly from each other. For Middle managers short talks with visual aids is used. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  108. 108. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Choice regarding type of technique depend on: • Background (aims, fears, social and economic needs etc. • Education (level of education, knowledge of subject etc.) • Abilities ( capacity to earn ) In regard to participant practical experience a distinction must be made between young people with little or no experience who first learn in universities and participants with practical experience either from managerial functions or from specialist work in various functional department. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  109. 109. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Subject, Area and Training Techniques Various subject areas have their own specific features. For example, operation research techniques are based on the extensive use of mathematics and statistics. It is usually taught through a combination of lecture during which the technique is practiced. This can be supported by reading assignments. Lectures may be supplemented with programmed books. It should be noted that it is often possible to choose from several methods, if one wants to deal with a particular subject or problem. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  110. 110. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Selection of Techniques and the Trainer Teachers are advised on teaching techniques by their directors of studies, by senior colleagues, in special “learning methods” courses, through manuals etc. but eventually each teacher ha to assume personal responsibility for choosing the best methods for his particular teaching assignment. He ought to therefore be able to make a rational appraisal of his abilities and to try to employ techniques likely to enhance and not reduce the impact he hopes to make. Mist teachers and trainers try to be realistic about the significance of each teaching techniques. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  111. 111. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Relationship between the principles of effective learning and teaching techniques There are some selected aspects of the relationship. • Motivation • Active involvement • Individual Approach • Sequencing and Structuring • Feedback • Transfer We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  112. 112. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training Materials and aids The effectiveness of trainers is determined by the degree and diversity of skills he possesses in communicating with the trainees. In the process use of training aids and equipment becomes necessary so as to enhance the intensity and pace of learning. It become imperative for a trainer to impart knowledge and skills to the trainees and make it effective by selecting appropriate aid. The trainer should strive to be innovative in modifying the aid to make it more suitable to a specific training situation. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  113. 113. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The training aids can be divided into: 1. Non Projected aids 2. Projected Aids 3. Field work 1. Non-Projected Aid • Charts • Posters • Flush Cards • Flip Charts • Model • Chalk Boards Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  114. 114. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Tips for technology Training There are some useful techniques for technology trainers. • Avoid Abstract Language. • Do not take the keyboard and mouse away from the learner. • Pay attention to your body language during the session. • Most user interfaces are not perfect. • Help should be given in the beginning and not when things have become jeopardized. • A computer is a means to an end. • Nobody is born knowing his stuff. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  115. 115. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Instrumentation of Training Definition: It refers to devices used to “assess, evaluate, describe, classify and summarize the varied aspects of human behaviour. The need for instrumentation In most training situations, the participants need information about themselves in order to understand their own strengths and areas of needed improvement in a better manner. We call this kind of information feed-back. Personalized feed back is important as it helps the participant to understand how others see him. The feed back also helps the participant to understand himself in a systematic manner. Use of instrument helps to open such a channel. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  116. 116. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Audio-Visual Materials These materials provide an important channel of communication between the trainers and the trainer group. Audio visual aids represent another key element in the transaction between the trainers and the training group, through a situation, objects, a graph or a diagram. This provides a multi-sensory approach to training and instruction that can bring a refreshing change in the learning environment enhance interest and raise the attention level of the participants. The materials are pictures images, films, video, 3 dimensional presentations, audio materials like tapes etc. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  117. 117. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Advantages of Audio-Visual • For enhancing the performance levels of participants. • The participants can relate to visual images and real sound. • Sometimes it can become a one way communication, then one can promote participation through interaction during the momentum and pace of presentation. • Materials can always be revised for clarifying a point. • This adds variety to presentation. • A well selected film can vary the pace of presentation and capture attention more easily. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  118. 118. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 2. Projected Aid • Overhead Transparency Projector • Opaque Sheet • Slide and Film Stripes • Films • Computer with LCD 3. Field Work It is through this method that trainees perceive things better, relate theory with practice and give rich feedback to the training agency. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum